Group 15 - GM Transmission 2010

From GICL Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search


Gate 1

Project Management: Request for Proposal

Work Proposal

Reversing engineer our product is another task that will take us a lot of time. We need to take the engine apart. Taking out the pump is going to be the first step. Then you put the transmission on its pan to remove the tail shaft housing, governer assembly, and speedometer gear. The right tools are going to be a necessity for the successful outcome of this project. Some tools that will be required to take apart our project will include screwdrivers, both standard and Phillips head; socket wrenches, either English or metric; and pliers to remove the small parts.

We will work on stage 1 for 2 weeks. Further stages will take 1 week for each since further stages required few new information and improving previous stage.

We all know that we need to work together so we need good cooperation. Based on the things that everybody is good at, we try to separate our work in a reasonable way.

Group Member Capabilities Disabilities
Sunwook Kim Writing, Wiki, CAD Busy Schedule
Mohammed Siddiqui Good Communication, Persuasive Poor skills on Wiki
Chunki Kim Wiki, Good with Tools, Good Analysis, CAD
Seungkuk Kuk Great Analysis, Much experience on Mechanical products Busy Schedule
Kuocheng Wang Good at Math and Physics, Great Analysis Not good at CAD, Poor Writing

Chunkiki has much experience about the internet so that he is in charge of building the group of Wiki and organize essay that we write and combine them in a good format.

Mohammed is good at writing essay and communication, so he always send us e-mails and arrange a time for us to meet. Also, after report has done, he checks all the programmer mistakes. Sometimes we can’t express our meanings clearly, he will talk to us and think of ways to express them more clearly.

Sungkuk is a genius analyst, it seems that he has much experience on mechanical products. When we don’t understand about the homework questions, like “ How is energy imported to the systems ?” We will ask for his idea. In this case, for those most difficult questions, we need to ask him and then solve them.

Sunwook is our leader. He separate tasks and ask us which one we want to do. He is a good leader so that for each project, we don’t need to spend much time on arranging tasks. He is also good at writing essays, so if Mohammed doesn’t have time, we send our parts to him and he will correct the programmer and word mistakes for us .

Kuocheng likes math and physics. If there are some figures in project that needs to deal with and if there is any formula to analyze, he will definitely take that task.

We also have many shortcomings in our group. Because all the group members have lots of classes and homework, we can’t finish each homework ahead of time.
We always wait until the very last moment to get together and discuss. Also, few of us know much about the mechanical products very well, we can’t analyze everything very professionally. We need to learn much more about the machines, we can’t rely on one person. For the work efficiency, we spend lots of time, but we can’t get the deal grade, some questions we can only get a C. Anyway, we are learning from each other now and becoming better.

Management Proposal

The duration of completion of our Project on TRANSMISSION is based upon our capabilities and performance. We plan on maintaining a steady pace to meet the expectations of our Instructor as well as the submission deadlines. Currently, we are following the time-line as provided by the Instructor given below.

GATE Product Archaeology Project Management
Gate 1
Preparation and Initial Assessment
Students research the background of their
product and perform an initial assessment
Request for Proposal
Students complete a work proposal and
management proposal
Gate 2
Excavation (Dissection)
Students dissect their product(s) to collect
more detailed information about how it was
manufactured, components interact, etc.
Preliminary Project Review
Groups submit a cause for corrective
Gate 3
Students analyze the information and
components to extract more detailed
information. Students perform basic analysis
and tests to confirm theories.
Coordination Review
Groups submit a second cause for
corrective action.
Gate 4
Students synthesize information to make large
conclusions about the design decisions.
Critical Project Review
Groups submit the final cause for
corrective action.
Gate 5
Students document their findings and prepare
them for critical review.
Students finalize deliverables and submit

The above Time-table is due to change.

Apart from this, we have planned to meet 3 times a week to discuss our findings, clarify doubts and to plan ahead to meet the deadline.
Our Group’s leader is a very bright mind, Sunwook Kim who is the sole decision maker and the leader of the group. His decisions will be abided by all in the group. Chunki Kim whose past experience and work makes him the Group Analyst and one who is also responsible for transferring the Group’s work to Wiki. Seungkuk kuk and Kuocheng Wang are our Technical Experts who are the brains behind the scenes,whose problem solving skills and opinions shape our course of progress. And lastly is Mohammed Siddiqui who is the Team Manager and is responsible for keeping the group together and helping the group to meet the deadlines. He is also the person through whom the Instructor would be in touch with the group.


