Group 27 - Lexmark Z82 All-in-One Printer
Don Pettengill 3D modeler
Don Pettengill is currently enrolled in the University at Buffalo to earn his Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering. He hopes to graduate and pursue a career in the development and manufacturing of medical devices. He is now working at an infusion pumps company called Sigma International, in which he creates fixtures and work instructions to be used on the manufacturing lines.
Andrew Cledgett Dissector and Chief of Editing
Andrew Cledgett is enrolled at the University at Buffalo as a Mechanical Engineer. After graduation, he hopes to be employed as a designer. He has no relevant work experience at this time. He hopes to be employed in an internship within this year or the next.
Daniel Iwankow Dissector and Presentation Director
Dan Iwankow is currently enrolled as an undergraduate at the University at Buffalo for Mechanical Engineering. He has attended Syracuse University prior to coming to UB. After graduation, he hopes to pursue a career in Anaheim, CA working for the Disney Corporation.
Gregory Rathe Technical Writer and Documentation
Gregory Rathe attended the State University of New York at Oneonta for a year. Afterward he transferred to the University at Buffalo to continue his education in Mechanical Engineering. In the summer Greg works for his father who sells HVAC equipment in Nassau County, Long Island. When he graduates, he would like to have a career as an engineer for Fisher Price.
David Nelson Wiki Developer and Presenter
David Nelson is a University at Buffalo student planning to earn his Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering. An active member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) he has worked on several projects for them as well as volunteer work for the club. Also this summer he hopes to receive an internship from the valve design firm CPI Controls. After graduation David would like to pursue a career in the HVAC field in a research and development department.
Jacob Biltekoff Leader and Technical Writer
Jacob Biltekoff currently attends the University at Buffalo and is studying to be a Mechanical Engineer. In his spare time he works on his car, designs, and builds useful tools and objects. Some of these things would include a bass enclosure, car lift, carts, catapults, and other fun projects. He has work experience in the construction industry through his summer jobs. Some of his experience is in roofing, concrete, drywall, wall construction, electric, plumbing, siding, among other things. When Jacob graduates he would like to get a job doing CAD or solid works.
Strengths and Weaknesses
|Group Members||Strengths||Weaknesses||Skills to Be Developed|
|Daniel Iwankow||Public Speaking, Meeting Deadlines||Technical Writing||Report Organization, CAD|
|David Nelson||Mechanical Knowledge, Hands on worker, Excellent Teacher||Time management||Technical writing, Staying on task|
|Don Pettengill||3D modeling||Staying on task||Being a team player|
|Gergory Rathe||Technical writing, 3D Modeling||Public speaking||Time management|
|Jacob Biltekoff||Hard worker, Technical Experience,||Public Speaking||3D modeling skills|
|Andrew Cledgett||Staying on task, writing skills||Technical experience, public relations||Communication|
Work that was done by the group on a week by week basis can be seen by clicking on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Schedule
This product is moderately complex and made for small businesses and homes. In our analysis of this unit we took into account the development, usage, energy, complexity, materials used, user interaction, and product alternative profiles. If you would like to hear more about this, click on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Initial Analysis
In this step we propose how our group plans to manage our work. It tells who is going to be to each meeting, where the meeting will take place, what time during the day, what will be covered at the meeting, and why the group is meeting. The roles that each person takes on and the conflict resolution is also mentioned in this section. If you would like to read more about this more then click on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Management Proposal
This step provides an overview of how we planned to reverse engineer the printer. It tells what tools were planned on being used, the approximate amount of time we planned the disassembly and assembly process to take, and some challenges we expect. Some of the groups strengths, weaknesses, and skills that could be developed are also mentioned. To read about all of these qualities click on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Work Proposal
Assessment of Work and Management Plans
Here the work and management plans are evaluated. We explain why it worked and identify potential problems for the following review. If you would like to hear more about this click on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Assessment
- Before we took the Lexmark Z82 apart we took several pictures all around the unit. To see the pictures click on the following link: Group 27,Printer,PreDisassembly
- This step shows pictures of the unit during the disassembly process and tells what tool was used. To see the pictures click on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Disassembly
- A few pieces that were taken off of the unit that either came off of the shell or were major communication parts can be seen by following the following link: Group 27,Printer,Parts
The subsystems of the product are included in this section along with their connections. If you want to read more about this click on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Subsystems
The purpose of this gate is to complete a detailed analysis of the different components of the disassembled Lexmark Z-82 printer. For this gate there is to be a coordination review that explains how the team is working together. From there a summary of all the components of the printer will be provided. An image of each component along with the components function, materials, manufacturing process and amount of use will also be included in the technical report. An analysis of seven parts is done that involves looking at the components function, form, manufacturing methods, and complexity in great detail. Next, a solid model will be provided containing thirteen separate components and another of each component going together in sequence. SolidWorks was used to create the solid models. An engineering analysis process will show a detailed description of one key component and shown how it can be used for the testing stages of the design process. There will also be four design revisions of a variety of components for this product. The changes will be in conjunction with addressing global, societal, economic, and environmental concerns and improving performance, serviceability and cost among other factors.
Cause for Corrective Action
As of right now, the project is going well as the group is learning the steps to making technical reports. As a group we have decided we need to invest more time into the finalization of each gate, the final project, and presentation as a whole. Although the group is working well together we are not happy with the grades of our first two gates. Specifically, the group needs to understand what exactly is needed to go above and beyond expectations. Meeting times and places have not been a problem for the most part. Any miscommunication about meeting times has been rendered by calling and text messaging the group members. This is a better method than the original e-mail route. Though the group might show up as a whole, it is often difficult to get the members to concentrate on the gate. It seems that some members do not find this project to be of a high priority. Unfortunately, it is difficult to explain to a group member that even when they do perform a task, that mediocre is not good enough. In order to get past this obstacle, more direct discussions will be had with those members, and finally getting in touch with the professor will be done.
Based on the grading scheme, we have made the changes necessary to the first two gates in preparation for the final gate submission. These changes include providing captions for photos for easier understanding and location of parts, correcting grammatical errors, and completion of questions which had previously gone incomplete or usanswered. The group has looked at each of the problems of the first two gates and sufficiently added enough information to answer what is being asked, however further review will be impeccable to the final submission. The section on subsystems was a bit vague and not entirely complete during its first submission, but has been greatly improved on answering the question and supporting the points we are trying to make.
- Note: All injection molding has a draft angle along the edges. Drafting angles are to provide proper ejection of the part from the mold and are typically one to three degrees.
