Group 11 - GM V-6 Engine Gate1
The GM Vortec 4.3 L LG 4300 V6 engine is to be disassembled in the order according to the most accessible sub-system present at the time. The reassembly shall be the reverse order of the disassembly, using the same tools and reverse procedure. Each component will be placed in a container marked with the appropriate sub-system so no components are confused. The engine will be first disassembled by major sub-system, and then each sub-system will be disassembled into smaller sub-systems or components.
The first and most accessible sub-system of the engine will be the intake manifold and fuel system. The distributor will first be removed by hand, and then the water hose will be removed with a ratchet and socket, then using a ratchet with appropriate sockets, several bolts that hold the intake onto the block will be removed. These steps will be fairly quick to accomplish. If the tools can be quickly located, the removal of the parts and the documentation of them should take only 3 to 5 minutes. The intake may then be lifted off the block. The next sub-system that will be accessible will be the exhaust manifold. Using a ratchet with extensions and appropriate sockets, several bolts that fasten the manifold to the head will be removed; once removed the manifold can be lifted off of the heads. Again, this step will be very quick and should not take more than five minutes. The heads will then be accessible to remove. First the valve covers that cover the head must be removed using a screw driver or ratchet and socket. This should take two or three minutes to accomplish. Once removed there will be several bolts exposed. Those bolts will be removed using the appropriate ratchet and socket. Once the bolts are removed from the heads, they can be lifted off. This should take two to five minutes. Next, the timing chain cover will be removed, once again with a ratchet and an appropriate socket. This should take no more than two minutes. The chain will be removed from both the crank shaft sprocket and cam sprocket. From there, the underside of the engine will be turned upright and the oil pan will be removed using once again a ratchet with an appropriate socket. Due to the sheer number of bolts on the oil pan, this will most likely take five to ten minutes. Once the oil pan is removed and lifted off, the bottom end of the engine will be exposed along with the crank shaft and attached connecting rods and pistons. First each connecting rod will be removed by unscrewing the bolts that encase it around the crank shaft. This can be accomplished with a ratchet and appropriate socket. This will probably take about ten minutes due to the how difficult it is to reach these bolts. Once they are removed, the crank shaft can be unbolted from the engine block using a ratchet with an appropriate socket. The crank shaft can then be lifted out from the bottom of the engine block and the pistons and connecting rods can be pushed out through the top. This again will take probably about ten minutes due to the difficulty of pushing the pistons out of the engine and the weight of the crankshaft. Next, the cam shaft can be pulled or tapped out using a hammer. This will take less than a minutes because nothing is holding it inside the motor. Finally, the push rods can be pulled out of the engine block. This will take about a minute because nothing is holding them inside the motor. Once all sub-systems are removed, they can be measured and further analyzed.
The group has identified several challenges involved with this project. First off, ensuring that all the small components are kept in an organized minor where they can be found easily for reassembly could prove to be a challenge. Also, reassembling the motor will be quite difficult. Particularly, putting the bottom part of the motor back together will be a serious challenge. Disassembling the bottom of the motor will be the most time consuming part of the disassembly.
- Ratchet set
- Ratchet extensions
- Metric and Standard Sockets
- Allen wrenches, both standard and metric
- Wrenches of assorted sizes
Strengths of the Group
- All members of the group have at least some experience with taking apart motors.
- Mr. Korzaniewski and Mr. Robinson have extensive experience in working with motors. Mr. Robinson has the experience from an internship at New Process Gear and Mr. Korzaniewski from working on automobiles in his garage.
- Mr. Robinson and Mr. Kose have experience in solid modeling using CAD software.
Weaknesses of the Group
- No one has any experience in uploading using a wiki. This will be addressed through the viewing of tutorials of the wiki site.
- Several of the group members have very little experience with technical presentations.
