Group 24 - Tippmann 98 Custom - Gate 2

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Contents

Figure 1: Tippmann 98 Custom Paintball Marker

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Purpose

The purpose of this gate was to gain further knowledge of the components within the marker. From the management proposal in gate one, the group met at the proposed date and times which helped show the effectiveness of the group. After dissecting the marker the internal systems were identified which helped us understand how the marker completes its function. With the completion of this gate, a person without any knowledge of the marker should be able to successfully take it apart and reassemble it with ease.

Preliminary Project Review

Cause for Corrective Action

After gate one, our group has successfully completed our tasks and we are ahead of our proposed schedule. Each person has been assigned specific task after each meeting and the work is being completed in a timely matter. Each member has attended all meetings each Monday after class and discussing what will be completed by the end of the week.

As of right now we have completed the complete dissection and reassembly two weeks ahead of schedule. This gives us time to go over our work and make sure everything is completed in a professional matter. We decided to get things done early because we realized the work load that this project is and managing this with the other classes we are all attending.

As far as our management and work proposals, they have been followed to full extent. We have all been communicating on a regular basis and each member has performed their responsibility. The one change that we made was the deadlines created in the project timeline. Since we are ahead of schedule we want to continue at this pace. This means we will be starting and completing each gate 1-2 weeks before the proposed dates on the timeline. This change will help because it will give us more time to evaluate our work after completion and also give us more time for our other classes.


Product Dissection

Parts List

Table 1 lists each part that make up the Tippmann 98 marker.

Table 1:Part List
Part Number Part Name Quantity Picture Part Number Part Name Quantity Picture
1 Long Pin 7 LongPins.jpg 2 Short Pin 1 ShortPin.JPG
3 Front Sight 1 FrontSight.jpg 4 Front Sight Spring 1 FrontSightSpring.jpg
5 Ball Latch 1 BallLatch.jpg 6 Elbow Latch 1 ElbowLatch.jpg
7 Elbow Latch Screws 2 ELScrews.jpg 8 Elbow Feed 1 ElbowFeed.jpg
9 Valve Bolts 2 ValveBolts.jpg 10 Rear Bolt Insert 1 RBInsert.jpg
11 Rear Sight Dovetail 1 RearSight.jpg 12 Trigger Component 1 TriggerComp.jpg
13 Sear Spring 1 SearSpring.jpg 14 Trigger Spring 1 TrigSpring.jpg
15 Sear 1 Sear.jpg 16 Safety 1 Safety.jpg
17 Trigger Guard 1 TrigGuard.jpg 18 End Cap 1 EndCap.jpg
19 Drive Spring Guide Pin 1 GuidePin.jpg 20 Drive Spring 1 DriveSpring.jpg
21 Rear Bolt 1 RearBolt.jpg 22 Buffer O-Ring 1 ORing.jpg
23 Bolt Handle 1 BoltHandle.jpg 24 Power Tube 1 PowerTube.jpg
25 Front Bolt 1 FrontBolt.jpg 26 Linkage Arm 1 LinkArm.jpg
27 Vertical Adapter 1 VertAdapt.jpg 28 Tank Adapter 1 TAdapt.jpg
29 Gas Line 1 GasLine.jpg 30 Expansion Chamber 1 ExChamber.jpg
31 Tank Adapter Bolts 2 TABolts.jpg 32 Tank Adapter Nuts 1 TANuts.jpg
33 Marker Housing 2 Components MarkerHouse.jpg 34 Receiver Bolts 1 ReceiverB.jpg
35 Barrel 1 Barrel.jpg
  • The marker was missing a few parts before disassembly. None of which would affect the output of the marker: 2 long pins and 2 receiver bolts were missing.

Steps for Product Dissection

Tools Used:

  • Hand
  • 1/8’’ hex key
  • Pliers
  • 7/16’’ wrench

Difficulty Scale:

Below is a difficulty scale that was used for each individual step. The difficulty was based on tools needed, time for completion, and force used:

1-Minimum: This step required little to no force to complete the task at hand. It would take a short amount a time and only one person was needed. The components being disassembled would be easily separate or unscrewed by hand.

