LCD TV Westinghouse

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General Description

A LCD TV is a flat panel TV that incorporates the liquid crystal technology. LCD displays have a slim design and a flat viewing screen. The LCD TV has been, specifically, designed to view video images. Because advances in technology have been so rapid the display size of LCD TVs have increased substantially. They come in display sizes from 13 to over 100. LCD TVs are much, much lighter than a comparable Plasma TV and are much more durable as well. However they are also much more expensive than a comparable plasma model.

Specifications & Features

Westinghouse LCD TV

Manufacturer: Westinghouse

Model #: LVM-42W2

Television Type: SLT42A

Color: Silver

Size: 42 inches - widescreen

Display Format: 1080p


Resolution: 1920 x 1080

LCD Refresh Rate: 60Hz

LCD Pixel Response Time: 8 ms

Image Aspect Ratio: 16:9

Image Contrast Ratio: 1000:1

Color Depth: 24-bit (16.7 million colors)

Viewing Angle: 176 degrees

Viewing Angle (Vertical): 176 degrees

Backlight Life: 60,000 hour(s)

Comb Filter: 3D digital

TV Tuner

  • Tuner Qty No tuner
  • Multi-channel Preview Picture-in-picture (PIP)

Video Features

  • Video Interface S-Video , Component , Composite
  • HDTV Ready
  • Input Video Formats 480i , 480p , 720p , 1080i , 1080p
  • Freeze Memo

Audio System

  • Speaker(s) 2 x Right/left channel speaker - 10 Watt , 1 x Subwoofer - 10 Watt
  • Sound Output Mode: Stereo
  • Output Power / Total: 30 Watt


How it works

LCD TVs mostly consist of the flat panel display. The panels are constructed of two layers of polarized, glass like material that is glued together. One of the panel layers is coated with a special polymer material that holds the thousands of individual liquid crystals. Electricity is passed through the individual crystals, which interpret the information from the broadcast signal and allow the crystals to pass or block light, thereby creating images.

Since LCD crystals do not produce their own light they require an external light source that is housed behind the transparent, liquid crystal, panel. This light source causes the liquid crystal to become visible to the viewer. Because LCD technology does not require extra electrodes to stimulate phosphores, as in plasma TVs, the panels are thinner and require less power to operate than plasma TVs. Also, LCD technology is non-emissive - meaning it does not give off radiation.

If one takes all these features, described above, and ad AV input/output connectivity, speakers, a TV tuner, and standard television controls, it is easy to see why the LCD is becoming a very popular choice for home theatre and TV viewing.

