Group 18 - GM 2.2 Liter 4-Cylinder Inline Engine - Gate 1
Project Management: Request for Proposal
Groups 18 and 7 will be working on a term project of disassembling and reassembling a General Motors 2.2L 4-cylinder engine. After meeting with members of Group 7, we agreed to disassemble the engine from top to bottom. During the dissection process, we will place each part in a labeled zip-lock bag with documentations on how it was removed. We believe that the project will take up to two months to disassemble, reassemble, and analyze all the components of the engine
Group 18 decided to record and take pictures of the dissection process as we move along in order to make for an easier reassembly process. With the help of several tools, screwdriver, wrench, and pliers, we should be able to take apart each and every component of the engine. However, since none of our group member has prior knowledge on how to disassemble an engine, it will be an obstacle on which part we can remove first and what part to remove after without damaging the engine as a whole.
|Yong Chyi Lim||Have general knowledge on engines; passionate about engines; strong leadership skills||Never worked with an engine before|
|Shinn Li||Experienced with AutoCad; very alert on what's happening; strong organizational skills||No prior knowledge in engines; quiet; procrastinates|
|Jianzhou Qi||Able to digest new information quickly; meticulous||Poor organizational skills; weak in the English field|
|Yie Sing Teh||Fast learner; Mechanical skills; Organized||lack of motivation|
|Cheng Siah Chua||Good communication skills; willing to learn; experience with AutoCAD; can get work done as soon as possible when told to||Procrastinates; limited knowledge in programming|
Group 18 has come to a consensus that we will hold a minimum of one meeting per week. The meetings will either be held on Mondays, Wednesdays, or Fridays at 5:00PM, right outside of Lockwood Cybrary. Each one of these meetings will last for a duration of at least three hours. If we happen to fall short on our intended schedule for each phase of the project, additional meetings will be held on either Mondays, Wednesdays, or Fridays as previously mentioned. During the meeting, the Project Manager will give the group an agenda for each member to carry out for that specific meeting. Group members will be allowed to leave early with a valid explanation.
Point of Contact
Group 18 has decided to nominate Yong Chyi Lim as the group leader and with this given role, he will also become the main point of contact. Listed below are the ways he can be reached:
|Primary Email Addressemail@example.com|
|Alternate Email Addressfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Yong Chyi Lim||Project Manager||Enforces the duties of each group member; makes sure everyone is in par with the schedule|
|Shinn Li||Technical Writing Expert||Proofreads everyone's report to ensure that there are no grammatical errors; main writer for Wiki submissions|
|Jianzhou Qi||Dissection Manager||Records what happens in the dissection lab and keeps a record on each day's process|
|Yie Sing Teh||Technical Expert||In charge of using computer programs (AutoCAD/Pro Engineering) to reconstruct each component of the engine|
|Cheng Siah Chua||Communication Liason||Keeps in touch with Group 7 to record what happened during each dissection lab|
Any conflict within Group 18 will be brought to the Project Manager to come up with a just decision. If members are unsatisfied with the Project Manager's decision, the conflict will be presented to either instructor of the course and any decision made by the instructor will be final.
Product Archaeology: Preparation and Initial Assessment
Work on the GM 2.2L in-line 4-cylinder engine was first done in 1982. It was revised and reworked multiple times over the years of its existence which ended in 1999. The biggest factor surrounding the permanency of this engine was the globalization that occurred throughout the globe. The North American Free Trade Agreements allowed different parts of an engine or an engine as a whole to be made and sold around the world, thus, allowing the automotive manufacturer to maximize its efficiency and profit and, at the same time, maintain its competitive edge in the marketplace.
The engine was designed to be fitted into multiple platforms, ranging from mid-size family sedans to small pick-up trucks, which are targeted at clienteles worldwide, including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, South Africa, China and Australia. The GM In-Line Four engine was designed and built for consumer to operate their vehicle under any conditions, provided regular maintenance is done. Hence, during its lifetime, over three million units were produced and sold.
The role of the GM 2.2L in-line 4-cylinder engine is as the main power source in multiple types of GM vehicles. The engine should be able to translate the gasoline, fuel to the engine, into a force that powers the vehicle such that it could convey the people from point A to point B. This engine is power to vehicles that will be used both professionally and domestically. For example, cars like the Pontiac Sunfire (1990-1991) are family sedans while the Chevrolet S-10 (1982-1999) is a small pick-up trucks mainly used for small businesses. The complexity of the role of this engine is numerous. Its main role is to supply force to move the vehicle while its many sub-roles are to power the generator for electricity in the car, to power the air-conditioning compressors and to power water pump in the car’s cooling system.
The engine typically functions by converting chemical energy, in the form of petroleum, into rotational energy. First petroleum from the fuel tank is sent to all four cylinders in the engine with the assistance of the fuel pump and fuel injectors. Once sufficient amounts of petroleum is in the cylinder, a combustion in each of the four cylinders, although two at a time, is set off with electrical spark converting the chemical into heat energy via spark plugs that is present at the top of each cylinder. Because of the fuel explosion that occurs, a pressure is created which incurs a linear motion of the pistons. This linear motion of pistons direct results in the rotational torque of the crankshaft via crank-pins which rotates a flywheel with the assistance of a connecting rod. This completes one full conversion process in which majority of the engine’s chemical energy is directed into the camshaft. Some of the energy, however, is used to power the vehicle’s water pump from cooling system, the vehicle’s alternator as well as the vehicle’s air-conditioning compressor.