2-Adequate: This step used a moderate amount of strength to be disassembled. A tool could be used or multiple hands were needed. More time was needed in this step, but it wouldn’t require more than one person.

3-Maximum: This step required the most amount of effort in order to be completed. The components being disassembled needed more force than a hand could put forth. This step needed the most time and more care was given in order to prevent any further problems it could present.

Table 2 represents the step-by-step process to successfully disassemble the Tippmann 98 marker. In this table the instructions, tools required, and difficulty were acknowledged.

Table 2:Step-by-Step Dissection
Step Description Tool Used Estimated Time Difficulty Picture
1 Unscrew barrel to remove it from the body of the marker Hand 5 Seconds 1 24Step1.jpg
2 Press down the front sight and pull off feed elbow from side of marker Hand 5 Seconds 1 24Step2.jpg
3 Remove 6 exterior screws from the left side of the marker and the two central screws from the right side of the gun. (left and right portions are from the user’s perspective). Remove rubber cap from the bolt handle. 1/8’’ hex key 2 Minutes 3 24Step3.jpg
4 Remove the left side of the casing from the rest of the gun Hand 10 Seconds 1 24Step4.jpg
5 Unscrew expansion chamber from the lower exterior of the gun Hand 10 Seconds 1 24Step5.jpg
6 Pull off front sight, located on the upper anterior of the Marker, consisting of a spring, peg, and sight body Hand 2 Seconds 1 24Step6.jpg
7 Remove the firing Mechanism, manual cocking lever from the central cylinder of the marker. Remove ball latch. Hand 30 Seconds 2 24Step7.jpg
8 Remove the external trigger mechanism, including trigger guard, trigger, safety, all alignment pins, seer, and seer spring Hand 15 Seconds 1 24Step8.jpg
9 Disassemble the Firing mechanism. Remove the linkage arm to freely separate end cap, drive spring, drive spring guide pin o-ring, rear bolt, rear bolt insert, bolt handle, power tube, and secondary intake valve Hand 30 Seconds 2 24Step9.jpg
10 Disassemble intake system; unscrew the gas line from the tank adapter and expansion chamber Pliers & 7/16’’ wrench 30 Seconds 3 24Step10.jpg

Product Dissection Assessment

Challenges

For the necessary disassembly of the paintball marker, all parts are made to be easily taken apart except for the bolt itself. This allowed for a fairly easy dissection with only a few minor challenges. First, when removing the screws in the frame casing we noticed that some of the screws were stripped. Due to this we had to use extra force in pushing down on the screwdriver to make sure it caught grip and loosened the screws. Next, we found that the gas line was attached with an adhesive product called Loctite. Loctite is an adhesive that helps improve the reliability and strength of screw. This made it very difficult to remove with just the human hand. Therefore, we had to use a wrench and two people to finally break through the Loctite and loosen the line for removal. Once we got inside the marker we had to take apart the trigger system. In doing this we had to release springs. The ease of tension in the springs caused the whole marker to shake moving various little parts in the process. We had to collect all the little parts and meticulously put them back into place before continuing the dissection. Our last challenge was keeping track of all the parts. This was a challenge because some of the parts look very similar but they go in very different places. In order to prevent losing or misplacing a part we used two separate tables, one for the dissection process and the other table we put the parts that were being removed. On the second table we put each piece in the place where they were located on the gun and noted which system (eg. Trigger, sight) they were a part of.

Ease of Disassembly

The Tippmann 98 marker was designed so it can be easily disassembled in the field of use. Once the external screws are removed, most of the interior components can be taken apart by hand. The most difficult part was presented in the trigger system. This sub-function had multiple smaller parts such as the pins and springs. When taking it apart we had to take caution and analyze where each part was located and what the function was. This way when we went to re-assemble the marker, it would be easier to correctly place the smaller parts back in the correct position. The power tube is the only component that we concluded could not be dissected any further. The gas line leads to the power tube which made us think that there are different control valves inside it that we could not get to because of the welding. If this part had to be disassembled, it would probably not be able to be re-assembled and therefore making the marker not functional.