|Part Name||Number of Times Used||Function||Materials Used||Manufacturing Process Used||Extra Information||Model or Part Number||Picture|
|Back Face Plate||1||Exterior Panel||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has holes in the back to release heat||JB72-00618A|
|Wire Cover #1||1||Cover the major wires that go to the scanning device||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has clips on each corner to pop out||None available|
|Back panel #1||1||Cover on the back of the unit that assists travel of paper||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has clips on each side to lock into the base of printer||JB72-00492A|
|Screw #1||56||Hold metal brackets to other metal brackets||Stainless Steel||Turned on a lathe that moves in conjunction with a cutter to give threads their pitch||Philips head screw. Roughly 3/8 inches long, with 12 threads.||None available|
|Screw #2||12||Hold circuit boards and other plastic panels to each other||Plain Steel||Turned on a lathe that moves in conjunction with a cutter to give threads their pitch||Philips head screw. Roughly 7/16 inches long, with 13 threads.||None available|
|Screw #3||8||Hold motor mounts in place||Plain Steel||Turned on a lathe that moves in conjunction with a cutter to give threads their pitch||Philips head screw. Roughly 3/8 inches long, with 12 threads.||None available|
|Left Side Panel||1||Exterior wall||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has ergonomic qualities||JB72-00619A|
|Right Side Panel||1||Exterior wall||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has ergonomic qualities||JB72-00620A|
|Inner Plate #1||1||Maintenance panel||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Top left corner allows for ink cartridges to be changed out||JB72-00621A|
|Roller Housing||1||Assists paper from paper tray to printing unit||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Has taps on the side to hold into place||JB72-00492A|
|Paper Tray||1||Paper reservoir||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Adjusts to size of paper including envelope, legal, etc.||JB72-00483A|
|Printer Base||1||Holds the paper tray, Main connection for most exterior walls and subassemblies||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Multiple gears attached along with multiple tapped holes for subassemblies to be attached||JB72-00489A|
|Paper Tray Roller||1||Separates one piece of paper from the rest of the paper||Polyurethane and rubber||All the parts are injection molded||The roller has rubber on it to grip the paper and separate it from the other piece of paper||No model number available|
|Ink Cart Shaft||1||Provides smooth straight level surface for cart to slide on||8-18 stainless steel||Extruded and then machined (lathed)||Notches on each side are for the clips and chamfer on both sides to smooth the edges||No model number available|
|Ink Cart Shaft Clips||2||Locks the shaft in place||8-18 stainless steel||Extruded and then machined||The diameter of the clip fits snug between the shafts cuts on each side||No model number available|
|Ink Cartridge Cart||1||Transport ink cartridges to specific place on the paper||Polypropylene||Injection molding||Has special inserts that make it so you can only put one type of cartridge into the slot (color or black ink). Also has brass rings that go around the shaft to minimize friction.||ABS-GF20|
|Samsung User Interface||1||Control panel for the user to input information||Fiberglass and copper held together with epoxy||The board was first rolled to the correct thickness. Then a thin layer of copper was applied to the top (green coat). Then the piece is stamped to the correct dimensions. Machines put capacitors and other chips in place.||The motherboard has buttons attached for the user to interact with the unit. It also has a LCD board that displays information to the user.||JB41-00041A|
|Exterior Display Panel||1||Has the heads up display and button cut-outs||Polyurethane||Injection molding and then labeling for all the buttons||Has a spot for paper clips and labels for all the buttons||JB72-00634A|
|Ink Cart Motor||1||Moves the ink cartridge back and forth to certain parts of the paper||Aluminum, polyurethane, copper, alnico, galvanized steel, and a magnet (either aluminum, nickel, or cobalt)||Injection molding, stamping for the metal, extrusion for all the copper and other metal, and then machining to curve, lathe, and finish all other parts||Has two screw holes that go into the motor at the gear end so it can be attached to the metal printing shell||656693B0812|
|Paper Feeding/Output Motor||1||Rotates the shaft that has rubber rollers on it to transfer the paper from the paper hopper to the printing unit and then out of the unit for a hardcopy||Aluminum, polyurethane, copper, alnico, galvanized steel, and a magnet (either aluminum, nickel, or cobalt)||Injection molding, stamping for the metal, extrusion for all the copper and other metal, and then machining to curve, lathe, and finish all other parts||Has two screw holes on the sides (on the outside of the motor) at the gear end so it can be attached to the metal printing shell||M42SP-6NPK|
|Top Plate||1||Covers the scanner panel||Polyurethane, polypropylene|| Casing: Injection molding
Foam: Hot liquid polyurethane sprayed with a CO2 then heated by lamps where bubbles expand and burst, leaving behind spongy porous material (foam) Plastic Sheet: Molten polypropylene is squeezed through a narrow slit where it falls onto rollers and is cooled
|Keeps the assembly light tight||JB72-00865A|
|Bottom Scanning Unit Housing||1||Houses the scanner bulb and motor unit||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Serves as a center point for all the scanning unit parts||None available|
|Top Scanning Unit Housing||1||Holds glass in place and gives paper a buffer and focal point when paper is put in the scanner||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Serves as a top for the scanning unit||No model number available|
|Gear Cover||1||Covers the gears||Polyurethane||Stamping||This small flexible plate simply serves to cover the gears but allow for easy access||None available|
|Scanning Bar||1||Guides scanner head||Steel||Extrusion and lathed||Steel used because it is strong and cheap||None available|
|Glass Plate||1||Create a level, transparent, surface so that the image sensor mechanism can receive the information||Sand, soda ash, dolomite, limestone, salt cake||Heated to 1500C then poured into a tin bath where it takes its form and begins to solidify. Then moves into a kiln where it is cooled gradually so that it may anneal||Best if kept clean so the scanner bulb obtains an unobstructed view of the information||None available|
|Plastic Tabs||2||Helps to secure the bulb assembly and press it to the glass without scratching the glass||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Tabs have slots molded into them to keep the bulb in place||None available|
|Springs||2||Pushes up bulb assembly so it is flush against glass plate||Stainless Steel||Extruded and machined||The small springs have low spring constants making them very elastic||None available|
|Bulb Assembly||1||Retrieves information|| Casing: Polyurethane
Circuit Board: Copper, Substrate
|Copper is bonded over the substrate, then a temporary mask is placed over it in such a way that when it is doused in chemicals, the parts not covered are dissolved leaving the substrate layer showing on those areas||The bulb assembly travels the length of the scanning unit to gather the information|| PC-10-AA6-1897
|Belt||3||Transmits energy from the motor to the bulb assembly||Nitrile||Injection molding and machined||The scanner belt is a multi-toothed belt which wraps around the gears, the pulley, and hooks onto the bulb assembly||518ST55-3.0|
|Pulley Assembly||2||Puts tension on the scanner belt||Polyurethane, stainless steel, aluminum|| Pulley: Injection Molding
Spring: Extruded and machined
|A large shoulder piece is used to only allow a small spring in the pulley||None available|
|Gear Assembly||1||Provide motion to scanner assembly||Polyurethane for the gears. Aluminum, polyurethane, galvanized steel, copper, alnico, and aluminum, nickel, or cobalt for the magnet||Injection molding, die cast and machined||Gears used to adjust rotational speed||None available|
|Printer Gear Assembly||1||Provide motion to printer assembly||Polyurethane for the gears, and stainless steel for the rods and ecterior shell||Injection molding, die cast and machined for the gears. Rolled and then formed to the right dimensions||Gears used to adjust rotational speed and trasfer rotation to other parts of the component||None available|
|Ink Jet Plate||1||Holds printing unit||Aluminum||Machined||Plate was bent and punched in the machining process||518ST55-3.0|
|Wire Harness||1||Holds wires in place so they do not get tangled||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Without this piece, the product is more likely to fail||JV72-00058A|
|Metal Gears||12||Rotates and grab paper to dispense||Aluminum||Machined||Material is rolled to thickness then punched||None available|
|Rubber Pad||2||Prevents ink from drying out||Rubber||Stamping||As the ink cartridge cart moves back to the rest position, the pads move up to stop the ink cartridges and prevent premature drying||H32-3 H32-6|
|Metal Gear Spacer||1||Spaces the gears and supports them so they will not bend||Aluminum||Machined||The machining process has the material rolled down to thickness and stamped||None available|
|Paper Feed Shaft||2||Grabs each individual page and feeds it through the product||Rubber, stainless steel, and polyurethane||Injection molding for the rubber rollers and gear. Extrusion and machining for the shaft||Rubber is used to make sure that only one page is fed at a time||None available|
|Paper Out-Feed||1||Sends the page out of the product||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Works interconnected with the metal gears||None available|
|Springs||4||Hold paper clamps taught to the paper feeders||Stainless steel||Extruded and machined||Springs have high spring coefficients to keep them strong||None available|
|Plastic Clips||4||The clips make it such that only individual pages are fed through the system||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Four are used to cover the width of the page||None available|
|Metal Clips||4||The clips make it such that only individual pages are fed through the system||Aluminum||Rolled then machined||These four metal clips are attached to the plastic clips to provide more strength||None available|
|Rubber Pad Tray||1||Push the rubber pads up into the ink cartridges||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||This tray is pushed into place onto the ink cartridges so that the ink will not drip and damage the product||None available|
|Mother Boards||3||Transfer energy and operate mechinisms||Fibergalss, coper, epoxy, tin-lead mixture, nickel, aluminum, carbon, and ceramic||Rolling, etching, sodering, and tracing||The motherboards transfer electrical energy and information to different parts of the unit||None available|
Table A :This table shows the components of the Lexmark Z82 Printer and describes their function, materials, processes, model number and various other information
3D model of parts
Using Solid Works all of these models were drawn to .001 scale using a caliper. It was a group decision to use Solid Works because one of the members had previously used the software and the program is readily available. All of these parts were chosen because they were a major part attached to or had some contribution towards the printing function.