Proper management is vital to the success of a group. Therefore it is necessary to draw up a plan of management. The plan is to have each individual member of the group take up roles that have specific responsibilities. The project manager is then responsible for ensuring that the parts of the project are completed in time and in a professional manner. He also responsible for overseeing the project and ensuring that each member is fulfilling their responsibilities. Also, any part of the project that does not fall into any project members responsibilities, will then be distributed by the project manager. A group meeting will be held on Wednesdays and Fridays at 4:55 outside of Knox 104 to discuss the project and see if any group member needs assistance in fulfilling their responsibilities. This meeting will last twenty minutes.
Conflict Resolution Plan
In any sort of group, there will inevitably be the development of some conflict. Therefore, it is vitally important to the success of a group that there be some sort pre-developed conflict resolution plan in place. As a result, the standard conflict resolution method used by the group will be as follows. First time, a meeting between the project manager and the conflicting members will be scheduled. The conflict will addressed directly and the working relationship will be addressed. Second time, a group meeting will be held with all members present and there will be a discussion of possible ways to fix the issue. Third time, the professor will be notified of the issues. This path of conflict resolution only applies for serious conflicts in the group. Any conflict that is deemed minor will be dealt with by the project manager.
- Technical Expert: Group 11 has noted two of its member as technical experts. Mr. Korzaniewski and Mr. Robinson have both been selected to fill this role. This role has two major responsibilities involved with it. The aforementioned technical experts are in charge of overseeing the disassembly of the motor and then the reassembly of it.
- Notary: Two group members were graciously volunteered for the role of notary. They were Mr. Korzaniewski and Mr. Kose. As notaries, they are responsible for documenting every aspect of the dissection of the motor and the reassembly of it. This includes documenting the tools used, the approximate time it took, the difficulty of each step, the dimensions of several components for later modeling, photographing every component of the motor, number of times a component is used, the material of the component, and the part number of the component.
- Project Manager: Mr. Wise has become project manager. This role entails ensuring each aspect of the project is completed in a professional and timely manner, dividing up the work between group members, resolving conflicts within the group, communicating with other group assigned to the GM V6 Vortec, and assisting group member
- Wiki expert: Both Mr. Strang and Mr. Wise are the group project Wiki experts. This role requires them to upload the information for the project to the course wiki site using the appropriate code.
- Draftsman: Mr. Kose and Mr. Robinson were chosen as draftsman for this project. Their role includes, selecting three to five components from the motor and then modeling them on a using appropriate modeling software. It also includes creating an assembly that shows the components being assembled in the proper order.
Point of Contact
Daniel Wise (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The GM 4.3L LG3 V-6 originally began as a 4300 series motor introduced in 1985. It takes many of its characteristics from GM 350 cubic inch, 5.7 liter V-8’s by sharing very similar pistons, camshafts and cast iron block design.  When put into production, the 4300 series was meant to replace both the 229 and 250 cubic inch GM V-6’s in the Chevrolet Elcamino and was a welcome, more efficient change. The first Vortec came out in 1988.  Where the engine took its next development to become closer to the LG3 motor was in 1996, when Vortec cylinder heads were introduced on that model, which are valued for their special way of spinning air and creating more power.  The 4300 series continued to evolve into several variants, like the L35 and LF6 until 2003 when the LG3 was introduced. Meant for use in GM S-Series vehicles like the Chevrolet S-10 and Blazer, it featured and new Multi-Port Fuel Injection System (MPI) and new emissions controls to comply with California emissions laws. The LG3 was only used in 2003 and was replaced with the similar LU3, which is still in production today where all 4300 series V-6 motors were produced, Tonawanda, New York and Romulus, Michigan.
When the 4300 series V-6 was first introduced, the only major world event occurring was the end of the cold war which overall, would have had little impact on engine or car production. In addition, the fuel crisis of the 1970’s was over and into the 1990’s, fuel efficiency wasn’t a very important factor to those in the market for a 4300 series powered vehicle. Where global and economic factors seem to have an impact was the construction of the LG3 model. Produced in 2003, it was meant to comply with California smog constraints for both emissions and to some degree fuel efficiency. Although the LG3 is no longer in production, the LU3 carries on this effort to comply with restrictions imposed by higher fuel prices and environmental worries.  Today GM offers an industrial version of the 4300 series to allow customers to be more efficient by designing the engine to run on not only gasoline but also propane and natural gas. 