Bill of Materials

Bill of Materials : Westinghouse LCD TV
Part # Part Name Qty Material Manufacturing Process Assembly Scheme Primary Function Image
1 Base 1 Aluminum Die Cutting and Bending Supports the TV
TVBase.jpg
2 Base Screws 4 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Holds the base supports in place
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3 Washer 3/8" D 4 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Distributes the force applied through screws
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4 Washer 1/2" D 4 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Distributes the force applied through screws
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5 Round Case Screws 10 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures parts to other parts
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6 Flat Case Screws short 6 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures parts to other parts
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7 Flat Case Screws long 6 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures parts to other parts
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8 Flat Head Shinny Screws 30 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures parts to other parts
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9 Round Screws 1/8"D 1/4" L 24 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures parts to other parts
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10 Round Screw 1/8" D 3/8" long 2 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Circuit Board Holding
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11 Washers 4 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Distributes the force applied through screws
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12 Extended Nut 1/2" 8 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Enables a screw to apply tension to a surface further away than the length of the screw
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13 Extended Nut 1/4" 8 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Enables a screw to apply tension to a surface further away than the length of the screw
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14 Round Screw 1/8" D 1/2" L 26 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures parts to other parts
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15 Grounding Screw 1/8" D 3/8" L 1 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures a ground wire to a circuit board
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16 Side Speakers 2 Plastic, Metal Injection Molding Screws Produces sound
Right and Left Speakers.jpg
17 Base Speakers 1 Plastic, Metal Injection Molding Access Holes and screws Produces sound
Base Speaker Unit.jpg
18 Speaker Bracket 2 Steel Die Cutting Screws Secures the speakers to the frame
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19 Side Circuit Board Protector 2 Steel Die Cutting Screws Protection
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20 Top Circuit Board Protector 1 Steel Die Cutting Screws Protection
Top circuit Board Protector.jpg
21 Center Circuit Board Protector 1 Steel Die Cutting Screws Protection
Center Circuit Board Protector.jpg
22 Round Screw 1/4" D 1/2" L 4 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Secures parts to other parts
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23 Lock Washers 2 Steel Heading and Cutting Threaded holes Prevents screws from loosening freely
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24 Base Speaker Holder 1 Steel Die Cutting Screws Secures the base speaker to the frame
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25 Upright holding bracket 2 Steel Die Cutting Screws Secures the Circuit Board Protector to the Screen Support
Upright Holding Bracket.jpg
26 Electrical Cord Outlet 1 Plastic Injection Molding Screws Acts as a connection point for the power cord
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27 Electrical Cord Outlet Holder 1 Steel Die Cutting Screws Secures the electrical cord outlet to the upright holder
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28 Heat Sinks 2 Aluminum Die Cutting Screws Distributes the heat produced by transformers on the power regulation circuit
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29 Circuit Board Holder 1 Steel Die Cutting Screws Acts as a support for the power regulation circuit and the Video Audio Input Output Board
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30 Front Housing 1 Plastic Injection Molding Screws Creates a nice smooth surface at the exterior rim of the TV
Front Housing.jpg
31 Secondary Front Housing 1 Plastic Injection Molding Screws Creates a nice smooth surface at the exterior rim of the TV
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32 Screen Holding Bracket 3 Steel Die Cutting and Bending Screws Secures the polarizer and screen system
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33 Screen Holder 36" 2 Plastic Injection Molding Snap Latches Creates an enclosure for the screen system
Screen Holder.jpg
34 Screen Holder 24" 2 Plastic Injection Molding Snap Latches Creates an enclosure for the screen system
Screen Holder.jpg
35 Reflection Screen 1 Plastic Film Extrusion Glue Acts as a reflective surface so all the light produces exits through the front of the screen
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36 Polarizer 1 Plastic Extrusion Guide Rails Polarizes the exiting light waves
Polarizer.jpg
37 Support Post Holders 2 Plastic Injection Molding Guide Rails Holds the base supports in place
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38 Fluorescent Light Bulb 8 Fluorescent Injection molding, Capping Snap Latches Creates the lighting for the tv
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39 Diffuser Screen 1 Plastic Extrusion Guide Rails
Diffusser Screen.jpg
40 Button Interface 1 Plastic, Circuit Board Injection Molding Screws Allows the operator to change channel, volume and enter menu functions available in the TV programming
Button Interface.jpg
41 Light Boards 2 Circuit Board Soldering Screws Creates flashing or steady lights for visual referrences
Light Boards A and B.jpg
42 Audio Video Input Output Circuit Board 1 Circuit Board Soldering Screws Controls the electric power usage of the tv during operation
Audio Video Input Output Circuit Board.jpg
43 Power Regulation Circuit 1 Circuit Board Soldering Screws Controls the electric power usage of the tv during operation
Power Regulation Circuit.jpg
44 Visual Control Board 2 Circuit Board Soldering Screws Sends signals to the pixel boards
Visual Control Board.jpg
45 Visual Buffer Control Board 1 Circuit Board Soldering Screws Buffers all signals to the pixel boards
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46 Pixel Routing Board 4 Circuit Board Soldering Screws controls the pixels in the screen
Pixel Routing Board.jpg
47 Screen Support 1 Steel Die Cutting and Bending Screws Supports the screen system and connecting parts
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48 Back Housing 1 Plastic Injection Molding Screws Creates an exterior housing to protect the interior parts
Back Housing.jpg
49 Buffer Circuit Board Protector 1 Steel Die Cutting and Bending Screws Protects the Buffer Circuit Board
Buffer Ciruit Board Protector.jpg

Disassembly Procedure

Dissection Procedure

1. Remove all four base screws

2. Slide the base out of the holding slots

3. Place the tv front down on a large table

4. Remove all the round 1/8” diameter 3/8” long screws from the back housing

5. Remove the back housing

6. Remove the four round 1/8” diameter 3/8” long screws from the speaker holders.

7. Disconnect the speaker wire connectors

8. Remove the speaker holders

9. Remove the two screws holding the speakers in place against the speaker brackets

10. Remove the round 1/8” diameter ¼” long screw holding light board A.

11. Bend the latch clips holding light board A and remove it

12. Bend the latch clips holding light board B and remove it

13. Disconnect the wire connectors connecting light boards A, B and the extension wire.

14. Remove the round 1/8” diameter 3/8” long screws holding the top, center and the two side circuit board protectors.

15. Remove the top, center and the two side circuit board protectors.

16. Disconnect all the wire connectors on the Audio Video Input Output circuit board and the power regulation circuit.

17. Remove all the flat head 1/8” diameter ¼” long screws from the circuit board holder.

18. Lift the circuit board holder with the two connecting circuit boards upwards and then disconnect the large bundle of connection wires. Then remove the circuit board holder.