Product Archaeology: Preparation and Initial Assessment

Create a Development Profile for the Product

  • When was the product developed?
    Turbo-Hydramatic transmission (THM) was developed by General Motors to replace both the original Hydramatic models and Buick Dynaflo. It was first used in the 1964 model in Cadillacs. And then THM units had replaced all of GM’s automatic transmissions.
  • What were the key economic and global concerns at the time of development?'''
    The 1973 oil crisis started in October 1973. OPEC forced the oil companies to increase payment drastically, and then the oil price was raised up to US$12 per barrel. Because Industrialized economies relied on crude oil, several years of income declines and 1973-1974 stock market crash began. So, right after the 1973 OPEC oil embargo, GM developed a lighter-duty version of Turbo-Hydramatic transmission with lightened materials – primarily alloys in place of ferrous materials.
  • In what countries or regions are the product intended to be sold?
    For the first time, this product, Turbo-Hydramatic transmission, was adapted to most of GM cars. But it was exported to Canada and other North America later.
  • 'What was the intended impact on the consumer?'
    It was progressively replaced by later four and five speed automatic. And this transmission was very popular in automotive competition due to their great strength to enjoy their powerful driving.

Usage profile

At first the intended use of this transmission is allow the engine to operate in its narrow range of speeds while providing a wide range of output speeds. As transmission is located in car, we can change the gears in a fit condition.
Transmission system can be used for home. The range of usage of this machine is really huge. If it is used for automobile, the usage would be for home.
The object of transmission is using gears to make more effective use of the engine torque and keep the engine in appropriate speed.

Energy profile

Transmission use kinetic energy mostly. The reason is that the main job of transmission in the machine is making the engine to be more effective.The rotating energy is transferred from the engine. And the energy is transferred by each gears of transmission. The gears have different gear ratios, and the differences of each gear makes the transmission work. thermal energy can be produced during the work of transmission because there is an friction in the transmission. When the meshed gears are rotate together, the thermal energy can be produeced.
The main role of transmission is help the engine to be more effective.

Complexity Profile

    The Latin word complexus, which signifies "entwined", "twisted together". This may be interpreted in the following way: in order to have a complex you need two or more components, which are joined in such a way that it is difficult to separate them. Similarly, the Oxford Dictionary defines something as "complex" if it is "made of (usually several) closely connected parts". Here we find the basic duality between parts which are at the same time distinct and connected. Intuitively then, a system would be more complex if more parts could be distinguished, and if more connections between them existed. More parts to be represented means more extensive models, which require more time to be searched or computed. Hence, putting forward my argument on the basis of the definition, the transmission is a complex because of its various components that work simultaneously in order for an engine to produce various speeds. . The individual components by themselves are not as complex as the transmission as a whole. A transmission consists of hundreds of working parts. Each component has a separate function and may be placed into a system that accomplishes a certain task. However; the electronic control system, gears and wires are mostly responsible for carrying out the transmission’s operations. The transmission has many of its components internally working together each performing different or similar tasks. But the outer appearance of the system is just the Aluminum body in the shape of a lung with some internal parts like shafts are partially seen.