Sub-Systems

Table 3 lists the multiple sub-systems and what functions they perform.

Table 3: Sub-Systems
Sub-System Components Picture
Marker Casing •Marker Housing 24Sub1.jpg
Bolt System •Front Bolt

•Power Tube

•Rear Bolt

•Rear Bolt Handle

•Drive Spring
24Sub2.jpg
Air-Intake System •Expansion Chamber

•Gas Line

•Tank Adapter
24Step10.jpg
Trigger System •Trigger

•Trigger Guard

•Sear & Sear Spring

•Long Pins

•Trigger Spring
24Sub4.jpg

Subsystems Analysis

Marker Casing

Within the Paintball marker there are approximately four important subsystems to make note of. The first of these systems is the Marker casing, the most obvious of the four. The casing, while protecting the components within the marker, serves to keep all other components in proper orientation for functioning. Aside from the casing itself, there is a series of pins that are embedded in the sides of the casing that span the gap between the two sides. These pins hold critical smaller components in place, most commonly for the trigger arrangement. The shape of the casing is probably due to the United States market by which the marker is to be distributed. Other systems within the marker would therefore have positioning based around functionality and for the purpose of keeping the ideal shape of the marker. In other words, the aesthetic value of the marker from a societal standpoint is critical in making the marker economically feasible.

Bolt System

Within the marker, the first system to note is the bolt system. This sub-system is important in that it serves as a central connecting point for all other subsystems. The bolt system is a central cylindrical compilation controlled on the exterior of the marker via the manual cocking lever. This lever, when pulled back, moves the entire bolt system toward the back of the marker, allowing a single paintball to enter the chamber, and orienting the marker into firing position. In this position the bolt system actuates the loading of ammunition into the marker, as well as the loading both the trigger and air-intake subsystems. The central connection of these systems makes the marker simpler and highly functional in that all systems are made to cooperate on, and by, one central body

Air intake System

The air intake system begins on the exterior of the marker, at a tank adaptor made to fit a standard tank size. This tank adapter fits and opens the air tank when attached, allowing compressed air to enter the marker through an external gas line that leads into the front grip of the marker. This front grip acts internally as a decompression chamber, giving the compressed air the chance to be turned entirely into a gaseous form suitable for efficient movement through the marker. It then travels through an internal gas line and into the power tube, a compact chamber used to hold potential energy in the form of pressure. This chamber is attached to the front end of the bolt system and is opened to allow air in as the manual cocking lever is pulled back. Therefore air intake system is connected to the bolt system such that it fully activates as soon as the manual cocking lever is pulled. The final air release, being positioned near the front of the product, improves the efficiency of the marker. Less energy is required in order to move the paintball, the closer the ball is to the energy source, meaning that there is less gaseous waste. This renders the marker both efficient and environmentally suitable under regular circumstances.

Trigger System

The trigger system is attached to the marker casing by a series of pins, and involves a few different components connected by springs. Located between the trigger and the bolt system is a seer which does not make contact with the trigger, even when the trigger is pulled, until the bolt system is in firing position. At that point the seer is in a position such that when the trigger is pulled, it makes contact with the seer which then activates a single firing of the marker by applying pressure to the back half of the bolt system. The bolt system then returns itself to firing position, that is, if there is enough air pressure left to gain from the air tank to return it, with the assistance of an internal spring. The system does not require a lot of energy from the user and therefore makes it appealing to the consumer for extended use.

Overall

In general, the Marker is compact, functional, and is limited more by visual design than by internal design. All subsystems within the marker are centrally placed, being practically adjacent to one another. For this reason it is assumed that the placement of the internal systems is not heavily restricted and can be easily altered for different designs. The largest motivations for the design appear to be visual appeal and functionality.

Connections of Subsystems

Figure 2: Subsystem Diagram

Figure 2 shows the different subsystems and their arrangement inside of the marker.