Developed and produced in the United States, the main market for the 4300 series V-6 and more specifically the LG3, is North America but in some instances, it has been introduced into other markets. In South America, the Chevrolet S-10 is still produced in Brazil despite being discontinued in 2004 in the United States and features the 4300 V-6. Also, in Japan beginning in the 1990’s the Chevy Astro Van was released in limited numbers and in its base form offered the 4300, until the vans discontinuation in 2005.  The other area where the 4300 was seen was in the Netherlands and in a few locations in Europe where the Chevrolet Express van was released.  Beginning in 1996 and still today, it was used as a cargo and personal transport vehicle but also as an ambulance and police transport vehicle. It can be assumed the 4300 series powered vehicles are operating all over the world but these are the only locations that they are documented as being sold at new.
For the consumer, the 4300 series V-6 was to be a replacement for the 229 and 250 cubic inch V-6’s in mid sized cars and small trucks. Taking many similar aspect from the 350 cubic inch V-8, the 4300 put out anywhere from 150-200 horsepower and 230-260 lb•ft of torque, respectable numbers for a V-6. In 1996, GM gave the consumer a little more value by adding Vortec cylinder heads, then in 2003, with the LG3 model featured Multi-port Fuel Injection and again in 2004, a quieter cam-shaft with the LU3 model.  For the LG3 model, it was intended to power GM S-Series vehicles like the Chevrolet S-10 and Blazer but was phased out after one year.  For the industrial community, in 2011 GM is releasing a 4300 series industrial engine that can run not only on gas but also, propane and natural gas. In addition, it was documented that Toyota purchased 4300 series engines for their forklifts and also some marine variants have been produced for boats. The intended impact of the 4300 LG3 on the consumer is to provide the consumer with good gas mileage as well as towing capability. This is why the motor is used in small trucks and SUVs.
Since the development of the first internal combustion engine powered automobile, the intended use of the engine has been to convert chemical potential energy into mechanical energy. Specifically, the engine is supposed react oxygen and gasoline in order to create the power necessary to move the vehicle through the drive train. This intended use has remained fairly constant through the history of the internal combustion powered engine, however there are some variations on it. For example, a Ferrari motor has the same intended usage as the first vehicle, however it also is intended to travel at a high rate of speed, have excellent acceleration, and sound powerful . The Vortec V6 4300 LG3 has the same basic intended use as the motor in a Ferrari, however it varies in terms of what specific job the motor is best at performing. The Vortec V6 4300 LG3 is a truck motor that appeared in 2003 model S10s and Blazers. This shows that the intended use of the motor is to provide the consumer with a fairly cheap engine that can pull a fairly heavy load. The fact that the motor was not implemented into any large trucks or SUVs, like the Silverado, shows that it is not designed to carry very large loads on a regular basis. Still, the Vortec V6 4300 LG3 allows the operator to carry a good sized load and tow certain objects.
The engine can certainly be used for professional use by a contractor to carry tools or any other small load. As far as home use is concerned, the S10 and Blazer can be used for a daily driver all over town. The motor will also provide better gas mileage than the V8 Silverados or Suburbans.
The basic goal of any internal combustion motor is to convert chemical potential energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is in the form of torque. The way this occurs is through the reaction of gasoline and oxygen inside the engine block. The GM Vortec V6 4300 LG3 is fuel injected, so the gasoline is injected into the block and oxygen is sucked into it. A piston comes up and compresses the gasoline and oxygen mixture. Then the spark plug ignites the mixture firing the piston down and turning the crankshaft in the process. The crankshaft is connected to the wheels through the drive train and the wheels begin to spin. The conversion of chemical potential energy to mechanical energy is what allows an engine to function. The chemical potential energy is originally imported into the system through the fuel injector. Since a combustion reaction has the byproducts of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and energy, the energy can be used to perform work. In this case the energy released in the reaction is used to perform work by driving the piston downward causing a torque force to be applied to the crankshaft. The torque is sent through the transmission and to the wheels.