Create a Material Profile for the Product


  • There are many materials for the automatic transmission, like aluminum, rubber, steel, Iron, and plastic, cover plate. They are all clearly visible. But the main parts are steel and aluminum. Steel is chosen because it is durable and less pliable, making it harder for it to bend unnecessarily in certain components due to the combination of iron and carbon elements. An alternative to steel is aluminum which is used in other components because it is less expensive than steel, very durable and resists corrosion over time. Aluminum also has a lighter weight than steel and can contribute to a better fuel efficiency in a vehicle overall. Plastic is used for components that are the easiest to replace due to the inexpensive cost to produce, its resistance to corrosion and its light weight. The invisible part that is not visible but present is steel, because Hydra-matic needs to transmit fluid.
    I guess there should be aluminum, copper, plastic and Iron because the main part that visible is aluminum and copper, plastic, Iron and magnet is mainly for signals a change in gear adjustment.
  • Users can’t interface with the Hydra-matic directly, they need to control and get feedback through the car. For example, when the fluid in the machine is not enough or need to change, by checking the feedbacks of your car, we can know it. Also, for different modes, we can interface with them by changing the selection lever. In general, there are 6 modes. P is preventing the tranmission from rotating.R is giving the ability for the vehicle to drive backwards. N means neutral, This is the only other selection in which the vehicle's engine can be started.This allows the vehicle to move forward and accelerate through its range of gears.Second(2 or S)This can be drive in condition such as snow and ice.First(1 or low),this can also be used in winter season.So we can see that it is really easy to use. The machine is a remarkably efficient level of power transfer at highway speeds, something that torque converter equipped automatics could not achieve without the benefit of a converter clutch. The machine needs much maintenance. We need to check it after a regular time, like 1 month. Be sure that it is filled with fluid. Sometimes it is really hard to maintain, especially after it breaks down. For consumers, they don’t have much professional knowledge and they need to go to a car repair shop . Not only they spend much money to repair it, but also have to wait a period of time until it can be used again. For some professional people, even though they may repair the cars by themselves, sometimes they also need to go to the repair shop because it’s so hard to check it by themselves. The repair shop can lift the car up and they have all the tools to repair it.

Create a Product Alternative Profile

There are few alternatives for turbo hydra-matic, automatic transmission. Manual transmission is one and continuously variable transmission is another.
The first advantage of manual transmission is a driver can pick any gear anytime during driving. This advantage brings more power at right time and better fuel efficiency. Downshifting makes high rpm and it will give extra power faster. Controlling rpm allows car keeps running with low rpm. Unlike manual transmission, automatic transmission is set shifting timing by computer, so if shifting timing is set 3500rpm, driver has to drive same gear until rpm reaches 3500; However, driving with manual shifting allows rpm controlling. Driving with lower rpm gives better fuel efficiency than driving with higher rpm. Second advantage is car with manual transmission is usually cheaper than car with automatic transmission.
CVT, continuously variable transmission, has some advantages. CVT makes better use of a engine power. Even though manual transmission can control each gear level, there is a always better gear ratio between each gear level. Unlike conventional transmission, CTV has no gear level, so CVT allows driving with best gear ratio all the time. Because CTV has no gear level, there is no impact during shifting gear. Other advantage for CVT is CVT has simple structure and is lightweight.
First disadvantage of manual transmission is driver has to use clutch when driver wants to shift gear, car starts to move, and stop. This inconvenience makes people choose automatic transmission. Another disadvantage is there are fewer people can drive manual transmission. Many people who don’t have experience with clutch cannot drive car well with manual transmission. This fact affects car price too especially used car. People who only can drive buy automatic transmission car and people who can drive car with either automatic or manual transmission have option to choose either. Car with manual transmission only is chosen by people among people who can drive manual transmission car and want to buy one. Higher demand is higher price.
CVT is kind of next generation for conventional transmissions, manual and automatic transmission, so CVT can cover many disadvantages of conventional transmissions. One disadvantage of CVT is according to Wikicars(2009), “CVT torque handling capability is limited by the strength of their belt or chain, and by their ability to withstand friction wear between torque source and transmission medium for friction-driven CVTs. CVTs in production prior to 2005 are predominantly belt or chain driven and therefore typically limited to low powered cars and other light duty applications. More advanced IVT units using advanced lubricants, however, have been proven to support any amount of torque in production vehicles, including that used for buses, heavy trucks, and earth moving equipment.”
These alternatives can be compared first by gear level. Automatic transmission and alternative for automatic transmission, manual transmission, has gear levels but another alternative for automatic transmission, CVT, doesn’t have gear level. Second is method of shifting gear. Automatic transmission is computer shifts each gear level automatically at certain rpm but manual transmission is driver need to shift manually when driver think it’s right time.
Price of each type
Our project turbo hydra-matic, automatic transmission is from very old car, so for fair comparison, price will be compared modern automatic transmission with modern CVT and manual transmission.