(1)Casing: The first subsystem to be analyzed is the casing, marked as number one in the figure one. The casing is physically connected to the other components within the marker because it holds them all in the correct position. The unique design on the inside of the casing brings everything together so without it, the marker is completely inoperable. No signals influence this component but it should be known that both the paintball and carbon dioxide flow through the inside of the casing, so an argument can be made that both mass (paintball) and energy (CO2) are connecting to this system. The main reason this is connected to the other systems, as stated above, is to hold everything in place and protect it from outside factors that could harm the inner components. If the marker were to be dropped or hit by another paintball, it needs to be able to withstand the hit and still operate at full functionality.

(2)Bolt System: The bolt system labeled as number two in figure one, is the main system that propels the paintball out of the marker. The bolt system is physically connected to the casing and connected by a signal with the trigger. Also the carbon dioxide runs through the bolt so it has an energy connection. Without the casing the bolt would not be able to align itself within the marker. The sear (part 15) is what physically connects the trigger to the bolt, but when the trigger is signaled by the human it releases the bolt. The energy stored in the bolt is carbon dioxide and is only released once the trigger is pulled. The reason the bolt is connected with the trigger is so the user can control when to export a paintball. This is a safety factor because if the user could not signal the marker, it would be uncontrollably firing ammunition and potentially harming others.

(3)Air-Intake system:The air-intake system, composed of the expansion chamber, gas line, and tank adapter, is labeled as number three in figure one. The intake system is connected by energy transfer and signal with the bolt system. The carbon dioxide which powers the marker travels through the intake system and then to the bolt which eventually propels the paintball. Once the bolt becomes oriented, a valve in the power tube is opened and the carbon dioxide is allowed to be stored inside the bolt system. This allows an assumption that they are also connected by a signal. The intake system and bolt are connected this way because it keeps the connection between the two simple, allows the carbon dioxide to expand in the short time, and allows minimal error to occur.

(4)-Trigger System: The trigger, number four in figure one, is connected by signal with the bolt and human. Once the trigger is signaled by the human it then signals the bolt to be released. It is important that this connections is through a signal so that the user has complete control over the marker, and so there is no problems between the bolt and trigger connection. If they were connected physically it could result in potential problems such as becoming damaged or firing at unnecessary times.

Outside Influencing Factors

Societal: The casing has a societal factor of safety incorporated with it. The casing has to be strong enough to hold the force of the carbon dioxide and bolt, and not harm the user. If the marker is dropped it needs to be able to protect the inner components from becoming misaligned.

Environmental: One environmental factor is how the trigger controls when the carbon dioxide release. By having the user control when the marker is fired, the marker cannot be fired at a constant rate so the carbon dioxide can’t be continually released. Also, minimal amount of parts are used to operate the maker so that results in less waste when not in use.

Global: A global concern could be the ease of use of the marker. When located in different places the knowledge of how to use a paintball marker may not be known. Many different artillery weapons have different ways operation. So by making it as simple as pulling the trigger and no other functions needed, the marker is easier to use.

Economic: One economic factor that the connections have is that they use minimal parts. The connection of the carbon dioxide and bolt is by a valve so there are no parts needed and from the trigger to the bolt is just one part (sear). This has an impact on the manufacturing because less money needs to be spent on parts and the price of the marker can remain at a reasonable price. Also you want a cheap operating price so carbon dioxide is used as the energy source. This can last for a while and is very cheap to re-supply.

Arrangement of Subsystems

The way that the subsystems are arranged is in a specific way to make firing the marker, fast and as simple as possible. The trigger is the subsystem that initiates the rest of the components. The reason this subsystem is the first in the arrangement, is because it’s the subsystem that is powered by the user. Without any user input the marker will not perform its function. Once the trigger is pulled the rest of the systems run in sequence with each other. That means that they are all released/initiated one after another. That brings us to the next two systems of the bolt and the carbon dioxide connection. These two are arranged adjacent to each other so that they can “work” together. The bolt system gets reloaded with carbon dioxide after each firing regardless of the user input. The last system connection is from the ball feed to the barrel. As the firing mechanism fires a paintball, a new paintball is dropped into place from the feed using gravity and nothing else. In conclusion all of the subsystems are oriented in a way so that they can reload after each firing at the same time. By having each subsystem arranged adjacently with the others, it allows a faster load time so the user can trigger the marker again without waiting.