|Roller Cover||This is a picture of the base cover. The base covers main function is to assist the paper in the travel from the printing tray to the printing unit.|
|Belt||This belt has small teeth on the inside of the track. These teeth will match up with the gears that are on the axel of the motor. In return the motor will rotate the belt which will move the printer cartridge.|
|Shaft||The cartridge rod keeps the ink cartridge cart of track. This rod is made out of a very cheap 8-18 stainless steel. Very easy to manufacture and serves a very simple idea.|
|Ink Jet Plate||This metal bracket is one of the main components of the printer. All of the assemblies attach to this metal bracket in one way or another. Either through bolts, extrusion techniques or belts.|
|Screw #2||There are two of these in the assembly. This screw will attach the motor to the metal bracket. They are your basic Phillips head screws.|
|Printing Motor||This motor is a very simple motor. The job this motor has to do does not require too much energy, so the motor is not very powerful. This motor will turn electrical energy into kinetic energy in the form of rotational energy.|
|Paper Holder for Paper Tray||This slider will adjust the length of the paper. The closer that the slider is to the rolling rods, the smaller the printer paper will be.|
|Variable Width Changer for Paper Tray||This paper tray slider will adjust the width of the paper. The paper that is required to operate the printer depends on where the slider is located on the tray. All the way to the left will give you the largest possible size paper.|
|Paper Tray||This paper tray was designed to hold roughly 50 sheets of paper. With the sliders, the paper size can be adjusted to fit the required height and width of the paper.|
|Base of Printer||The bottom component to this printer is the key to the assembly. In one way or another, all of the pieces will attach to this bottom piece. Mostly the pieces will be attached by clips. However, some are attached by screws. This is where the printing unit is mounted, the base cover, and the paper tray are attached|
|Ink Cartridge Holder||This is the Printer cartridge holder. The color and black ink cartridges will lock into place from the top of the holder. Then when in use the holder will glide along the cartridge rod to apply the ink to the paper.|
|Rubber Cylinder||These rubber cylinders are made of a textured rubber. The textured rubber will help grip the paper while the paper is traveling from the paper tray to the printing unit.|
|Washer||This is a picture of the washer that the belt is located on. One of these washers is located on the axial for the motor. When the motor turns, the axial will turn the washer, in return will turn the belt.|
Table B: This table shows the individual components modeled using SolidWorks 3D.
3D model of assembly
These are aditional Solid Works pictures of how the parts fit together.
|This picture shows all thirteen components assembled together.|
|The paper tray slides in and out with ease. To lock the tray in place, there is a small locking mechanism on the bottom of the paper tray.|
|This picture shows the top of the paper tray. There are two sliding components that can move to change the height and width of the paper being used. The printer can print on paper anywhere from the regular 8.5 by 11 inch piece of paper, legal, and even envelopes.|
|The entire top mechanism of the printer can be lifted off. There is three small extrusions in three of the four corners of the “Metal Piece” that have a hole, and a small extrusion combination.|
|The rod that the “Cartridge Holder” slides on, is removed by simply pulling out a pin in one of the sides. Then pulling the rod out of the assembly.|
|The Printing Cartridge is lifted vertically away from the assembly. Also, with a small latch, the printing cartridges can slide out.|
|This picture illustrates how the washers (belt track) and the belt are removed from the assembly.|
|The two screws that are being taken out of the metal bracket are connected to the motor. The motor is then screwed to metal piece so that the axel of the motor protrudes to the belt.|
|This picture shows that after the motor screws are removed the motor can be taken out without a problem.|
|In this picture, the printer cover can pulled off. The way you do this is by pushing in the clips, and pulling out. The printer cover assists the paper from the tray to the printing unit.|
|This picture shows all of the thirteen components disassembled.|
Table C: This table shows a SolidWorks assembly sequence of the Lexmark Z82 Printer
Engineering Analysis: Ink Runner Rod
Problem Statement: What would be a suitable material to be used for the runner rod?
- Rod must be 16.5 inches in length
- Rod diameter is 5/16 inches
- Fatigue on metals (ink runner moving back and forth) is negligble
- Shear stress=VQ/It
- Normal Stress=-My/I
Solution: The stresses in the bar would not be as high as they would be in the materials other possible uses like structural uses because the part is used to support the inkjet cartridges and carry them back and forth through the printer. The company is therefore more interested in the prices of the materials and how well they will hold up to these stresses in the long run.
Prices of Metals:
- Brass: 25-90 cents per pound
- Aluminum:15-45 cents per pound
- Iron: 1-4 cents per pound
- Stainless Steel: 15-35 cents per pound
Steel being the strongest of the materials with ferritic stainless steel having a yield strength of 290 MPa and a percent elongation of 25 which is workable with since we don't want any elongation if possible. AA1050A grade aluminum itself has strengths in shear around 60 MPa and in tension of 100 MPa. Cast iron has an ultimate strength of 170 MPa which would mean its yield strength would range from 70 to 120 MPa. The curvature of all these materials would be relatively small due to the little load being placed on it with angles of curvature ranging from 0 to .01 degrees respectively for the materials.
The material best suited for this purpose would most likely be either an aluminum alloy, iron alloy, or stainless steel. Most likely being an aluminum alloy, or iron alloy, which are commonly used metals for these purposes.
Aluminum alloys are cheaper than just aluminum and offer more strength for your money. It is also a relatively cheap metal to buy. Iron is also a very cheap metal and when a proper alloy is made, can complete the task at hand just as efficiently and the others. These metals will hold the weight of the ink cartridges without any deflections due to the little weight being applied, and over time will not warp and elastically deform. The two types of metals also will be able to stand up to the heat generated inside the printer and will not melt nor become more ductile, which will keep them in place and structurally sound. The environment inside the printer will not reach temperatures capable of causing the elongation of both metals to be great enough to case possible problems and therefore can be neglected with the two metals already chosen for the job. Overall these metals will offer the mechanical properties required as well as save the company money on manufacturing costs and therefore boost profits from the printers sales.
1) Gear Analysis
- Component Function
- The gears main function is to transfer energy from one location to another. This typically happens between one gear and another, or between a power source and a gear. Aside from energy transfer the gears do no have any secondary functions. The flow associated with the gears are basically just energy. The energy flow takes the energy that is output by the motor and transferring it along the gear assembly to the necessary component. The various sizes and locations of the gears adjust the rotational speed accordingly to output the necessary rotational speed at the final destination (ink cartridges, scanner bulb, paper feeder). The gears are in a semi-rough environment. Whenever a gear moves, it is in contact with another gear or power source, which causes wear and tear. However, the gears only move during specific operations. The gears in the scanner system only rotate when a paper is being scanned, and the gears in the printing assembly only move during the actual printing process.
- Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)
- The gears are in the shape of a circle or thin disk with two sets of teeth of different diameter. The different diameters allow for the change in rotational speed of the gear. Since they are circular, the gears have symmetry along most axes. The gears are primarily two-dimensional, with a thickness that is significantly smaller than the diameter. They range in size from a diameter of a quarter of an inch to a diameter of two inches. The weights of the gears range from 1 ounce to 8 ounces. The shape of the gear is essential to the function it performs. If the gear is any other shape, the ability to transfer energy would be severely hampered. By having two circular gears rotating next to each other, it allows the gears to be in constant contact; a necessity for energy transfer. The teeth on the gear are also very important, as they make the system more efficient. Without the teeth, the gears would be prone to slipping, making the system less efficient.
- All of the gears are made from polyurethane. Polyurethane is easily manufactured and can be used for a variety of purposes, which is possibly why the material was chosen to be used. The functionality of the gears depends very much on their rigidity and their strength. They need to be able to act rigidly upon each other to maximize energy transfer yet be strong enough to not fail after multiple use at high RPM'S. Polyurethane is a material that has both of these properties.
- The gears have no aesthetic purposes. They are completely enclosed in the printer and will not be seen unless the printer is taken apart. The gears are an off-white color. This is possibly due to the fact that the rest of the printer is light in color. The gears, though they have teeth, have a pretty smooth surface finish. This is likely due to the fact that the constant rubbing wears the parts down. Any surface finish is strictly for functional reasons.
- Manufacturing Methods
- The gears were made by injection molding. This is evident because it is a slightly complex polymer part with separation lines caused by extra material pouring out where the two mold halves meet. The choice of polyurethane and its simple shape design dictated this manufacturing process because injection molding is used for polymers of slight complexity. The ease of injection molding also makes it easy to mass produce the gears.
- Economically, the choice of injection molding yields greater profits due to ease and speed of manufacturing. The societal influence of choosing this manufacturing process comes again due to the fact that the parts will be cheap to make, therefore the final product can be sold at a cheaper price, which is more desirable to the public. Globally, injection molding is available in any industrialized area. Since injection molding reuses the same mold consistently, it creates less waste; making the manufacturing process less of an environmental concern.