Table 1

   Turbo hydra-matic
   for 1967-81 Buick
   Automatic transmission
      for 2005-08 Audi A4

    Manual transmission
     for 2003-08 Audi A4

  for 2005-08 Audi A4

          $469.99           MSRP $8199.98           MSRP $4199.99        MSRP $6299.98



  1. Continuously variable transmission. (2009, 28 September). Wikicars Retrieved.29 September 2010 from
  2. Develop pro:Perron, P. (1988). The great crash, the oil price stock and the unit root hypothesis. Econometric Research Program. Princeton University
  3. Ebay. Retrieved (2009, 29 September) from


  1. Retrieved 29 September 2010 from


  1. Retrieved 29 September 2010 from


Gate 2

Project Management: Preliminary Project Review

Cause for Corrective Action

Start dissecting: Oct. 8th
Meeting date in the Lab: every Wed. 7pm~9pm

8 9
Search for our transmission blueprint or any drawing
10                  11 12                   13 14                     15 16                        
Deciding dissecting plan Start dissecting
Procedure 1~12

Product Archaeology: Product Dissection

Ease of Diassembley:

How is each step?

How can you define a meaningful scale to rate the difficulty?
The number of hazardous parts.
A meaningful scale to rate of the difficulty depends on the understanding about the parts and their functions.
1. Hour of a disassembly
How long does it take to disassemble the product to the element?
2. Complexity to dissect
a. The number of parts
How many parts do consist of the product?
b. The number of using tools
How many tools should you use?
c. The number of information about the product
How many information about the product and its parts?
Does information can help you understand their overall function and sub functions?
3. Easiness to remember the original place
Can you remember their original place to assemble?
Easiest Easy Medium Hard Hardest
1. How long does it take to disassemble the product to the element?
0~30min   30min~1hr   1hr~2hrs   2hrs~3hrs   3hrs~
   -2                -1              0                      1                      2
2. How many parts do consist of the product?
~10EA     10~30EA    30~60EA   60~100EA   100EA~
    -2               -1              0               1                     2
3. How many tools should you use?
~3EA        3~5EA        5~7EA        7~10EA    10EA~
    -2               -1              0               1                  2
4. How many information about the product and its parts?
10EA~     5~10EA      2~5EA        1~2EA        0EA
    -2               -1              0                1                  2
5. Does information can help you understand their overall function and sub functions?
90~100%   80~89%   70~79%     60~69%     0~59%
   -2                -1              0                     1               2
6. Can you remember their original place to assemble?
90~100%   80~89%    70~79%      60~69%     0~59%
   -2                -1              0                     1                2
When the sum of the score = X
X < -6 = the rate of difficulty is the easiest
-6 <= X < 0 = the rate of difficulty is easy
0 <= X < 6 = the rate of difficulty is medium
6 <= X <10 = the rate of difficulty is hard
10<= X <= 12 = the rate of difficulty is the hardest

Is that part of the product intended to be diassembled?
(All the pictures are in Component Summary part that in the Gate 3)

    In general, it took us lots of time to disassemble. Based on the process of disassembly and the easiness of disassembly, we think most of parts of them are intended to be disassembled and others are not.

1 Cover Plate The first thing for disassembly is a cover plate, a small plate and a side plate . The reason I put them together is that they have almost the same function, that is insulation of inside components . This is intended to be disassembled because there are 13mm Bolts around it, and this makes it really easy to disassemble and necessary for analysis of the parts inside.


2 metal clamp The 2nd ones are the 13mm bolts and metal clamp. They are there to hold components in place. They don’t have any specific function for changing the speed of the car. They should be intended to disassembly because it’s easier to fix the things inside when we have some problems with components inside.

3 Hydraulic Block Hydraulic block itself definitely not for assembly. The function of it is to manage hydraulic pressure. This is a very complicated part, even a small part of it may affect the total function. If there’s something wrong in it, we should just send it to the repair place or buy a new one. But for a whole part, it is for disassembly, we need to Removed 10mm bolts to remove hydraulic block. There are parts which are behind of it.