19. Remove the round 1/8” diameter 1/2” long screws that hold the Audio Video Input Output and power regulation circuit to the circuit board holder.

20. Remove the Audio Video Input Output circuit board and the power regulation circuit.

21. Place two rectangular boxes on the table and flip the tv onto its back onto these boxes. Make sure the boxes are positioned between the two visual control boards and under the screen support

22. Remove the flat head 1/8” diameter ¼” long screws holding the front housing

23. Remove the front housing

24. Remove the flat head 1/8” diameter ¼” long screws holding the secondary front housing

25. Remove the secondary front housing

26. Remove all the round 1/8” diameter 1/2” long screws holding the screen holding bracket to the screen support

27. Remove the screen holding bracket

28. Remove the three flat head 1/8” diameter ¼” long screws holding the visual control boards and visual buffer board

29. Remove the polarizer and be careful of the visual control boards and visual buffer board as they are still attached but can swing freely.

30. Lift all the latch clips of the screen holder pieces. Be careful not to lift the latches too far possibly breaking the latches. Once the latches are lifted pull the screen holders away from the screen support

31. Remove the diffuser screen

32. Bend the latch clips holding the fluorescent lights and then lift and remove the fluorescent lights.

Dissection Assembly

Activity 1 - Screw Analysis 1.) After disassembling the television, analyze the different screws using the following table)

Graph.jpg

Activity 2 - Heat Management

Q1) Before disassembly, identify methods of heat management that are externally visible. Describe how these methods work.

A1) Vents are designed in the back housing to allow heat to easily escape and cool air to flow into the housing.

Q2) After removing the back housing, examine the circuit board protectors. How do these aid in moderating temperature?

A2) Designed with holes for ventilation and leave a fair amount of space between the board and the top of the protector to allow air to flow freely.

Q3) Remove the circuit board protectors and identify and sketch the heatsinks. Describe how they maintain a safe operating temperature and the material they are made from.

A3) Heatsinks maintain a safe operating temperature by absorbing heat produced by the circuit board. The heatsinks have a large surface area for the heat to dissipate quickly, cooling both the heatsink and the components it’s attached to.

Q4) Why are the heatsinks only found on the top circuit board and not the other boards?

A4) The top circuit board is actually the power regulation board. Power regulation boards maintain a constant power that is supplied to different parts of the system they are used in. This produces significantly more heat than any other circuit board in the television.

Q5) Why is temperature regulation so important?

A5) In an electrical system such as this television, different components have different temperature ratings. Generally, components with wider ranges of operating temperatures are more costly meaning it is more cost effective to purchase components with smaller ranges of operating temperatures. Without proper heat management, the internal temperature of the television will exceed the operating temperatures of the components and the television will cease to operate properly.


Activity 3- Comparison of Past and Present Television Types

Compare the Westinghouse LCD television to Plasma, LED, and CRT television models.

1)What do each of the above television model names stand for?

LCD: Liquid Crystal Display LED: Light Emitting Diode CRT: Cathode Ray Tube Plasma

2)How do each of the above television models (4) work? Use online resources to compare your dissected LCD television with the three other televisions mentioned above. Is there a significant advantage to any of these three televisions? Specifically, why have CRT televisions been phased out on the current market?

LCD: LCD televisions use two major components to display the picture: Cold Cathode Florescent Lamps (CCFL’s) and molecules of liquid crystal. It is sometimes referred to as a “transmissive” display because the light is not created by the liquid crystals, but rather the CCFL’s that are found behind the crystals. A diffusion panel located behind the LCD then redirects and scatters the light evenly. The display is made up of two panels that are polarized and a liquid crystal solution found in between. The crystals themselves are rod-shaped and twist when an electric current is passed through them. The crystals act as shutters, and will either allow light through or block the light. A diagram of an LCD television can be seen below.

LCD.jpg

By taking apart the Westinghouse LCD television, you should find many subsystems including the mounting base and bracket, side speakers, base speaker and bracket, side circuit boards and protectors, top circuit boards and protectors, heat sinks, front housing, bezel, screen holder, reflection screen, polarizer, back housing, circuit board holders, audio/visual jacks, and manual button controls.