2) Motor Analysis
- Component Function
- The motor associated with the printing unit is what is being analyzed. The motor provides power to move the ink cartridge cart back and forth along the stainless steel rod. This is the only function that this motor performs. The flows associated with the motor are material and energy. The motor rotates providing kinetic energy to the belt and pulley system that rotates and is attached to the ink cartridge cart providing horizontal motion along the paper. Material flow is electron current flowing through the motor. The motor works inside the printer, and is encased by a metal cylindrical housing for safety. It is a rather warm environment because the friction from colliding electrons. The motor is double wrapped with an extra cylindrical shell housing, to protect it and assure other parts from overheating.
- Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)
- The motor is in a cylindrical form. It is for the most part symmetrical, but some tabs and bumps leave it slightly asymmetrical. The component is three-dimensional with a length of 2.2 inches and a diameter of 1.5inches. The motor weighs just under a half a pound. The function of this motor is completely coupled to the shape. The motor rotates in a circular motion, with the shaft work turning the pulley, hence the need for it to be cylindrical. The motor is made from several different materials, including aluminum, polyurethane, copper, alinco, galvanized steel, and a magnet (aluminum, nickel, or cobalt). Some parts of the motor need specific properties to run. For instance, the copper is needed for its conductivity, and the aluminum/nickel/cobalt is need for it magnetic properties. Environmental influence can play a great deal especially when involving metals. All of the metals used are taken out of the environment and in certain cases the environment can be affected from their extrusion techniques. Mining can greatly affect the surrounding eco-system. Social affects can also play a specific role. Socially the workers using these materials need to make sure there are no health defects that can arise from being around such materials. Economically these materials are cheap enough to make sure a profit can be made of the product, yet durable enough to make a quality product. Globally these materials may not be readily available throughout the world. Transportation may pose a threat as some of these materials may be hard to get to.
- The aesthetic properties do not exist with the motor. The motor is completely encased in the printer, so aesthetics are not are important as with other parts. The motor sits in an aluminum shell, which does have a shine, but there is no apparent effort to make this motor more aesthetically pleasing than other similar motors. However the component shell is a silver metallic color and the end caps are white. Both have a smooth surface finish which provides no actual purpose to the function.
- Manufacturing Methods
- Injection molding, stamping for the metal, extrusion for all the copper and other metal, and then machining to curve, lathe, and finish all other parts are the manufacturing methods that were used. Injection molding is used on the polyurethane gear on the end of the shaft and the polyurethane cap on the other end of the motor. This is evident because the separation lines from when the mold is taken off. The decision to use plastic absolutely effected why injection molding took place. If it was a metal end cap extrusion and cutting would have been the method of choice. If it was a different shape injection molding would have probably been the best bet for this material. The copper and other metals are extruded, and the casing is machined into a cylinder that fits tightly over the other motor components. The extrusion was the best choice because the metal material is a circular shape and metal is best machines into a cylinder by extrusion. Global factors that influenced why it was machined like this depend on where in the world you are. Geography plays an important role because you need to be able to provide power to your factory. Economically by using these methods it provides the best way to produce large amounts for the cheapest price. Also using these techniques will entice the highest quality for the materials used. Environmental influences involved in manufacturing include pollution from factories and the more efficient these methods are the less pollution caused. Societal influences that are involved in these methods involve the safety of workers. Workers need to be trained on machines which would be a societal influence.
3) Scanner Glass
- Component Function
- The scanner glass has the function of providing a flat, level, clean, transparent surface for the scanner bulb to read from any document on top of the scanner glass. A flow associated with this component would be a flow of energy. Light rays from the scanner bulb pass through the glass and then reflect off of the paper being scanned back through the glass to the scanning bulb. The unit functions in normal conditions ranging from thirty degrees to a max of one hundred degrees.
- Component Form
- The general shape of the glass is a rectangular solid. A noticeable property that the glass has is that it is level and has negligible height differences. It is primarily two dimensional. The width of the glass isn’t important to the functionality of the scanner other than to resist cracking under normal forces being applied. The length and width are the main dimensions since it has to be able to hold a range of pieces of paper which are also primarily two dimensional. The component is by inches and inches thick. The component’s shape is coupled with how the component functions because if the glass was jagged then the light would refract differently during scanning operation. The glass weighs roughly a pound and a half.
- The technical type of glass that is used, is float glass. Some manufacturing decisions that impacted this include that it is cheap and frequently made which made it extremely easy to get a hold of. Some properties that this component had to be to function is that it had to be stiff, smooth, have very minimal refraction when the light passed through it either time it goes through, and clear. Some global concerns for this include that this product can be made in any developed country, and it can be used in any altitude and climate (within reason). Economically glass is cheap and available in large quantities which allows for it to be purchased even cheaper. Societal glass doesn’t offend any cultures or groups and will be used by anyone that uses basic electronics which is the focus of sales. Environmentally this product doesn’t have a huge impact which is why it is made on a large scale. Overall this product does not have any impact one people that would prevent them buying this product. Aesthetically this piece does not have any relevance other than it has to have a smooth surface finish and not have any sharp edges to make it look user friendly. The glass is transparent because the scanner head has to read through the glass twice.
- Manufacturing Methods
- To make this glass it was formed by being put through rollers and made into a flat surface. This was chosen because rolling is the most effective way to make flat glass compared to how cheap it is to purchase. The evidence that supports that this was done by rolling is because the glass is at a constant thickness and it is very cost economical. To manufacture this product the plant would have to be located near a region that has the necessary tools to cool the glass at a rate that wouldn’t cause imperfections in the glass or crack it. Environmentally the glass making process makes some heat and air pollution.
4) Foam and Plastic Analysis
- Component Function
- The paper press in a Lexmark Z-82 all-in-one printer provides two functions. The first function is to hold the page in place while the scanning function is in progress. This is done by closing the scanner top cover and keeping it closed; any movement can create faults in the scan. When closed the paper press falls onto the page and presses down upon it. The other function is to make the scanning area light-tight. Keeping as much light internalized in the scanning unit provides the best possible scan. The paper press performs this function in the same manner as previously stated (the scanner top cover is closed). By being pressed tightly on the page and covering the whole scanner glass plate, little light may escape. In performing these functions, an energy flow is exhibited in the force of the paper press pushing down upon the page.
- The paper press component functions above the scanner unit. It is physically placed directly above the glass plate and under the scanner top cover. The environment the component rests in is separated from the external environment because typically the cover is closed. The paper press is subtly heated when the scanner bulb passes by.
- Component Form
- The form of the component is prismatic in shape. Notable properties that this component has includes\ that it has a uniform width. As a whole it is primarily three dimensional, but if broken into the two separate parts, the cover could be considered two dimensional, and the foam base is three. Its dimensions are 8.5 x 12 x 0.25 (inches) and weighs approximately two ounces.
- The shape of the paper press is due to the fact that its function is to cover the scanner glass plate. The glass plate is rectangular and therefore the paper press is the same size and shape to cover that area. Its depth of 0.25 inches is so that when the scanner top cover is dropped onto the page, it will press into the scanned item, holding it in place, but provide some “give” so that the paper press will be flush on the surface of the item to be scanned (if the item is not flat itself).
- Polymers are the materials used in manufacturing the paper press. More specifically, for the foam base polyurethane is used, and for the cover, polypropylene is used. Manufacturing decisions impacted the choice of material because of the fact that foam is made in a specific manner, and because of this manner of production, a specific material is used (often polyurethane because it is cheap). In order for the paper press to be functional, its spongy property is necessary to provide the “give” mentioned above.
- The materials to manufacture this component were chosen specifically for distinct reasons. Globally and environmentally, polyurethane and polypropylene were chosen because the raw materials to manufacture them are abundant and easy to obtain. Economically, the materials are cheap to purchase and manufacture. The cheap cost is a big societal factor because cheap materials make cheap products which are more desirable to the consumer.
- Aesthetically, the paper press is designed for functional purposes. The foam backing is hidden behind the cover and therefore does not need to be pleasing to the eye. Its only purpose is to provide some bounce. Since it is hidden and does not need to be aesthetically pleasing, it is simply dark gray. The cover piece serves two purposes on the other hand. One is to reflect the light back toward the scanner bulb to maximize the amount of light shining on the paper. In order to reflect light best, the cover is colored white. Another aesthetic of the cover is that the material is very smooth and flat. This also allows for the light to reflect directly back at the bulb as well as to not taint the original copy or scratch the glass plate. The aesthetics of the cover, like the foam backing are also to maximize functionality.