4 Valve Cove

Valve Cover is also for disassembly for the reason that sometimes we can analyze the parts underneath it. The procedure is also easy: remove valve cover by taking out the 10mm bolt holding the clamp in place followed by the three remaining 10mm bolts. 

5. Ring Gear, Sun Gear, Ring Bearing and Planetary Gear are intended to disassembly. We just need to remove ring gear, r emove planetary gear set containing the sun gear. That’s not hard at all. But for the individual ones are not to disassembly. All the gears are engaged in a system, which they can work well with each other. It is also very difficult to disassembly, even though we can, it is very hard to be assembled the way it was before.
5 Ring Gear, Sun Gear, Ring Bearing

5 Planetary Gear
6. The Clutch Plate and Clutch Rings are intended for disassembly. The manufacturing processes for disassembly is taking out the six rings and six separating metal rods from the clutch . While for each one of them, it’s not for disassembly. Because individual wear on parts that the mechanic has overlooked in gears are necessary to be replaced. Generally, if you want to change one gear in the Clutch Plates or Clutch Rings, that’s really time consuming and you have to spend lots of money to do it.
6 Clutch Plate and Clutch Rings

7. Valve Lever Actuator works for air pressure modulator. It’s also for disassembly . The manufacturing processes for disassembly is to move valve actuator by removing two 10mm bolts. That’s rather easy. While itself is not for disassembly. It is too difficult to put it apart because there is no wrench or anything like that around it. You may damage it if putting them apart.
7 Valve Lever Actuator

8. Drive Gears work as a whole unit itself. You can disassemble them from the other part bybut you can never disassemble itself unless you want to damage it.
8 Drive Gears

9. Chain Belt is for disassembly. The manufacturing processes for disassembly is to extract chain belt and gears. It transfers mechanical power to gears . However, the chain belt itself is not for disassembly. It doesn’t have much to be analyzed and it not expensive. if it is broken somewhere, you have to change a new one.
9 Chain Belt

10. Filter is for disassembly and the procedure is removing the bolts. Because we need to analysis the things inside or and if it’s not for assembly, we will never do it.

10 Filter

11. As for Medium Sized Clips, Parking Lock Actuator Rod , Clamp and Short Metal Rod, they are all a very small part of the transmission. They have a very important function. You can take them apart from the whole system while you can never disassemble by itself, or it will be broken.
11 Medium Sized Clips

11 Short Metal Rod

12. Output Shaft supports actuator gear. It is for disassembly by extracting the bolt holding the clamps in place to remove long metal rod. This is rather easy so we consider it as disassembly.
12 Output Shaft
13. Retaining Ring is not for disassembly. It’s really hard to disassemble. We use needle nose pliers, flat head screwdriver to remove second retaining ring. It’s easier to say because it took us half an hour to do it.
13 Retaining Ring
14. Shock Absorbing Ring is very easy to disassembly . We need to extract shock absorbing ring Shock absorbing ring and we just need to do it by hands only.

14 Retaining Ring

15. Cylindrical Stand and Inner Clutch Pack are not to disassembly. It’s very apparent that Cylindrical Stand is not for assembly because it works as a unit. We tried to disassemble the Inner Clutch Pack and we found that we can’t disassemble it without damaging it. They work as a whole system too.
15. Cylindrical Stand
16. Inner Clutch Pack
16. Clutch Housing Shell is intended to be disassembled. It makes it necessary for us to analyze the parts inside.
17. Clutch Housing Shell
17. Speed Sensor Casing including the speed sensor. I would rather consider it is to be disassembled. But you cannot disassemble the Speed Sensor inside because they work as a unit and it’s really very hard to assemble it again.
18. Speed Sensor Casing

18. Speed Sensor Shaft includes 2 parts. One is a plastic part and one is a steel part, so overall, it is to be disassembled.

19. Speed Sensor Shaft

Document the connection of subsystems:

What subsystems are connected?

How are they connected?
Like we can see from above the picture, all of them are connected physically. Energy transfer is started from torque converter which contains three elements, impeller, turbine, and stator. Impeller and turbine transfer oil to move the input shaft. Stator gives right direction to oil flowing between impeller and turbine. And torque converter is attached to oil pump. Oil pump has reaction shaft and that holds the stator in torque converter and supports input shaft and front clutch. According to Tom (1983), “The valve body can be considered the brain of the transmission. It takes hydraulic signals and combines these with fluid pressure to correctly time and control all transmission functions.” Snap ring holds planetary gearset on output shaft.