Plasma: The panel of a Plasma television is self-lighting, and consists of two transparent, glass panels that have a layer of pixels in between. Each individual pixel contains sub-pixels that are filled with three gases (for red, green, and blue). Electrodes then apply an electric current to the pixels that cause the gases to ionize and emit high frequency UV rays. These rays stimulate the phosphors which causes them to glow. The use of phosphor coating means that there is a possibility for picture burn in. This is the same phosphor coating technology that is found in CRT televisions. A diagram of a Plasma television can be seen below.

Plasma.jpg


LED: An LED television uses the same process as an LCD television to display pictures; however the light source is not CCFL’s, but rather LED’s, or light emitting diodes. The two types of lighting methods include LED edge lighting, and LED backlight.


CRT: A CRT television fires a stream of electrons at excite phosphors. This process is similar to Plasma televisions; however the process of stimulating the phosphors is different. The cathode ray tube is made up of one cathode and two anodes. When the cathode is heated by an element, it releases electrons. In order to produce color images, the gun fires three distinct beams, with the phosphors that are on the television screen being arranged into groups of three. Together, these three make up a single pixel. Through modifying the strength of each electron beam that is fired, the qualities of the sub pixels can be modified. This is used to create millions of colors. A diagram of a CRT television can be seen below.

CRT.jpg


Advantages: The major advantage, in terms of the mechanism used, of LCD televisions as opposed to Plasma televisions is that LCD televisions use red, green, and blue filters in place of phosphor dots. In turn, this means that LCD televisions are completely immune to burn in. The advantage to LED televisions is that the use of LED lights allows the television to use less energy than LCD and Plasma televisions. The major disadvantage to CRT televisions is the size. This is the primary reason that they were initially phased out for Plasma televisions. One of the big advantages to CRT televisions, however, is their superb “black” level capabilities.

Sources: http://www.crutchfield.com/S-8LxLNd1X4HZ/learn/learningcenter/home/tv_flatpanel.html http://technicallyeasy.net/2011/04/differences-between-lcd-plasma-and-led-televisions/ http://www.squidoo.com/how-a-crt-tv-works http://gadgetwise.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/06/11/whats-an-led-tv/


Activity 4- Bezel Manufacturing Analysis


Find the bezel, found around the screen when the plastic front housing is removed.

Q1) What is the function of the bezel? What is the major goal of television manufacturers involving the bezel design?

A1) The bezel is the trim piece that supports the entire television when it is mounted on a wall. Therefore, the goal of television manufacturers is to make the support piece of the bezel as slim as possible as to minimize the amount of screen that is covered up.

Q2) Analyze the manufacturing of this particular Westinghouse bezel design. Do you feel there are any possible improvements in the design to cut manufacturing costs?

A2) This bezel design is broken into four pieces that are connected together to form a rectangular box that fits around the screen. Connected on the side are two trim pieces for screws and for support. Combining these trim pieces would create fewer pieces needed, which would potentially cut down on manufacturing costs. It may also be in the best interest to make the bezel made out of two pieces instead of four, which may strengthen the design. This would, however, most likely increase manufacturing costs on account of a shape that is not as easy to produce.

Supporting Materials

Economics

When people mention the economy and how it is horrible currently most people don’t think of televisions. The fact is television sales are a major factor in the leading entertainment companies in the US. Below is a very good article that explains the importance of televisions in today’s economy and how consumers and manufacturers are delicately dancing around the prices.


