Product Analysis -(Group 10)
- The component is what is moved by the explosion in the piston chamber. This is also what moves the piston linkage in order to turn the crankshaft.
- Its only function is to move the piston linkage in order to turn the crankshaft.
- Combustion energy from the explosion that causes expansion moves the piston downward and in turn moves the linkage down which, once connected to the crankshaft is turned into rotational energy.
- The piston functions in a lubricated chamber enclosure, called the piston chamber. On one side of the piston there is oil and on the other is the explosive side.
- The piston is a symmetrical 3 dimensional cylindrically shaped object with one side being slightly hollowed out.
- The height is 1.75 inches
- The diameter is 2.75 inches
- Since it is a cylinder, the diameter suffices for both length and width
- The component is shaped so there is a tight seal to the sides of the chamber so that gas doesn’t escape.
- The piston weighs 1.25 pounds.
- The piston is made from stainless steel.
- Stainless steel is stronger than aluminum but lighter than iron but manufacturing decisions didn’t effect this decision.
- The material choice needs to be lightweight but strong to withstand the explosive force.
- Environmental and economic factors effected this decision. Being stainless steel allows the piston to not rust and also have the strength that comes with steel as opposed to aluminum so there is less a chance of breaking and is better on the environment due to the lack of waste. Being that stainless costs about the same as aluminum but is stronger, it is a better deal cost wise to use it rather than aluminum.
- The piston has zero aesthetic qualities and therefore has a bare finish, no paint, stain or coloration needed since it’s a purely physical component.
- The piston is press-punch forged, lathed, precision ground and milled.
- The precision grinding is evident due to the precision finish in the holes where the pin fits into.
- Milling is evident due to the fact that there are holes, and for the slots that the rings fit into.
- Lathe work is evident from the lines on the top of the piston that come from the facing operation performed by a lathe.
- Forging is evident due to the lack of parting lines, and the internal shape that would be very difficult to mill. There are also stamped numbers in the bottom.
- It would be more cost effective to forge stainless steel rather than completely mill or investment cast it.
- Being a cylindrical shape it effected the choice to perform multiple lathe operations. The need for a snug fit to the pin required precision grinding and milling was needed for minor holes and slotting.
- The need for a strong yet light, product with minimal waste and the ability to withstand rust or decomposition, effected material choice, manufacturing process and finish of the final product.
- This is a fairly simple component and would get a rating of #2 for its complexity.
- The categories above serve as a representation of all of the components of the piston, in detail and therefore is what determines its complexity.
- The interactions are very simple and would get a rating of #1
- The only function of the component is that it transfers the explosive energy from the piston chamber to the crankshaft, where it becomes rotational energy. The explosion in the piston chamber cause expansion, which moves the piston downward, which moves the “piston linkage” down and as each of them follows suit, the crankshaft is turned. Combustion energy transferred to rotational energy.
- The linkage operates in a full lubricated environment where is surrounded by oil and does not interact with its eternal casing.
- The shape of the component is asymmetrical and most comparable to a “baby’s rattle”, in that there are 2 circular ends, with one being larger the other and a bar connecting them.
- The linkage is obviously a 3 dimensional object in that it has a length width and height and a 1 dimensional object would only exist as a point in space and time so it would be asinine to consider anything on this snow-blower to be so.
- The length is 5.75 inches.
- The width is 2.10 inches.
- The height is 0.90 inches.
- The larger end of the component is larger to accommodate the larger diameter of the crankshaft as opposed to that of the pin in the piston.
- The component is made from aluminum and weighs about 6oz
- In manufacturing this, it would be cheaper do die-cast aluminum then to machine the aluminum or to investment-cast steel.
- This design was influenced by societal, environmental and economic factors.
By being made from aluminum there is no loss of material due to oxidation and so it will not deteriorate and is 100% recyclable. By being die-casted, it is cheaper than having it be made with a machining process. Having the linkage made of aluminum allows it to be lighter than if it were made from steel and so increases performance of the engine which appeals to the always increasing expectations of today’s society.
- This component has zero aesthetic purposes and is solely for physical purposes.
- The linkage has a dull gray/silver color to it and is because it is unfinished due to the lack of necessity.
- The linkage was made with 3 manufacturing processes: die-cast, machining and precision grinding.
- It is evident that this was cast due to the presence of parting lines, machined due to the separation and the teeth, and precision ground from the inside of the holes.
- Material choice affected this decision because die-casting aluminum is cheaper than machining steel.
- It is not a complicated shape so it would be an obvious choice to be cast. And the requirement of teeth makes it necessary to machine it but this can be done after casting. Precision grinding is a result of the need for a very close but not too tight fit.