- Manufacturing Methods
- In order to make the paper press, a couple manufacturing methods were incorporated. For the foam backing, a bath of hot liquid polyurethane was blasted with hot CO2 gas. Gas bubbles filled the polyurethane bath which was then heated more until the bubbles burst, leaving behind a spongy porous material. Next the material was cooled and machine cut to its specific dimensions. The evidence of this is because the material is undoubtedly foam, which is not made in many other ways. The cover was made from polypropylene. The polymer was extruded through a narrow slit and poured onto rollers where it cooled. After cooling, the thin, long polypropylene sheet was machine cut to its specific dimensions. This is assumed because it is a polymer and the material is too thin to be manufactured using injection molding. Extrusion then machine cutting is the cheapest and most efficient way to manufacture this part.
- The choice of material impacted the way in which the individual parts would be manufactured. Since both parts were to be made from polymers, the cheapest, easiest manufacturing methods involving those materials were chosen. For creating a foam material from a polymer, the best way is using the CO2 bubble method. For manufacturing very thin plastic sheets, extrusion is the best method. Also, both materials had to be simple rectangular prisms, therefore the shape of each did not require complex manufacturing processes.
- The technologies required for each part of the component are both very basic manufacturing processes. Globally and socially, the manufacturing processes necessary can be done in any factory equipped with the proper technology. Economically, these processes are both cheap, and therefore desirable. Any excess material that is not used can be melted down and reused, which is a desirable environmental factor.
5) Main Circuit Board Component
- Component Function
- This component is the motherboard for the printer. The circuit board has multiple functions that are necessary to the printers function. All information is collected and processed in the circuit board, then output to individual components to perform their function. The user inputs are processed by the main circuit board and the component functions accordingly. The other inputs are the scanner and computer information. After the inputs are processed in the circuit board, it now outputs information to the printer. This function tells the printer the information it needs to create a printed document.
- The main way the circuit board works is by electrical power. This means energy is part of the flow of this component. Material is also part of the flow. The way this flow works is that electrons are the material and they flow through the conductive properties of the circuit board. That is how the energy flow is created, by electrons charging up the capacitors to power the circuit board and trigger the devices needed for each function.
- The circuit board operates on the inside of the printer. It is attached to all components of the printer meaning it needs to have space to connect all the pieces. However it is stabilized by 4 screws connecting it to the main frame of the computer. The temperature does not get extremely hot inside the printer so basic room temperatures are operating conditions.
- Component Form
- The circuit board has very distinct geometry, material and appearance that make it identifiable from other components. The general shape of the circuit board is a rectangular base with the electronic components extruding from the top and soldered to the base. The circuit boards only notable property is that it is not symmetric in any way because of the all the electrical equipment attached, making it essentially three dimensional. However the board, without any electrical components, is planar symmetrical in geometry. It has a length of 6.25 inches, a width of 4.25 inches and variable height from an eighth of an inch to a quarter of an inch. The shape of the board is essential in the performance function. The board needs to have a large flat base so the conductive element (copper) can be traced out evenly and is able to fit into the space it has inside the printer. The weight of the circuit board is roughly a half a pound.
- There are multiple materials that the circuit board is made from. First is has a fiberglass base and is attached to the copper conductive material by an epoxy resin. Also a tin-lead mixture is applied to prevent oxidation. All contact points are made from aluminum, tin-lead mixture (solder), and nickel. Resistors in the board are made from carbon composition which is a mixture of ground carbon and ceramic. The lead wires are made from conductive metal. The capacitors are made out of the conductive metal aluminum. Transistors and diodes are made from semi-conductive material, silicon. Integrated circuit chips or microchips are also made from silicon and copper. In the manufacturing of the circuit board many of the small components were made from a certain material for a reason. The copper was used to provide a conductive material for electrons to flow through. This was absolutely necessary because copper is one of the best conductive elements and is still able to be traced out. The aluminum was chosen in manufacturing because of its easy workability and cheap price for bulk. Silicon was chosen for the same reason. The carbon composition was made because it was the best technology available when the product was manufactured. The circuit board properties provide different functions. The resistor has the mixture of carbon and ceramic. Carbon is resistive and ceramic has insulating properties. The ratio of these materials determines how resistive the element is. The silicon properties provide important conductive element to make sure the transistors, diodes and IC’s are able to function. The main materials properties in these materials are conductive or resistive. The copper and fiberglass are essential because the material properties provide conductive (copper) and insulating (fiberglass) properties to the main structure of the board. Economic concerns that were taken into account when deciding how to make this component are cheap materials are used in all instances. Circuit boards that are made with more expensive materials would be overkill for this product because of the environment it operates in. Global concerns do not really affect this product. It can perform at any altitude, and climate (within reason).Basically any industrialized country can produce this component. Societal factors involved in deciding materials are being able to transform what is needed to each language. Electronics is essentially the same throughout all cultures, however you need to be able to interpret each part needed and what it is called. Environmental concerns are definitely influencing manufacturing of some parts of the circuit board. For instance lead is used, which is a poisonous material. The reason it is used however is because it is in small amounts and is not exposed.
- There is no need for aesthetic properties for the circuit board because it is contained inside the printer. It however has to be organized in a manner that it is easy to read in case of troubleshooting and it is. The color of the component varies because of the different parts involved in it. It has a green copper base, black and silver IC’s, blue covering on the capacitors, and white marking on parts to identify them. The copper is smooth surface finish except where cut out because of traces. This is for functional reasons. IC’s have a smooth top just for aesthetic and geometrical purposes because it’s a casing on the outside. It also needs to be smooth to function as a surface to display part numbers.
- Manufacturing Methods
- There were many methods used to make this part. The copper and substrate was rolled to make it flat. The copper was then etched or traced out by a drill or milling machine. This is supported because the surface is smooth and then parts in the middle of the piece are missing. The choice of material and shape of the final material made it essential for rolling to take place. Global concerns influenced this decision by making sure it was done in an industrialized country so it was able to manufacture. Manufacturing plants also need to supply water for employees so globally need to be located in an accessible region. Societal reasons for using rolling would be that people need to operate the machine used to roll the copper. This provides jobs in the community where there is manufacturing plants. Economically rolling is important because it is a way to make a precise thickness to a sheet of copper. This allows you to make your material extremely cost efficient. Environment factors that influenced the methods used in the circuit board are regulations put on how much lead can be used in a product. In essence there should be minimal amounts for products sold in the United States.
6) Scanning Bulb Assembly
- Component Function
- The function of this component is to send information of a hard copied document to the circuit board where it can be processed. This component does multiple functions to essentially complete the scanning function. One is the bulb lights up to create photons. Diodes transform photons into electrons. The diodes receive the photons from a mirror involved in the assembly, reflecting light. The diodes transmit to the lens to produce an image that is transmitted throughout other components and to a computer. The flows associated with this component are energy and material. For energy flow the bulb in the scanning unit sends out photons in the form of light. Inside this assembly there are diodes that convert the photons into electrons. These electrons are transferred to the circuit board by wires. The environment inside the scanner assembly between the glass and top is where the bulb is located. The bulb heats up because of resistance in the bulb and the colliding electrons. The heat however does not meet extreme temperatures. It is a snug space and the bulb is locked into place by snapping it in place to the tray that moves back and forth. This movement is based off of the tray movement, not the actual bulb and is by no means an extremely fast velocity however a solid structure will keep any stresses from breaking the bulb or individual diodes.
- Component Form
- The scanner bulb assembly has very simple geometry and made from only a few materials providing a basic appearance. The general shape of this component is a rectangular prism. It is not completely symmetric however it has been machined to extreme precision. Notable properties are that the bulb is fairly brittle. The part is three dimensional because it has a length width and height. More specifically the height is three-eighths of an inch, nine and a half inches long, and one inch wide. The shape of the component is coupled to the function because it has to be square to assure you can design a system to move it evenly along the glass length and evenly distributed the light. The weight of the entire component is less than half a pound.
- The component has multiple materials it was made from .The outer casing for the bulb is made from poly-urethane. The bulb itself is a clear poly-urethane and some mercury. There are metal connectors that the wires clip into to transmit electrons. Manufacturing the bulb to such a thin long piece is made easiest by using plastic. The outer casing is made of plastic because injection molding allows for mass production of this part and a cheap way of production. The reflective properties of the mirror are needed to assure its function. Also the diodes need to have semi-conductive properties to transmit electrons. The bulb has to be clear so that the light created emits the most amount of photons possible. Economically the decision to use this material was made because it was the most cost effective material. However the decision to use plastic could possibly hinder the sales of it. A more durable material may exist to increase life of the product. This is the same with the bulb and diodes. Environmental factors that influenced the decision for this material is that mercury is used which can hinder the sales and stray some people from buying it because of the health issues related with mercury. Globally the access to such materials can be limited to developed nations that know how to refine and transport certain elements from nature. Societal factors include photons, which can cause small amounts of radiation. This is not especially healthy in large amounts and people may be weary of using such a device.