TV Sales Becoming Litmus Test for U.S. Economy

By MATT RICHTEL Published: November 28, 2008


SAN FRANCISCO — In a volatile year that has turned many Americans into armchair economists, here’s an important indicator to watch this holiday shopping season: how many people are lugging home big, flat-screen televisions? The answer matters to more than just TV makers. Just as high-definition sets have become the hearth of the digital home, they are increasingly central to the fortunes of the consumer electronics industry and plenty of retailers. And there’s reason for serious concern. While retailers are trying to use discounted TVs as a lure for shoppers, many would-be buyers continue to wait, and wait, for a magical price that is low enough to inspire a purchase. Others just have more pressing needs. “The question is whether I buy a TV or something more important,” said David Lunsford, 62, who visited a Circuit City near here last week to shop for big-screen TVs. He would love to replace his aging rear-projection set, but he worried he needed to save money in case family members hit tough times. “I’m a stable provider. They may turn to me,” said Mr. Lunsford, who works for the federal government. Americans are expected to spend $28 billion this year on TVs, making them the largest segment of the $173 billion electronics industry. So far about half of American households have made the jump to flat-panel screens, which started out as status symbols but are on their way to becoming standard household appliances. More people may choose to upgrade this year because of the national switchover to digital broadcast signals coming Feb. 17. The change, which will mostly affect people who watch over-the-air signals on older sets, has generated a good amount of consumer confusion — which could be good for sales of new sets. TVs are also a gateway to a host of other products, like Blu-ray discs and their players, surround-sound audio systems, digital video recorders and cables. All of these factors have led electronics stores like Circuit City and Best Buy, and even less specialized chains like Sears, Wal-Mart and Office Depot, to put TVs front and center in their advertising recently, promoting them on the cover of Sunday circulars and on the home pages of Web sites. They are offering discounts — like 42-inch TVs for less than $700 and 32-inch sets for $450 — that come on top of recent steep price declines for the sets. For the industry, the feeling is that if retailers cannot get TVs to move, the holiday season could be a bleak one indeed. In that sense, the TV market offers a glimpse of the broader tensions this year between wary consumers on the one hand and retailers and manufacturers desperate to spur sales on the other. “The television becomes a litmus test of the robustness of the American economy,” said Richard Doherty, an electronics industry analyst with the research firm Envisioneering. In Mr. Doherty’s consumer surveys, the early word is mixed; many consumers want a new TV, but they think that if they wait to buy, retailers will drop prices further. There were signs on Friday that more cuts might be necessary. At two malls outside Portland, Ore., the electronics stores were the only ones that were full of shoppers. But people seemed to be gravitating toward lower-priced items like video games instead of televisions. Mr. Doherty’s firm tracked stores in New York and California and found that for some retailers it was the slowest Black Friday of the decade. “There are lots of big-screen TVs still standing on the show floor,” he said. “This is not what was expected by retailers or manufacturers.” Store owners may cut TV prices even further with revamped sales starting on Sunday, Mr. Doherty said. Steven Caldero, chief operating officer of Ken Cranes, a 10-store consumer electronics chain in the Los Angeles area, painted a rosier picture. “Our traffic has been very good,” Mr. Caldero said. “Our sales have been good. I think people went out and decided to buy something to make themselves feel better.” In just the first two hours of operation on Friday, Ken Cranes matched about one-third of the business it did for all of Black Friday last year. But while consumers bought plenty of TVs, they shied away from purchasing complementary products like audio systems, Mr. Caldero said “I am not seeing as much of that as I would like to see,” he said. Consumers eyeing televisions have historically been rewarded for their patience: flat-panel prices have fallen nearly in half in the last two years.

A year ago, for example, Sony sold a 40-inch model for $1,600 that now costs $1,000, and a 32-inch model for $1,100 that now goes for $749. And Sony is one of the costlier brands. Several manufacturers are selling 32-inch TVs for $450 to $500. Mammoth TVs, those more than 50 inches, have come down too; Best Buy is offering a 52-inch Sharp for $1,299. Beyond price drops, manufacturers and retailers are trying to spur demand with other incentives. At Circuit City, for instance, televisions get a 60-day price guarantee, whereas other products have a 30-day guarantee. Reflecting the special place held by TVs, Circuit City offers 36 months of interest-free payments on some larger sets, compared with 24 months for other products. Many major retailers are sweetening the pot by bundling TVs with high-definition DVD players, or offering discount bundles on cables. They announced Black Friday deals weeks in advance, and some — like Best Buy — began sales events in the days before Thanksgiving, with heavy promotions on TVs. And yet consumers remain cautious, and manufacturers are nervous. Mr. Caldero of Ken Cranes said he had been in constant contact with electronics manufacturers, including TV makers, that were trying to gauge demand. “I’ve had more calls from vendors in the last few weeks than I’ve had in the last three years,” he said. “They want to know what’s going on, how’s business, what’s working and what’s not.” Just to be safe, TV makers have been shipping fewer sets — but they may not have pulled back fast enough. In the third quarter of this year, shipments to North American retailers of LCD TVs rose 21 percent from a year ago, and those of plasma TVs rose 20 percent, according to DisplaySearch, a market research firm. That is down from growth rates in the last two years that at times hit triple digits. Paul Semenza, an analyst with DisplaySearch, said that the downturn in sales of TVs did not hit until mid-October, so despite the slowdown in shipments the retailers and manufacturers were still facing a glut of sets. “Oversupply has just cascaded,” Mr. Semenza said. As in other industries, that oversupply, and the uncertainty of consumer demand, has caused problems further back in the manufacturing and supply chain. In Taiwan and Korea where the LCD screens for the sets are made, prices are falling 5 to 9 percent a month, a “tremendous drop,” said Andrew Abrams, an analyst with Avian Securities, which tracks the electronics industry. Such drops, he said, suggest that retailers have far too much inventory, and he expects another round of price cuts. The question is, who will blink first, manufacturers and retailers, or consumers? Bruce Tripido, vice president for marketing at the TV maker Sharp, said adequate discounts were already in place. “We’re not looking to shift gears from the offers we’ve planned,” Mr. Tripido said. “The pricing is so compelling for this holiday selling season that it’s to the point of irresistible.” Yet resistance remains for many consumers, like Bayani Deluna Jr., 35, who stood last week at a San Francisco-area Best Buy looking longingly at a 32-inch Sony television. Mr. Deluna, who worked as a parking valet until a few weeks ago when he went on disability, is waiting for the $600 price to drop. “If it comes down to $450, I’d buy it,” he said. “And I’m sure the price is going to come down.”