Why are they connected?
Torque converter is connected with engine to receive driving force of engine and transfer with oil as medium. Oil pump are connected to generate oil pressure in inside of transmission based on rpm of engine. Valve body is connected with oil pump to change the direction of oil pressure, control the operation time, and regulate pressure. Clutches and brake receive oil pressure from valve body to transfer to mechanical energy. Planetary gearset generate gear ratio by operation of clutches and brake based on gear steps. Speedometer drive gear delivers gear ratio that is changed by planetary gearset to differential.

The HydraMatic was designed to combine hydraulic operation of a planetary gearbox (allowing much shifting to be automated) with a fluid coupling instead of a friction clutch, eliminating the need for de-clutching.
A hydraulic automatic transmission consists of the following parts linked to each other as explained below:
 Torque converter: A type of fluid coupling, hydraulically connecting the engine to the transmission. It takes the place of a mechanical clutch, allowing the transmission to stay 'in gear' and the engine to remain running while the vehicle is stationary, without stalling. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling, in that it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds, increasing "breakaway" acceleration. This is accomplished with a third member in the "coupling assembly" known as the stator, and by altering the shapes of the vanes inside the coupling in such a way as to curve the fluid's path into the stator. The stator captures the kinetic energy of the transmission fluid, in effect using the leftover force of it to enhance torque multiplication.
 Pump, is typically a gear pump mounted between the torque converter and the planetary gearset. It draws transmission fluid from a sump and pressurizes it, which is needed for transmission components to operate. The input for the pump is connected to the torque converter housing, which in turn is bolted to the engine's flywheel, so the pump provides pressure whenever the engine is running and there is enough transmission fluid.[2]
 Planetary gearset: A compound epicyclic planetary gearset, whose bands and clutches are actuated by hydraulic servos controlled by the valve body, providing two or more gear ratios.
 Clutches and bands: to effect gear changes, one of two types of clutches or bands are used to hold a particular member of the planetary gearset motionless, while allowing another member to rotate, thereby transmitting torque and producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios. These clutches are actuated by the valve body (see below), their sequence controlled by the transmission's internal programming. Principally, a type of device known as a sprag or roller clutch is used for routine upshifts/downshifts. Operating much as a ratchet, it transmits torque only in one direction, free-wheeling or "overrunning" in the other. The advantage of this type of clutch is that it eliminates the sensitivity of timing a simultaneous clutch release/apply on two planetaries, simply "taking up" the drivetrain load when actuated, and releasing automatically when the next gear's sprag clutch assumes the torque transfer. The bands come into play for manually selected gears, such as low range or reverse, and operate on the planetary drum's circumference. Bands are not applied when drive/overdrive range is selected, the torque being transmitted by the sprag clutches instead. Bands are used for braking;
 Valve body: hydraulic control center that receives pressurized fluid from the main pump operated by the fluid coupling/torque converter. The pressure coming from this pump is regulated and used to run a network of spring-loaded valves, check balls and servo pistons. The valves use the pump pressure and the pressure from a centrifugal governor on the output side (as well as hydraulic signals from the range selector valves and the throttle valve or modulator) to control which ratio is selected on the gearset; as the vehicle and engine change speed, the difference between the pressures changes, causing different sets of valves to open and close. The hydraulic pressure controlled by these valves drives the various clutch and brake band actuators, thereby controlling the operation of the planetary gearset to select the optimum gear ratio for the current operating conditions. However, in many modern automatic transmissions, the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos which are controlled by the electronic engine control unit (ECU) or a separate transmission control unit (TCU).
 Hydraulic & lubricating oil: called automatic transmission fluid (ATF), this component of the transmission provides lubrication, corrosion prevention, and a hydraulic medium to convey mechanical power (for the operation of the transmission). Primarily made from refined petroleum, and processed to provide properties that promote smooth power transmission and increase service life, the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages.