- The aesthetic properties of this part are size and color. The aesthetic properties that serve a purpose for this are the color, more specifically transparency. The color of the casing is black, and the bulb is transparent. This transparent property of the bulb is so that it can emit light onto the document. The mirror is reflective and needed so that photons will bounce off of it. The surface finish is smooth on all parts. This relates to the functionality and aesthetic reasons. The bulb needs to be smooth so refraction of photons does not occur and the highest intensity of light can be emitted.
- Manufacturing Methods
- To make this component injection molding was used for the casing and blow molding for the bulb. The evidence to support this is that you can see the casing has lines from where the mold was taken apart. As far as the bulb is concerned all plastic bulbs are made from blow molding. Material choice absolutely impacted the decisions for these methods. If a glass bulb were chosen they would have to use glass blowing to make the actual bulb. Other materials such as metal for the casing would incorporate all different machining operations such as forging, rolling, or drilling. The tiny indents and cutouts that make up the components shape, impacted why injection molding was used. It is easier to make a multiple pieces.
- Globally the decisions to use these methods are based on the technology available where manufacturing is taking place. Machinery has to be powered by something and supplying that is essential. Economically injection molding is a cheaper process if you mass produce a product. Socially these methods cause a need for people to know how to run machines so a higher level of thinking needs to be evident. Environmentally injection molding can produce waste from excess material in the mold, to having to use multiple molds which cause waste as well.
7) Belt Tensioning Device
- Component Function
- The belt tensioning device performs two functions which are to make sure the belt is strait so it does not wave and have the belt rotate around with little friction which is why a pulley is at the end. The flows associated with this component include the flow of energy in the form of force in the spring that is compressed pushing on the belt. The environment that this component functions in is an average temperature environment where it does not experience extreme heat or extreme cold temperatures.
- Component Form
- The general shape of the component is a combination of cylindrical and rectangular solid shapes which means all of these are primarily three dimensional. The pulley, pulley rod, spring, and spring rod are all cylindrical. The frame that the pulley rests on is a rectangular solid. All of the cylindrical components are axis-symmetrical. The relevance of the shape is that it creates a smooth surface in a linear direction. The frame has a noticeable property that it was at one time flat and then bent into the current shape. The component is two inches long, an inch and a half wide, and a half inch high. The shape allows the part to be small and have a small profile so it can fit under the scanner glass and be a minimal size to allow the scanner bulb to have maximum room to move around.
- The weight of the component is lighter than a quarter pound due to the only metal being the frame, spring, and pulley shaft. Other materials include the pulley and pulley rod which are made of polyurethane. The reason for these decisions in materials include that the parts are cheap and easy to make. The properties for the material in the spring include that the spring must be able to withstand compressive forces without breaking. The other metal in the components have to be able to withstand compressive and shear force without failing. Other plastic pieces only have to withstand compressive and very slight shear force. Globally these materials are not influenced by differences in altitudes or anything to do with differences in regions. Economically these materials are cheap and easy to make anywhere. Societal these parts do not affect anyone or anything. Environmentally these do not have too much affect since both of these materials are made on a large scale and there is not much material being used.
- This component has minimal aesthetic purpose. Since it is mainly an internal component and can only be seen through the glass, the only aesthetic quality in needs to have is to be safe looking and made to look like it will not fail along with the intention of the product not failing in the first place. The colors of the component are the same colors as the original color of the materials. The metal has no surface finish and the polyurethane pulley is the only thing that has a smooth finish to avoid extra friction when it comes into contact with the belt. Overall all of these finishes are for function.
- Manufacturing Method
- The spring was extruded and then machined into the circular form. This is known because the metal on the spring has little lines down the length which is a sign that it was extruded and then turned to create the curvature. The polyurethane pieces were all injection molded and the reason that conclusion was made is because the pieces have parting lines on the sides. The frame was once a flat piece of metal and then punched to the correct size. After that the metal was formed into the right dimensions and specifications. The reason this conclusion was made is because it would be the most economical and fastest way to produce the product. Also the metal has a rounded top and flat bottom which is a sign that it was punched and then to get that shape it would have had to be formed. Also all of the sides and edges are parallel with each other which proved that it was formed. Material choice in this case was based off of if the part had to be smooth and be able to work under tension, compression, or shear forces.
- These manufacturing processes had minimal influence on global aspects since these processes could be done in any developed area. Societies have no problem using these materials. Economically these products could be made cheap and fast due to the materials being readily available. Environmentally these products release small amounts of heat and air pollution. Overall these materials were made with materials that had minimal negative effects and were cost effective.
The component complexity will be based on a number of different categories. These categories are: number of functions performed, dimensions of the part (1D, 2D, 3D), number of materials, and amount of manufacturing methods used. The basis for the scale will be defined below for each category. To determine the total complexity, each category ranking is summed together.
Number of Functions Performed:
1 - One function performed
2 - Two functions performed
3 - Three or more functions performed
Number of Dimensions
1 - One dimensional
2 - Two dimensional
3 - Three dimensional
Number of Materials
1 - One material
2 - Two materials
3 - Three materials
4 - Four or more materials
Number of Manufacturing Methods Used
1 - One manufacturing method used
2 - Two manufacturing methods used
3 - Three or more manufacturing methods used
Low Complexity (requires little time and low cost for manufacturing)- Zero to five
Medium Complexity (requires more time to manufacture which costs more for manufacturing)- Six to nine
High Complexity (requires lots of time due to multiple steps and materials which would bring up the manufacturing costs)- Ten to thirteen
|Component Number||Component Name||Functions Performed||Dimensions||Materials||Manufacturing Methods Used||Complexity Rating|
|4||Foam and Plastic||2||3||1||1||Medium|
|5||Main Circuit Board||3||2||4||3||High|
|6||Scanner Bulb Assembly||2||2||1||2||Medium|
|7||Belt Tension Device||2||3||2||2||High|
Table D: This table provides a way of organizing the data used to complete a complexity scale as well as the final complexity result.
Each of the categories used has its own affect on how complex a component is. Overall it was found that the more complex components were depended mainly on the amount of different materials used and amount of manufacturing methods used. The function of a component has its own impact. If there is a component that provides more than one function it has to be at least moderately complex to highly complex. Component form also has played a major role in how complex it is. If the part has more dimensions than another component it may be harder to design making it more complex. As far as the manufacturing methods used to make the part that has a large effect on how complex the part is. The more process a part has to go through influences the time, money, and thought that goes into making the part.
The interaction of each component can vary for how complex those are as well. One way to define a scale for these can be interpreting how many components interacting make up a single function. The easiest way to define a scale for complexity would be to count the number of components interacting and the more there are the more complex the interactions are.
- The scanning function of the unit is limited to one scan at a time which increases the amount of time for scanning if multiple sheets are being scanned. It also uses more energy due to the scanner having to be on for a longer amount of time, and the scanner head moving two ways for each sheet of paper being scanned.
- A revision that would be made is a removal of the current scanning method to one that has a top feed system. This would allow sheets to be read one after the other and then dispensed in another tray directly below. Also the scanner head would be fixed which reduces the amount of energy being used since the paper would be moved one way instead of the scanner head moving back and forth over the paper. This also reduces the amount of time the printer is on which saves energy.
- The reduced amount of energy would address economic and environmental concerns because it is saving energy which helps the environment along with using less energy saving you money for electricity to power your unit. Also the ease of making one less step for each print would make it more attractive to the consumer which affects economic since people would be more attracted to buy this printer and societal concerns since it is easier to use.
- A design revision that would be possible is the ink cartridge cart and in turn the ink cartridges. By making the ink cart differently to allow more spaces for separate ink cartridges you can essentially upgrade the resolution of your color print-outs. The way to revise the ink cart would be to keep it the same size, and make smaller compartments for each ink cartridge. This would allow for other functions of the printer to remain as they are. By adding two more slots you could now have a spot for black ink, as well as the three main colors that can create all other colors, yellow, blue and red thus providing higher resolution images. This boost in performance of the machine may also affect the cost. The ink cartridge could also be refillable.
- The benefits of these extend to the four factors. Economically, by implementing this revision it would create a greater market for all other types of still image products. By being able to produce hard copy images from digital sources the market would explode for high resolution printers as well as those digital sources. By creating higher resolution print-outs you could essentially print-out more aesthetic documents. Societal concerns are that people will be able to express new ideas they have and portray them on a more personal level. Environmentally the feasibility of such an innovation would provide less waste because you would not throw out ink cartridges, instead get them refilled at a service center.