- The manufacturing of this part was influenced by both economic and environmental.
- It is cheaper to die-cast the aluminum rather than machine it completely machine it. Machining would result in waste that would require remelting/pouring and would result in unneeded energy usage.
- More waste results in recycling of the scrap which requires energy consumption and emissions that harm the environment.
- The component is extremely simple, and most of its completion comes from die-casting.
- The difficulty rating would be a #1.
- The above categories worked as the basis for the determination of the amount of geometries, processes and difficulty it would take to recreate the linkage and so made up its complexity.
- Much like the linkage itself, the interactions are very simple. The explosion in the piston chamber moves the piston which moves the linkage which turns the crankshaft.
- The scale for difficulty could be determined by the amount of different types of interactions, the amount of moving parts and complexity of each movement.
Horizontal Disk (Part Number 135)
- The Horizontal Disk gets power directly from the engine via the belt and pulley system.
- The Linear Movement Pulley (Part 107) is mounted to the drive shaft which is connected directly to the Horizontal Disk. This provides the rotational kinetic energy to engage the Vertical Drive Disk (Part 137) into motion.
- The shape of the Horizontal Disk is a flat disk shape with a hole in the center. The drive shaft is mounted in this space and run through the mounting bracket. The general shape of the mounting bracket is a cylinder with a large flat base and supporting arms. All of these parts are largely axis-symmetrical with the disk being more so one dimensional, the shaft is two dimensional, and the mounting bracket is three dimensional.
- The disk is 6 inches in diameter and ¼ inch thick, the shaft is ¾ in diameter and 6½ inches long, and the mounting bracket is 5 inches in height, 7¼ inches at its widest and 4¾ inches long. The shapes are completely appropriate for the functions they perform. The disk only needs to spin and have another wheel running on it at a 90 degree. The bracket houses the drive shaft so the cylindrical shape is the perfect form for that; the drive shaft is just a simple shaft the needs to spin in a confined space so this is also the idea shape.
- The weights of the components are estimated to be 1lb for the Disk, 1lb for the drive shaft, and 10lbs for the mounting bracket.
- Both the Disk and the drive shaft are made of aluminum while the mounting bracket is made of caste iron.
- The GSEE factors played a role in the decision on the materials. Global reasons would be that both iron and aluminum are readily available materials so manufacturing can take place all around the world. Societal factors come into play when considering the conditions that the product is used in. The parts need to be strong, reliable, and not susceptible to becoming brittle in the cold. Economic factors are focused more on the mounting bracket witch is the heaviest part by far and is made from the cheapest material. This keeps the price down for manufacturing and in turn for the customer.
- There are no real aesthetic purposes for the parts since they will generally not be seen by the user. The only painted part is the mounting bracket which is coated grey to help prevent rust.
- The surface finish of the disk is rough on the back and smooth on the face that contacts the Vertical Drive Disk.
- The mounting bracket is entirely rough and the drive shaft is entirely smooth. The reasoning the shaft is smooth and the face of the disk is smooth is to reduce friction and power loss. The other parts being left rough are more of an economic reason.
- The most likely method for manufacturing the Disk and Shaft are Die Casting since die casting is generally used for non-ferrous metals and with a somewhat rough texture on the back of the Disk. The Disk on the smooth side was most likely machined with a vertical mill to get the smooth finish.
- The shaft was possible subject to the subtractive process of turning to provide the smooth finish. For the mounting bracket the most logical method is sand casting because of the rough texture and the cheap cost. The shapes are all relatively simple so these methods are not necessarily needed but they are quickest and most cost effective.
- A global factor that influences manufacturing methods for these components is the age of this technology. Sand casting and die casting are some of the oldest methods used for this type of manufacturing.
- A societal factor that influences manufacturing is that these pieces can be mass produced cheaply so if a piece is broken then it can be replaced very quickly.
- An economic factor that has an impact on these manufacturing choices is the cost of production. These methods are cheaper than milling or investment casting.
- Environmental factors that pertain to these methods are that there is less waste produced. With Die casting there is a permanent mold which gets reused also with all three methods there is less need for total material used for each part.
- This is a moderately simple component overall with rankings as follows:
- Part Complexity: 2 for having more than one surface finish Interaction Complexity: 1 only has on simple function
- Part Complexity: 2 for having a moderately complex geometric shape Interaction Complexity: 1 only has on simple function
- Part Complexity: 1 simple shape and one finish Interaction Complexity: 1 has one simple function
Vertical Drive Disk (Part Number 137)
- The main function of the Vertical Drive Disk is to transfer the rotational kinetic energy from the Horizontal Disk to transfer it to the Gear and Chain (Parts 138) which then transfers the energy directly to the wheels and drives the snow blower.