The above article explains the issue of the present economic problem and televisions sales. Consumers are still in tight money time in their lives but many are still purchasing new flat screen or hd televisions using tax returns and good deals that appear once in a blue moon. Others admit that the draw of a new tv is appealing but just out of their reach for the present time unless the price tag drops drastically. It’s interesting that the average consumer keeps such good tabs on high priced luxury items like tvs in this economy even though they can’t afford them. However manufacturers are in a tight spot as well. They still need to make their required sales to at least break even and possibly have a god quarter. So to do this they are lowering their prices but they do so like a shrewd salesman trying to squeeze every last dime out of their customers. This entices consumers to the point of purchase of makes them follow the tv until the point they can finally feel ok purchasing it. Electronics stores are also doing their best to entice consumers and sweeten the deal with better add-ons or added benefits. This tactic works very well with the average consumer. It’s rather amazing how such a simple electronic device has held our country’s economy in a precarious spot. Between the empty wallet consumer eyeing the shiny new toy through the toy store window and the large manufacturers trying to beat the odds and out sell their opponents.


Cathode Ray Tube Market Decline in India

The following article describes how Cathode Ray Tube technology (CRT) will be phased out by LCD technology in India due to the lowering cost of LCD televisions. CRT television sets made up 78% of the market while the remaining 22% of the market consisted of plasma and LCD television sets. LCD televisions are becoming cheaper than CRT televisions as time goes on and will take over the Indian market in about 4 years.

http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2010-12-27/news/27620031_1_lcd-tv-crt-televisions-displaysearch


LCD Market Increase in the Future

After the markets downturn in 2009, the LCD television market was projected to turn around in 2010 with the conversion to digital cable signals in Western Europe. Also, LED back lighting and 3D technology will spur future growth in the coming years. Government stimulus plans in China and Japan were also expected to spur the growth of the LCD market in 2010.

http://www.dailytech.com/LCD+TV+Market+to+Return+to+Growth+in+2010/article17266.htm

- Submission by Andrew Solomon


LCD TV Take Over 3/22/12

When LCD TV debuted in 2004 they were more than twice as expensive than plasma TVs of the same size. This difference in price led to people assuming that LCDs were twice as good as plasmas. As the prices of LCD TVs dropped more and more people started to purchase LCDs. This lead companies like Vizio and Pioneer to start making cheaper plasma screens until eventually they had to drop out of the market. The decrease in companies making plasmas led to other companies like Panasonic to have a wide talent pool of plasma TV specialists to hire in order to make their plasmas cheaper. With the introduction of LCD TVs the market for plasmas has become much smaller with less companies producing and selling plasma TVs.

http://www.popsci.com/node/32903


Corning Exec Sees Slower LCD TV Growth In 2012 3/22/12


Heading into last year, LCD panel makers had expected a really profitable market for LCD TVs. This was not the case, so it has led people to hold less inventory, which reduced the demand on glass produced by Corning. This reduction in demand was something no one had expected, and has forced Corning to take 25% of its capacity offline. The LCD market continues to grow, but is only predicted to grow by about 8.5% in 2012.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericsavitz/2012/01/25/update-corning-exec-sees-slower-lcd-tv-growth-in-2012/

Environmental

LCD TV are one of the cheapest option for a large flat screen TV and also LCD TV's are considered to be energy efficient TV compared to plasma TV. But according to Samsung it seems that any LCD TV over 50 inches uses up same amount of energy as a plasma TV would. LCD TV aren't clean when it comes to it's manufacturing process, LCD TV produces about 100 kgs of carbon emissions and plasma TV produces about 400 kgs of carbon emission. Also LCD TV have higher lifetime when compared to a plasma TV, which makes LCD TV a better and efficient choice then plasma TV.