- When disassembling the product, right now three different screwdrivers are required. For a person disassembling for the first time, they would have to try a variety of tools until the proper one was found for each separate screw. This process is time consuming and aggravating.
- A valuable design revision that could be done on the product would be using one style screw for all connections involving them. With a universal screw, the consumer purchasing the product will find it easier to perform service on the product when necessary. After one time of disassembling the product it will be easier to recall which size screwdriver is necessary for the job.
- Consumers who purchase the product would be very pleased with the ease of operation and service, as that is a major concern for today’s society. Lexmark will also save money in purchasing the screws from the manufacturer. Buying bulk of one style screw as opposed to bulk of two styles would be a smart economic decision.
- Ink-jet printing is slowly becoming an obsolete technology. It seems extremely slow when printing multiple pages and is very costly. A better alternative would be switching to laser-jet printing. Laser-jet technology allows for faster, cheaper prints in finer detail.
- All three of the improvements listed above are what is expected by society today. Nothing is fast unless it is instant, and sharp details are extremely important. Consumers want a product that provides these types of accolades. Globally and environmentally, this design revision would cut down on pollution. Given the fact that more prints can be obtained per toner cartridge, that leads to less waste product.
Cause for corrective action
- Our group has not come across any major problems or conflicts internally. Most problems arose from small miscommunication matters that were easily resolved by the next meeting, if not sooner. Almost all miscommunication was due to emails not being always available to all group members all the time. For instance, one group member commutes, and has no Internet connection over the weekends or on holiday breaks. This means that any communication for the group must take place during the week, or that member will not be able to participate. This problem is easily resolved with communication taking place during the week. There have been no other problems to date. At this late a point in time, any conflicts can be devastating to the group. Therefore, any discretion will be met with harsh punishment. (TBD)
Printing Design Change
Copy Page Stapling
- A design problem that was found with the Lexmark Z-80 All-In-One printer is that all the papers begin to pile up when mass quantities are being printed. The Z-80 dispenses paper from the printer into a tray that collects the printed items. There is no way of sorting out multiple copies that have many pages that need to be contained together. Such materials include pamphlets, packets, essays and power points. A way to fix this is to include an automatic stapler to combine each sheet of paper together, for each copy. The way the paper leaves the printing unit and into the paper tray means we need to account for the placement of the stapler. The staple should be in the upper left hand corner if you look at the front of the document. Also once the staple is placed in the set of documents there needs to be away to remove it from the vicinity so more pages can enter the “staple zone”. To do this we will have the paper feed into the stapler, then move away so the sheets will drop down into the paper collecting tray.
- This design revision would account for certain economic, societal, and environmental, and global concerns. Economically the system would be slightly more expensive because of the addition of an extra system that needs to provide automated movements. Also more materials would make this design revision more expensive. However after initial cost, the only maintenance that would be is to add staples to the machine. Looking at the environmental concerns this product would now take longer to produce because of the added system. However using staples is less material than using paperclips or paper clamps to hold together documents. Also from a marketing standpoint the ease of copying large documents will increase profit margin because people will be more inclined to purchase a product with many capabilities. Globally this design revision will have minimum concerns. Likely in cultures that it is harder to obtain manufactured items on a regular basis, they would have to stock up on supplies in larger amounts. The societal concerns at hand have the greatest impact on this design revision. This means it would make the users life more convenient and efficient. The stapler would take the hassle out of standing next to the printer or separating pages after the pile has exceeded workable limits. The time that has been saved by this addition would greatly affect time management in small office or household business’.
- Overall this design revision may take some research into the feasibility and actuality. However the need to print multiple pages on reoccurring occasions would make this necessary for optimal performance. The need to save time is always a task engineers are attempting to elaborate on.
- As of now, three different screw drivers are necessary to dissect the Lexmark Z82 all-in-one printer. For the typical consumer who wishes to perform some routine maintenance on the product, this is a hassle. If the user even has all the necessary tools, it is still inconvenient to be in the middle of working on a project and discover that the tool you have at hand is not quite right for the job. A convenient design revision for the Lexmark Z82 all-in-one printer unit would be replacing all screws with clips (an example shown on the right). :
- By getting rid of all screws, the unit would be much easier to dissect. This minor adjustment would improve the serviceability of the product. Improved serviceability is a convenience customers like to see for products. This would be a societal impact because it relates to customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction leads to brand loyalty. This in turn leads to an economical impact in that Lexmark will have repeat customers and therefore make more profit.
- Another way ridding of all screws would be an economic factor is that Lexmark will be spending less money on materials. By simply adjusting the injection molding molds for parts requiring connection (adding clips), all the screws can be rid of (or at least most of them). This rendition to the original design will increase profits because the product can be sold at the same price, but the cost of manufacturing would drop. Instead of requiring three different types of screws (which are costly when bought in bulk), the unit will only need these clips.
- The integration of clips would mean fewer screws being purchased, which inevitably means fewer screws being manufactured. Fewer manufacturing, the better for the environment because there are always some kind of emissions that are output during manufacturing processes. Also, with less screws being manufactured, there will be less mining for materials, reducing the speed at which the planet is depleted of its raw materials. The environmental factors that occur due to this rendition will be pleasing to the public since environmental care is a big issue in today's society. This leads back to societal factors in that Lexmark could be seen as a somewhat "green" company. Many people are loyal to green companies, and that therefore will lead back to the economical factor for the company since more consumers would purchase the product.
- As of right now, the use of screws creates the necessity for having unit conversions for different cultures. If a screw needs to be replaced and the user does not use the same unit system as the product, then there will be confusion and possible errors in purchasing the replacement. Replacing the screws with a set of clips would optimize the product globally because it becomes user friendly no matter where the user is from.
Touchscreen and multiple connectivity
- A possible design revision at the system level of the Lexmark Z80 All-In-One printer would greatly affect the user interface and the function of the product. By adding a touch screen to the design and allowing it to connect directly to a camera, USB, or SD card the printer can essentially produce hard copies of information directly from an installed program rather than connecting to another source (PC, Mac). Changing the printer in this way is a great improvement because now users that do not own a computer can produce documents in public locations, or create photos, and print them directly from the portable devices. Also this interface may provide users with a more aesthetic interface to deal with rather than the dull buttons and LCD screen the Z80 currently possess’.
- This type of an upgrade to the product can cause certain societal, economic, environmental, and global concerns. Most importantly this type of an upgrade involves how the user interacts with the All-In-One printer. From a societal standpoint this product involves the ability for any kind of user to work with it. People with vision problems will be able to see the color screen better than a gray LCD screen and the use of icons will allow for users to interpret the function they are using. Also the interface will allow users to connect with it more readily by using different information storing devices. Globally this technology is fairly well known in most developed countries. However providing an interface that is proficient in many languages would be essential. This product would allow you to change the language setting to many different languages directly from the interface. Looking from a consumer and producer standpoint economic concerns can generate mixed responses. Take for example a consumer that owns a camera and does not have the means to buy a computer, however is very passionate in compiling photographs. This feature on the product would be extremely beneficial to such an individual after an initial cost. Over time the product would make up for the cost to print photos from a second party. The producer of such a product would however have to spend time developing and researching what types of touch screen interfaces would help sell the product to the consumer. This would cost the producer initial costs as well as cost during the products lifetime, by doing research to insure the interface is working correctly and lasting. Environmentally this revision to the product will cause slightly different concerns. Different materials are used to develop this part of the product. Also emissions from vehicles of people driving to drop off and pick up copies or printouts will affect the environmental concerns for this product.
- Essentially by revising the printer in such a way to add a touch screen interface will multiple connectivity abilities would be beneficial to the user. It also adds an appeal to it which can be used as a selling point by the producer. The interaction of this printer with other devices than a computer would be considered a luxury.