- The Vertical Disk can also slide left and right over the Horizontal Disk in order to change the RPM’s or speed at which the snow blower moves. It can also slide to the other side of the Horizontal Disk and have the same function but moving the snow blower in reverse. Since the operating environment is outdoors in the snow the part must be rugged and reliable.
- The component is a disk in shape so it also is axis-symmetric through its center. This Disk largely one dimensional since it is comprised of two flat disks mounted together by 5 bolts.
- The outside larger disk is 6 inches in diameter and ¾ inch thick but is hollowed out like a shell.
- The smaller inner disk is 4½ inches in diameter and 3/8 inch thick.
- The Shape being a circular disk is absolutely necessary to perform the required function; since is rotates along the Horizontal disk no other shape would perform without error.
- The rough weight of the disk is 1.5lbs and the material it is composed of is caste iron and rubber.
- The most logical reasoning for this material being chosen is that it needs to be strong and durable enough to withstand the cold and elements and be exposed to high g forces. Global factors which contributed to the materials being chosen are the abundance of iron throughout the world allows for manufacture in more areas. The Surface finish of the disk is rough and coated in grey paint. This is pure function and not aesthetic as no general user will see this component. The rubber around the edge is smooth most likely to create the most friction between the Horizontal and the Vertical Disk.
- The method used to create the Vertical Disk was Sand Casting. This is the most likely method because of the rough surface finish that sand casting will result in. The rubber may have been heated up in order to expand it to fit around the disk and then an adhesive would be applied so as it cooled it would shrink fit and become permanently stuck to the disk.
- The shape of the disk is very simple and could easily have been done through milling but the GSEE factors influenced the method used. Sand casting is one of the oldest methods for molding metals into the required shape, meaning that this technology would be able to be widely used throughout the world.
- Societal factors that influenced this method are that parts can be mass produced very quickly and cheaply so if parts need to be replaced it can be a very quick and cheap process for the consumer.
- Economic factors are probably the largest reason for this method being chosen. It is probably the cheapest method available because it uses the least material and the mold can be reused numerous times since it is made of sand.
- Environmental factors that play a part in this method being selected are that there is much less material needed and virtually no wasted material.
- This is a relatively simple component responsible for a lot of function represented as follows:
Vertical Drive Disk:
- Part Complexity: 1 very simple shape and one surface finish Interaction Complexity: 2 responsible for speed adjustments in the machine and the direction in which the machine is moving
- The main function of an engine block is to secure and contain all the parts, components and processes that make up the engine by providing a one piece housing unit for all these processes to occur in a compact and space efficient manner
- Helps perform multiple functions which include combustion, piston movement and crankshaft rotation by securing the parts and components that carry out this function in a protected and contained space.
- Flows that are involved with the engine’s function and therefore are associated with the engine block include fuel input, air input, mechanical energy production from the pistons and crankshaft, and excretion of exhaust. The engine block itself experiences transfer of thermal energy due to the combustion that takes place within it.
- The engine block is functioning in a concealed portion of the snow blower and although the snow blower is usually exposed to cold weather conditions, the area surrounding the engine block is considerably hot due to the combustion taking place.
Length: 9 in. 8Width: 6 in. 8Height: 10 in. 8Weight: 8 lb.
- The general shape of the engine block can be described as rectangular.
- Notable properties in the shape of the block include a large cylindrical hole (piston chamber) along with multiple other compartments for various mass/energy flow and threaded holes for bolts.
- Primarily three dimensional.
- The shape of the engine block is the way it is in order to secure and contain all the parts that make up the engine in the most space efficient way possible. Therefore the shape of the engine block is mainly determined by the shape of the components that make up the engine. For example, the piston chamber is shaped accordingly to accommodate the shape and movement distance of the piston while the crankcase is shaped to accommodate the crankshaft.
- Majority of the engine block is made of cast iron. From a manufacturing perspective, cast iron was probably chosen due to the complexity of the shape of the engine block. With the many chambers, holes and other various intricacies, some sort of casting process is an easy method to obtain those specific features of the engine block’s shape. The material fluidity of cast iron is an important quality of the material in order for it to acquire proper shape during casting.
- The material required for the function of the engine block must be durable and able to withstand the large amounts of heat resulting from the combustion process within.
- Economic factors play a main role in the decision of the material used for the block. Cast iron is much more affordable than steel or aluminum. Although steel is a better quality material and aluminum a lighter material, the benefits and extra cost of these materials weren’t deemed necessary to accomplish the function of an engine block.