Although there are positive aspects about LCD TV, there are also negative aspects. LCD TV are also very bad for environment based on the CNET article LCD TV are damaging one of the greenhouse gas called nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been used in the making of LCD TV. It seems that nitrogen trifluoride is effecting global warming many times more then carbon dioxide. There seems to be a huge demand of LCD TV in US, which in turns effects the production and then the environment. Although there are some companies that are turning to man made chemicals to create LCD TV to reduce pollution. Also to minimize pollution it's recommended that broken LCD TV should be disposed off properly and if that is not done properly it could be a problem environmentally.

By: Shreyank Patel

Source: CNET News, Samsung TV Blog

When compared to other TVs, LCD televisions have been found to be brighter yet less energy consuming than Plasma TVs. This is because it takes a lot more energy to engage all the tiny cells contained in a Plasma TV screen than it does to power an LCD's liquid crystals. However, when pitted against LED TVs, LCDs are found to be less energy efficient simply because LEDs have improved on a few components of LCDs.

by: Derek King

Sources: [www.ecoustics.com/electronics/products/articles/94117.html], [1]


According to Carbon Footprint, it costs about $68.43 per year to have a LCD TV. It also contributes 220 kg of carbon dioxide per year to the environment.

To dispose of a TV, it is not as simple as taking out the trash. Ideally, if the TV still works, it would be beneficial to the community and the environment to donate the TV to someone who cannot afford it. Manufacturers will also sometimes offer rebates to return an old TV when buying a new one. [2]

According to Greener Choices, TVs are a serious solid-waste problem especially with an estimated 13.4 million TVs thrown away in the U.S. each year, according to the Consumer Electronics Association. TVs contain toxic materials. TV monitors with cathode ray tubes contain four to eight pounds of lead on average. Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors may also contain lead and older CRT models may contain cadmium. Plastics used in the housing of many television sets contain flame retardants that are toxic and persist in the environment. Studies suggest they accumulate in household dust and in the food chain, and they have been detected in some fish.

Not all TV sets returned for recycling end up at an appropriately managed facility. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, an environmental advocacy group, has found that the majority of equipment is diverted to uncontrolled landfills or to unsafe recycling operations in developing countries. As a result, the local environment in these areas can become contaminated, and local residents may be exposed to hazardous materials.

Global

Sony has declared aggressive measures in the coming year to boost its overall television sales by at least 67% to 25 million television sets, which also includes a 20% global market share of LCD TV sales. Sony has also revealed that 3-D TV sets which are about to be released during June in Japan, US and Europe areas are likely to account for 10% for their total sales.

Analysts feel that Sony would probably see rise in sales, but expect strong competition from South Korean makers, thus making it difficult for Sony to achieve its ambitious targets easily.

Source: Business Week


The global sales of LCD TV overtook CRT TV in the fourth quarter of 2007. According to market watcher DisplaySearch, the sales of CRT TV drops drastically from 77 percent of the market in early 2006 to 46 percent in 2007.Although the demise of CRT TV is inevitable as LCD TV is the obvious replacement for CRT TV due to the scale of TV sizes. In 2006, research has shown that it is more profitable from sales of LCD TV than CRT TV.

Source: REG Hardware


Japanese Earthquake to Impact Component Supply and Pricing

There are few reports of actual damage at electronic production facilities, impacts on the transportation and power infrastructure will result in disruptions of supply, resulting in the short supply and rising prices. Components impacted will include NAND flash memory, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), microcontrollers, standard logic, liquid-crystal display (LCD) panels, and LCD parts and materials.

Japan also is the world’s largest supplier of silicon used to make semiconductor chips—at about 60 percent of the global total. If this supply is disrupted due to the logistical and infrastructure challenges Japan is facing this will have an impact not only on NAND flash memory, DRAM, microcontrollers, standard logic, LCD panels and LCD parts, it will also affect other families of products such as discretes, i.e. MOSFETs, bipolar transistors and small signal transistors.

Production from Panasonic’s 6th generation LCD fab in Japan that produces LCD TV panels for use in Panasonic televisions and in Chinese brands may have been impacted temporarily because the facility is near the earthquake’s peripheral zone.If production continues to be interrupted, it may impact availability and result in price increases.

These situations must be taken into consideration as this could involve in company's failure and fall of the economy.