The internal combustion engine is exceptionally complex yet quite simple. It is complex in the sense that there are many moving parts performing different tasks and everything needs to be perfectly synchronized in order for the engine to function. However, the individual function of each component is simple in nature. The GM Vortec V6 engine is no different than any other gasoline powered internal combustion engine, at least in basic function. It is made up of about four hundred of components that work in unison to create a chemical reaction and convert chemical potential energy from the reaction into kinetic energy to move the car.
Components of an engine are assembled to create ‘sub-systems’. Sub-systems are assembled together to form a ‘system’ (engine). The components of each sub-system perform a simple task, however, the tasks that sub-systems perform in relation to the system are a bit more complex. The GM V6 consists of six main sub-systems, the engine block, heads, crankshaft and pistons, timing chain and cam shaft, and intake and exhaust manifolds.
- Engine Block
The engine block is the base to which all the other sub-systems mount or assemble. The block has mounts for the intake manifold, exhaust manifolds, heads, oil pan, and various pumps while also providing the cylinder in which the pistons operate and the chemical reactions take place. Blocks are usually cast from iron or aluminum and machined to fulfill manufacturer tolerances. This particular engine block is made of cast iron.
The heads are the most complex sub-system within an engine. They contain the rocker arms, valves, springs, bearings, and push rods. The main operation performed by the heads is to sequentially open various valves and allow for the flow of the gas/oxygen mixture into the cylinder or to release, through the exhaust, the carbon dioxide and water byproducts of the chemical reaction. There are two heads on a V6 and they are bolted on the top of the engine block. The rocker arms are attached to a pin that runs along the top. They are pushed upwards by push rods, which are influenced by the cam shaft, and work against the action of a spring to push a valve inward, allowing for gas/oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide and water to exit.
- Intake Manifold
The intake manifold is another simple yet vital sub-system to an engine. It bolts onto the engine block and serves as a platform for which the carburetor or fuel injection system mount. The main purpose of it is to channel the gas/oxygen mixture into various cylinders. Intakes are usually made out of cast iron or aluminum.
Exhaust Manifold The exhaust manifold performs in a similar manner to the intake manifold. The exhaust manifold bolts onto the engine block. When a cycle is completed, the waste byproducts are exhausted out of the cylinder and channeled through the exhaust manifold to the muffler and tail pipes. These manifolds are made out of formed iron or steel and get very hot.
- Piston and Crank Shaft
The piston and crank shaft perform one of the most important functions of engine. The pistons are connected to the crankshaft via the connecting rods. The piston and crankshaft assembly fit into the cylinders of the block and the crankshaft’s bearings are secured to the block. When the gas and oxygen mixture is burned in sequential order within the cylinders, the combustion pushes the piston downward and rotates the crankshaft. As one piston moves downward another moves up compressing the gas/oxygen mixture and then combusting it. This in return causes the other piston to move up, forcing the exhaust out of the cylinder, through a valve, through the exhaust manifold, and out of the engine. This constant procedure causes the crankshaft to rotate. The rotation motion of the crankshaft is then passed though a transmission and then eventually to the wheels of a car.
- Cam Shaft and Timing Chain
The cam shaft and timing chain are another crucial sub-system of an engine. The cam shaft is linked to the crankshaft by a chain and sprocket or gear and is bolted in the engine block. As the crankshaft rotates so does the cam shaft, usually at half the rpm of the crankshaft. As the cam shaft rotates, cams located on the shaft move the push rods up and down. The push rods open and close the intake and exhaust valves. The cam shaft is responsible for the timing in which fuel is introduced and exhaust is expelled. It is also responsible for spark plug ignition timing and for powering the oil pump. A gear located on the cam shaft rotates the distributor which distributes a spark to certain plugs at a certain time. The cam shaft is usually forged for steel or alloys.