- There aren’t really any aesthetic qualities of the engine block mainly because the engine block isn’t seen for the most part by the consumer. The color was kept the natural color of the cast iron and there is a relatively rough surface finish for most of the engine block. This rough surface finish is neither an aesthetic or functional necessity. There is a much smoother surface finish in the piston chamber because piston movement requires smooth surroundings to minimize energy loss due to friction.
- This engine block was primarily made through investment casting. Certain features also suggest additional subtractive processes used to obtain some of the finer details in its shape such as drilling holes with threads for bolts.
- The fact that the engine block has riser marks, but doesn’t have parting lines suggests that investment casting was used as opposed to die casting.
- Since cast iron has good material fluidity made casting a favorable method of manufacturing.
- The high complexity of the shape of the engine block required that casting be used to receive a detailed and precise shape. Further precision was necessary and therefore subtractive processes were necessary to create the thread holes for the bolts.
- Both global and societal factors influenced the manufacturing decision. At the time when this engine block was created, advanced CNC machines capable of creating an engine block such as this didn’t exist so casting was pretty much the only option. Regardless, from an economic stand point, casting is a much more affordable method than CNC machining.
- Part Complexity: 3
- The engine block claims a 3 from the part complexity scale due to the complexity of its shape consisting of multiple cut outs, threaded holes and general intricacies. The surface finish of the engine block is not uniform as there is a much higher level surface finish in the piston chamber compared to the rest of the engine block. There were also multiple manufacturing processes involved in the making of the engine block, adding to the complexity of this part.
- Interaction Complexity: 3
- The engine block is associated with the many different functions that take place within an engine along with the numerous energy flows involved with those functions. Although the engine block itself remains stationary, there are numerous transfers, signals and energy transfers constantly occurring within the containment of the engine block. Therefore, 3 is an appropriate representation of the complexity of the interactions involved with this component.
- The auger blades are responsible for actually picking up the snow and directing it through and out the chute.
- This component doesn’t serve any other function than to pick up snow.
- The auger blades experience two type of flows. There is mass flow coming in from the intake of snow and rotational energy flow being transferred to the blades to provide it with the energy necessary to pick up the snow.
- This component comes into direct contact with the snow and is therefore operating in a cold and wet environment.
Length: 15.5 in. Width: 10 in. Height: 15.5 in. Weight: 6 lb.
- The shape of the blades can be described as a helical shape with a shaft running through the middle of it.
- Component is 3-Dimensional
- The blades are shaped in this particular way specifically to allow it to pick up snow in a more effective manner.
- The blades are made entirely out of steel.
- Steel was used because a durable/strong material was needed to carry out the function of the blades. The blades will be used to push into the snow, break it up and take it in and there will be large amounts of forces taking place in that process. A softer material wouldn’t be able to handle those tasks as effectively.
- Manufacturing decisions didn’t impact this material choice as much as functional necessity did.
- Global factors impacted this material choice. This snow blower is considerably powerful and intended for places that receive large amounts of snow regularly. Therefore the blades must be appropriate for its intended use.
- A combination of rolling, extrusion and welding were used to make the blades. Rolling was used to manipulate the steel itself into the proper helical shape desired. Extrusion was used to make the hollow steel shaft that the blade is attached to and welding was used to attach the blades to the shaft.
- Evidence supports that rolling was used because there weren’t any riser marks, parting lines or undercuts visible which would’ve been signs that some sort of casting method was used. Evidence supporting that extrusion was used to create the shape of the hollow shaft was once again the fact that no signs of casting were present and extrusion is normally a common method of manufacturing for a simple shape such as a hollow steel tube. Welding marks indicate that welding was used to attach the blade to the shaft.
- Material choice played a role in the manufacturing process because steel is a common material that is shaped through rolling. Under high temperatures (and even cold temperatures) with enough force, steel can be bent and rolled into a desired shape.
- The helical shape of the blades made rolling a good manufacturing choice since the shape is well within the capabilities of the rolling process.
- Economic factors played a role in the determining of the manufacturing process. The shape of this blade could’ve been made through investment casting, but would’ve been a lot more expensive due to the cost of the molds that would’ve been needed. Rolling, extrusion and welding are much more cost effective alternatives that provide a component of the same quality.
- Part Complexity: 2
The helical shape of the blade along with the hollow cylindrical shaft adds to the overall complexity of this component. Not quite as geometrically simple as something like a wheel, but there aren’t many detailed shapes and intricacies involved in the overall shape of this part, thus making a rating of 2 appropriate.
- Interaction Complexity: 1
This component is only really responsible for one simple function which is to pick up snow. There is energy transfer and mass intake (snow) involved, but these are very simple flow transfers involved with the component. Therefore, the simplicity of the auger blades’ function gives it a rating of 1.