-Tejas Joshi, ME 240

Source: [3]


LCD Outsourcing Production on the Rise

One of every three liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs is expected to be produced through an outsourcing partner in 2012, reports Displaybank in "LCD TV Outsourcing Production Industry Analysis and Forecast." LCD TV outsourced production accounted for 29% of the global LCD TV market with 59.5 million units in 2011. This will grow to 32.5% in 2012. Displaybank predicts that the outsourcing production ratio of LCD TV will be expanded to 47% in 2015.

Outsourcing production has advantages in fixed costs, minimal investment, R&D cost savings, risk reduction of component/material supply and demand, efficiency in inventory management, and other areas. Many TV makers are expected to expand their outsourcing production ratio of LCD TVs. Sony significantly decreased its fixed costs by diminishing its number of TV production plants from 12 to 4 through the restructuring of TV business. Recently, the company has announced a plan to divide their TV division into LCD TV division, next-generation TV division, and outsourcing division.

TV makers are predicted to expand outsourcing to improve profits. Japan-based giant TV makers such as Sony, Panasonic, Sharp, and etc. are building the strategy to expand their outsourcing production. Most outsourcing production companies have aggressive business plans this year. LCD TV outsource makers include Taiwan-based TPV, Wistron, and Compal, China-based Foxconn, as well as Europe-based Vestel. TPV ranks top based on robust customer relationships and the experience of the monitor outsourced production. Foxconn is becoming a top-tier outsource maker rapidly, thanks to strong value chain integration. Vestel is expanding its market share based on the local TV brand customers all over Europe.

Source: http://www.electroiq.com/articles/sst/2012/03/lcd-tv-production-outsourcing-on-the-rise.html

By: Salvatore Sassano

Societal Impact

3/21/12

Televisions Impact on Society

Television impacts the education, morality, family life, and more issues of society. There are two sides to television programs; there is the moral, productive, and educational side of television while there are also the immoral, degrading, and damaging effects.

Television has many shows and programs playing throughout the day, many of these programs show controversial material such as violence, drugs, and immoral actions. These impact the views of children growing up without supervision while watching TV. Violent behavior is provoked by exposing people to the violent actions, making them seemnormal. On the other side of the issue, television also shows educational and beneficial programs. Programs such as the Discovery channel and the History channel offer educational insight on different topics. Not all programs are so black and white when it comes to good and bad. News channels incorporate both positive and negative aspects which affects the viewers opinions, even if it's ever so slightly. Bias in the media results in distorted views of topics, but the news also gives sports entertainment and stock updates which are beneficial to the viewers.

With all the negative and positive effects of TV, it ultimately falls upon the user to let or not let television programs influence their lives. Over all, television is a great piece of technology and, as Edward R. Murrow once said, "This instrument can teach, it can illuminate; yes, and it can even inspire. But it can do so only to the extent that humans are determined to use it to those ends. Otherwise, it is nothing but wires and lights in a box".

By: Gabe Bertini

Source: Cyber College

Television has also ben recognized as a huge distraction and deterrent to productivity. TV has become a means for people to prolong procrastination and some people even develop a dependance on television. Sometimes a person could be doing work or moving about their house and will just have to TV on in the background, not watch it for a few minutes, and then return their full focus to it without meaning to. the person who wrote this article said that by cutting down his television time by 7 hours, his productivity skyrocketed.

By: Derek King

Sources: [4]


Facts

  • 98. 5 percent of U.S. households have at least one television set.
  • 90% of U.S. households have two or more TV sets.
  • 54% of 4-6 year-olds who, when asked to choose between watching TV and spending time with their fathers, said they would prefer to watch television.
  • It has been shown that children who watch TV more than 10 hours a week suffer negative academic effects.
  • By age 18, children witnesses almost 20,000 murders on TV — most by handguns.
  • Before graduating high school the average U.S. child will see 360,000 commercials.
  • By age 65, this number will be close to 2 million.

Source: Cyber College


Falling Flat Screen TVs Growing Threat to Kids

In 2007, almost 17,000 children were taken to the hospital for heavy, unstable furniture falling on their heads. Since 1990, this number has risen by 41 percent, a number that correlated with the growing popularity of large, wall mounted, flat screen televisions. Injuries from televisions accounted for almost half of this this percentile. In addition, three-quarters of the victims of the falling furniture are under 6 years old. Even as additional regulations are put into place, this number continues to rise. The older cathode ray tube sets were bulky, yet very stable. It is advised that television sets are placed low to the ground and strapped securely to the wall. If the television set is mounted on the wall, ensure that it is securely mounted, and out of reach of young children.

Source: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30686493/#.T2t4weZJjU4

posted by Graham Ginder

References

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