We’ll have to make a few assumptions before we proceed with complexity profile. First, we must define the terms component. A component is defined as a device that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system. Moving on, we define complexity as a group of components working together to achieve a task. Elimination of any component will result in failure to complete such task. Generalization will also be made until further dissecting work can take place.
How many components are used?
There are approximately 1,000 to 2,000 components in an engine. It varies from small components like nuts and bolts to one single component like crankshaft. An estimated of 200 to 300 parts are moving when the engine is working.
The breakdown of the components are as following:
Fasteners The fasteners are mainly consists of nuts and bolts. An estimation of 30 types of nuts and bolts there are in the GM engine. The sizes of nuts and bolts are different and are used in most of the fastening in an engine.
Seals and Rings Seals and rings are mainly used in the engine to close and maintain the oil, water and fuel to ensure there is no contamination or pressure leak. Components like Piston rings that found the in the pistons are used to safeguard the piston from pressure leak and prevent energy loss.
Electrical components The electrical components are important for multiple task and one of the main task is to provide electrical spark to ignite the air/fuel mixture in combustion chamber. The electrical components are mainly consist of spark plugs, spark plugs wires and dynamo that power by the engine itself.
Main accommodating components The main accommodating components are used as a base structure for all the engine components to be installed. They by far consist the least quantity of components in an engine. These parts include engine block, engine head, engine cover and oil sump.
Internal engine components For the internal engine components, we include the following parts in it; crankshafts, pistons, pistons rod, oil pump, timing gear, timing chain, bearings,rocker arms, valves, springs, and push rods. Each of the components has its own functionality and but cannot perform its task alone.
Exhaust and fuel delivery component
The exhaust components are mainly perform its task of deplete out the exhaust gas from the engine. It is consist of exhaust head pipe, exhaust gasket, and some nuts and bolt to tie it down. The fuel delivery components are consist of fuel injectors, fuel pump, throttle body, oil filter and are mainly responsible for delivery fuel into the engine.
How complex are these individual parts?
If the engine is dissected and breakdown into each individual component, each component are actually made with simple design and most of the parts has only one function. However, some parts such as crankshaft requires detailed tweaking so that it wont upset the balance of the crankshaft.
The complexity of the engine is highly complicated because there are many parts that involved during the working of an engine. However, most of these parts contain just one function in the engine. For example, the crankshaft is responsible to turn kinetic energy from the piston rods into rotational energy. All in all, the engine are a device that turns chemical energy into kinetic energy for the vehicle.
Materials that are clearly visible
- Engine block
- Engine cover
- Exhaust manifold
- Plastics and rubbers
- Nuts and bolts
- Cylinder head
- Cylinder block
- Piston rings
- Exhaust manifold gasket
User Interaction Profile
How does the user interface with the products?
Because the engine was meant to be install in commercially available vehicle, we will make an assumptions that user will interact with the engine only when the user is operating the vehicle. Generally, the user is not able to see the engine due to the engine location in a vehicle. The user interface with the engine by observing the rev count provided by tachometer in the driver seat. Besides that, a fuel gauge is also located in the driver’s seat for the user to observe the fuel available in a vehicle. To operate the engine, the driver will first have to use an ignition key to start off the engine. Moving on, user are able to control the fuel supply to the engine with a throttle pedal located below the right foot of the user. To kill off the engine, user will just simply have to turn off the ignition key. All these interfaces can be carry out provided that the engine has regular maintenance and fuel.
How intuitive are the interfaces?
Overall, these interfaces are very intuitive because it only requires the user to use his/her right foot to control the fuel throttle and an ignition key to start or turn off the engine. We can also conclude that the engine is easy to use.
Is regular maintenance required?
Yes, regular maintenance is required in order for the engine to operate smoothly. The most basic and frequent maintenance job is refueling to make sure the engine have sufficient fuel supply. Other common maintenance job such as engine oil change, engine oil filter change, water refill, spark plug changes and more are necessary to be done too. However, these maintenance jobs require certain technical skills to be carry out.
What product alternative exist?
Chrysler Mopar 2.2L SOHC engine. (1981-1994)
What are the advantages?
The Mopar engine uses Single Overhead Cam (SOHC) design compared to the Overhead Valve(OHV) design in the GM engine, thus it provides better valve timing as the engine hits higher rpm. With better valve timing, the air mixture of fuel and air can be improved greatly and this improves the overall efficiency of engine. And because the structure of SOHC is different from OHV, SOHC engine can be equipped with more valves than OHV engine. This particular Mopar engine has 12 valves compared to 8 valves of the GM OHV engine.
What are the disadvantages?
Because of the fundamental design of SOHC, SOHC engines are typically more complex than OHV engine therefore it requires more parts to create it. Furthermore, some of the engine power will be lost to rotate the camshaft in SOHC engine. Finally the cost of building a SOHC is higher than OHV engine because it requires more components.
The GM L4 engine produces 120 horsepower at 5000 rpm and 140 ft-lb of torque at 3600 rpm. On the other hand, the Chrysler Mopar engine of 1986 specification produces 97 horsepower at 5200 rpm and 122 ft-lb of torque at 3200 rpm.
Both GM and Chrysler engine has stopped production and therefore they are only available in used market. A refurbished GM L4 engine cost around 1400$ USD in today’s market and the Mopar engine cost around 1500$. The price differences are not much since both engine is produced in United States.