The GM 4300 series LG3 V-6 motor uses basic motor building material that make the engine simple yet durable. From just looking at the engine, it is easy to see the use of a cast iron in the engine block, lower intake, valve covers, cylinder heads and exhaust manifolds and stamped steel pulleys, brackets and braces. The 4300 LG3 also utilizes a large amount of cast aluminum, seen in its oil pan, alternator housing, upper intake, throttle body and many other brackets on the front of the engine. There are also numerous plastics used on the clips, brackets and engine caps along with rubber used for the spark plug wires, hoses and serpentine belt. Various types of fastener are used but are all steel for added strength and in the alternator some copper can be seen and it is certain that there is additional amounts in the distributor and wires.
Although the materials used inside of the engine are not visible, it can be assumed that since there is enormous pressure inside of engines, the materials are all strong. Forged steel will most likely be used for the pistons, camshaft, crankshaft, connecting rods, valve springs and bolts. In addition some steel will be present in the oil pump and gaskets which will have an additional rubber coating. While operating, inside the engine there will be both oil and gasoline present.
User interaction profile
The usage of the Vortec 4300 is highly intuitive in terms of operating a motor vehicle. The only two real interfaces between the operator and engine are the gas pedal and the key operated starter. When the motor is properly installed in the vehicle, the operator only has to turn the key to start the car and push the gas pedal to control the amount of power the engine is putting out. Automotive culture is so firmly engrained in American culture that almost all people will know exactly how to operate this engine when in a vehicle.
As far as maintenance goes, it is vitally necessary that it is done regularly in order to ensure the longevity and continued optimum performance of the motor. First off, the motor needs to be supplied with eighty seven octane gasoline. Obviously, this procedure is highly intuitive and does not require much technical skill to accomplish. This requires the operator to regularly fill up his or her gas tank. Also, the oil needs to be changes every few thousand miles. This needs to be done for several reasons, but the main reason is to ensure that the friction between engine components does not lead to a catastrophic failure within the motor. This process is of moderate difficulty for the average person. It does require some technical skill, however it can be completed in a fairly short amount of time. The oil level should be regularly checked as well. The coolant level as well should be checked regularly and topped off if it is low.
Product Alternative Profile
The 2003 Chevrolet S10 came standard with either the Vortech 4.3 liter V6 or a 2.2-liter inline 4 cylinder. The 4.3 liter pumps out a respectable 190 HP at 4,400 rpm and 250 ft lb of torque at 2,800 rpm. It also is relatively fuel efficient getting 25 and 19 mpg highway and city driving respectively.  The base model 2.2 liter four cylinder produces only 120 HP at 5,500 rpm and 140 ft lb of torque at 3,600 rpm.  The four cylinder gets 22 city and 28 highway.  The V6 is more efficient at delivering power and torque at lower rpm’s. The only clear disadvantages of the V6 versus the four cylinder would be gas mileage and price. The base model 4 cylinder is about 2000 dollars cheaper.  Alternatively the Ford Ranger, a similarly sized truck is available with a 3.0 liter V6 and a 2.3 liter inline four cylinder. The 3.0 liter makes less power than the Chevy V6 producing only 154 HP at 5200 rpm and 180 ft lb of torque at 3900 rpm.  The 2.3 liter four cylinder produces higher numbers than the Chevy making 135 HP at 5050 rpm and 153 ft lb of torque at 3750 rpm.  The 3.0 liter and 2.3 liter have similar fuel efficiency numbers compared to their Chevy counterparts producing 19 and 24 city, and 23 and 29 highway respectively.  The base prices for the Fords are very similar, varying by only $500. The Chevy is priced only $1000 higher than the Ford.
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