Lexmark Z82 Assembly
For the reassembly of the Lexmark Z82 all-in-one printer, this page will go through a step by step assembly process. If a larger view of the picture is wanted, click on the picture and it will take you to another page where the picture is enlarged. In some cases labeling was not used because it took too much away from picture, but what happened was explained in the extra documentation. For the original assembly, parts like the printing unit and scanning unit were preassembled and then attached once the part that it connects to was ready for other parts to be attached. Original disassembly and reassembly of this printer is very similar. At some points different steps could be taken which is why they do not match up with the disassembly, but these differences are very minimal and do not make a difference for the end product. Also some steps in this reassembly are combined to make the reassembly easier because if these steps are not done all at once it creates problems in later steps to make reassembly more difficult and timely. For tools, unless specified, a class two phillips head screw driver was used (clockwise to put back in). There were little to no challenges faced due to parts going in easier than expected, and only needing a portion of the tools stated in our initial analysis. Below is a scale to rate how difficult it was to put back each part along with the approximate effort needed to do the task. The scale ranges from 1 to 5 with 1 being a very simple step which requires little time (a few minutes) and no hard work to accomplish, and 5 being a step which was very difficult to complete and required the most time (more than 10 minutes).
|Scale number||Difficulty to attach part||Approximate time needed|
|1||Part just put in place||Less than 10 seconds|
|2||Attachment ports visible (up to four ports)||20 seconds or less|
|3||Attachment ports visible but (more than four ports)||60 seconds or less|
|4||Attachment ports visible with one non-visible port||2 minutes|
|5||Attachment ports visible with two or more non-visible ports||2 to 4 minutes|
|6||Lots of force required to get part in place||Up to 5 minutes|
|Procedure Number||Part Name/Part Put on||Part Placement||Extra Documentation||Difficulty scale rating||Picture|
|1||Printing rollers||Back of the ink jet plate||To place this on, ten plastic pieces had to fit into slots and move up to lock in place. Once the part was moved up, three additional clips locked into place||3|
|2||Printing gears||Left of the ink jet plate||This piece required a clip on the printing gear harness to be placed into the ink jet plate and then a screw fixed it in place||2|
|3||Printing rod||Front of the ink jet plate||The left of the rod had to be placed in first and then the left went in with little force. Then the two ends of the rods were locked into place by two clips on each end||2|
|4||Paper out feed||Front of the ink jet plate||The part was held in by two clips on each end (one in the front and back for each side)||2|
|5||Metal gear spacers||Front of the ink jet plate||This part is held on by three protrusions that allowed to part of be fit on top of the paper out feed. These protrusions were at each end and the middle. Then 2 screws on each end kept it from popping out from its position.||3|
|6||Printing belt tensioning device||Left of the ink jet plate||To put this piece in, the pulley assembly had to be slid into the ink jet plate and then the right plastic piece had to go into the metal hole (so the spring had something to push against when the belt is put on the pulley)||1|
|7||Printer motor||Left of the ink jet plate||This required two screws to be attached (one at the top left and one at the bottom right)||2|
|8||Rubber pad tray||Right of the ink jet plate||For this, two protrusions that were on either side of the tray had to go into the ink jet plate. Then once the back of the tray is touching the plate, two clips on each side of the tray lock it into place||2|
|9||Second printing roller||Front of the ink jet plate||First the left side of the rod with the cut outs for the belt groves was fit into its clip along with the belt being attached and then the left side of the rod was fit into its clip.||6|
|10||Wire harness||Rear of the ink jet plate||On the rear of the ink jet plate the part is place on the top of the plate and slid to the left until the metal clip in the plate attached itself to the wire harness. Then on the other side, a screw was attached to hold it in place||4|
|11||Ink cart motor||Front right of the ink jet plate||The motor head had to be pushed through the hole and then the screw holes had to be lined up. Once that was done the two screws were attached to fix it into place||2|
|12||Ink cart||Front of the ink jet plate||The top of the ink cart was placed on the top of the ink plate||1|
|13||Ink cart belt and printing rod||Front of the ink jet plate||The belt was first attached to the cart. Then the belt was placed over the motor and then stretched over the belt tensioning device. Lastly the printing rod was placed through the hole on the right for the rod and then attached with two clips on each side||6|
|14||Paper tray||Front of the printer base||This part had to be placed down and then slid up until it hit the back of the top of the base (when it was in place a mechanism snapped into place so it was known that it was locked into place)||1|
|15||Roller housing||Rear of the printer base||This piece had to be placed into four protrusions (two on each side) for this piece to be attached||1|
|16||Back panel #2||Rear of the printer base||This part needed to have two protrusions put into place and then the part was moved up until the clips locked it into place||2|
|17||Rear motherboard plate||Rear of the printer base||This piece was attached using two screws. The screws were in the back right and left of the plate||2|
|18||Right metal control panel plate||Back right of the rear motherboard plate||This piece was attached by being slid into two clips (one on the right and one on the left)||2|
|19||Right computer communication motherboard||Back right of the printing base unit||To attach the motherboard along with the metal plate below it required two class one screws to be screwed in on the bottom right and left of the motherboard||2|
|20||Left metal control panel plate||Back left of the motherboard plate||This piece was attached by being slid into two clips (one on the right and one on the left)||2|
|21||Left computer communication motherboard||Back left of the printing base unit||To attach the motherboard along with the metal plate below, it required two class one screws to be screwed in on the bottom right and left of the motherboard||2|
|22||Printing unit||Middle of the printing unit base||To attach the printing unit to the base, the printing unit was fit into two protrusions sticking out of the base, and then two screws on the bottom right and left held it into place||2|
|23||Middle cover||Top of the base of the unit||To attach this piece the cover had to move into two slots on the bottom. Then three screws kept it attached. Two screws were attached to the base on the bottom right and left of the cover. The third was attached on the top middle of the cover||3|
|24||Support panel||Middle left of the middle cover||This required the protrusions on the panel to be pinched and fit into the holes on the cover||2|
|25||Main motherboard||Middle of the middle cover||This motherboard required two screw at the top left and right to secure it (then other parts would secure it in place later on in the assembly)||2|
|26||Display panel||Front of the middle cover||This part was put into place and then left alone (when this part is fixed into place fixes the main motherboard into place by applying extra pressure to the bottom right corner of the motherboard)||1|
|27||Inner plate #1||Front of the main unit||To put this part in, two clips on the top right and middle of the plate were put into the middle cover. Then two screws on the bottom right and left of the plate attached it to the main structure (this also fixed the display panel to the main unit)||2|
|28||Right face plate||Right side of the main unit||To attach this, this part had two clips that it attached to on the bottom left and right. Then a screw on the top middle fixed it in place||2|
|29||Left face plate||Left side of the main unit||To attach this, this part had two clips that it attached to on the bottom left and right. Then a screw on the top middle fixed it in place||2|
|30||Back panel||Rear of the main unit||This piece had four protrusions that fit onto the bottom of the main unit (two on each side). Then two screws on the top left and right held it in place||3|
|31||Springs||Bottom of the bulb tray||Each spring went into one of the holes that were located roughly three inches from each end||1|
|32||Bulb assembly and plastic tabs||On top the tray||This required the bulb assembly to be put in with the bulb facing up and the wires lining up with the bulb tray hole||1|
|33||Scanning gear/motor assembly and gear cover||Right of the scanning unit housing||This piece required a screw on the bottom right, bottom left, and top right to fix it into place. Then the gear cover went on top without anything other than the adhesive that is already on the underside of the cover||2|
|34||Scanner belt pulley||Left of the scanning unit housing||This piece was attached using two screws that were attached on the top and bottom of the piece||2|
|35||Scanner belt||Middle of the scanning unit housing||Attaching this included putting the belt over the gearing driver. Then the belt had to be stretched over the belt tensioning pulley||6|
|36||Scanning shaft||Middle of the scanning unit housing||The shaft had to be placed into a slot on each side that kept the shaft in place to prevent it from making unwanted movement||1|
|37||Scanning unit||On top of the scanning unit housing||The scanning unit was placed in the shaft with the wires on the top side||1|
|38||Scanner wire cover||Top middle of the scanning unit housing||This piece had two protrusions on the top left and right that fit into the housing. Then the cover was pushed down till it locked into place with the clips that were located on the bottom left and right.||2|
|39||Scanner glass||Top of the scanning unit housing||This piece was placed on the top of the housing and then kept in place by four pieces of tape which were at each of the four corners||2|
|40||Top scanning unit plate||Top of the scanning unit housing||This piece was attached to the housing by having the eight clips (two on each side of each corner) engage to the plate||3|
|41||Top plate||Back of the scanning unit housing||This piece had two clips on the bottom right and two on the bottom left that attached to the scanning unit by going into two holes and then attaching when the clips went flush with the scanning unit||3|
|42||Scanning unit||Back of the main unit||The clips on the back left and right of the main unit attached to the scanning unit by being pinched and moved around until the protrusions moved into place||2|
|43||Wire cover #1||Back of the main unit||This piece had the back left and right tabs put into the top back of the main unit. The two clips engaged to keep it in place when the front of the wire cover was moved down||2|