5. How do global, societal, economic and environment concerns influence this.
Ans: The Hydramatic Transmission was developed amidst a number of concerns.
Societal concerns: The main benefit of automatic transmissions is that they are simply easier to use. There are only two pedals, so it’s almost like driving a go-cart. In a traffic jam, this is a big plus.It also allows the driver to focus on the road, without being distracted by the continual gear shifting required by a manual transmission. Hence the need for a convenient and easy operation of the vehicle is met.
Global and Economic Concerns; Oil consumption and Cost: Though automatic transmissions mean ease of use, they do eat up too much fuel; thus, if you're trying to save on fuel, make sure that you're not settling for automatic transmission. You can save at least 10 percent in fuel economy if you go for manual transmission. Besides, automatic transmissions are known to be ultimately expensive. They have a starting market price of $700. However, since the transmission was made during a period when oil-prices were low and the standard of living was high, such factors were not an issue. Recent changes in design and advancements in technology have also helped to improve the fuel efficiency and performance of the vehicle.
Environmental Concerns: The availability of resources and further utilization and disposal or recycling waste constitutes to environmental concerns. Due to advancements in science, new techniques have been developed to counter the growing problem of recycling of waste from industries and the economy. At present, the company that built our product, General Motors, has achieved “zero landfill” status by recycling or reusing all normal manufacturing-plant wastes, meaning 43 percent of its global manufacturing facilities no longer send any production waste to landfills. This is a massive boost in reducing the effect on the environment.

6. How does performance influence connection type?
Ans: Most of the parts of the transmission are made of steel other than the body of the transmsmission. Concentrating on the parts of the transmission made up of lighter material than steel, such as Aluminum which is light as well as strong , it will tremendously reduces the weight of the car, increasing performance and fuel economy.
On the other hand, rough and misuse of Transmission for tasks that it isn’t made for causes burning of transmission fluid and thus stalling of the transmission. Such misuse also can lead to the early wearing of parts, reducing the life of the transmission and affecting the performance of the vehicle.

What is the arrangement of subsystems?

The basic arrangement of subsystem of transmission is that, the gear which is connected by engine, layshaft, splined shaft, gears attached on the splined shaft, and collars.

Is there a reason for each subsystems placement?

1. layshaft
layshaft is composed of gears and shaft, and the gears and shafts are connected as a one unit. The layshaft receives the power from engine directly from the engine whenever the clutch is engaged.
2. Splined shaft
The splined shaft is connected directly to the drive shaft through the differential to the drive wheels of the car, if the wheels are spinning, the splined shaft is spinning.
3. Gears on splined shaft.
Gears on splined shafts ride on bearings, therefore these gears spin on splined shaft it the engine is off but the car is coasting, the splined shaft can turn inside the gears while the gears and the layshafts are motionless.
4. Collar
The purpose of collar is connect one of the two gears to the splined shaft. The collar is connected through the splines, directly to the splined shaft and spins with the splined shaft, However the collar slide left or right along the splined shaft to engage either of the gears, Teeth of the collar, called dog teeth. Fir into holes on the slides of the gears to engage them

Are there subsystems which cannot be adjacent?
All the subsystems are adjacent each other. Because the torque of engine should translated
By transmission to wheels. All the subsystems of transmissions are connected each oher.
Therefore, all the parts are in adjacent


Nichols W. G. (1998). Automatic transmission and transaxle. Procarcare. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from
Tom Hand. (1983). Tom hand’s detailed guide to the torqueflite automatic transmission. Retrieved October 24, 2010, from

Gate 3


With the dissection of the product. We examine the transmission in component and subsystem level. 

Hydramatic has four forward speed( 3.82:1 , 2.63:1 , 1.45:1 , 1.00:1) and one reverse speed. And these speeds are provided by grearing. The Hydramatic use two fluid coupling and three planetary gearsets. The power flows through the gear assembly. Then by the fluid coupling, the power is trasnfferd. In each gear, the different gear ratio make a differences between the output and input torque. And this work make us to drice a car more efficiently

Project Management: Coordination Review

Cause for corrective Action

1. The lack of knowledge about parts.The transmission is the machine which is assembled by a lot of parts. The parts has their name and purpose. However we have not enough knowlege to arrange and understand the parts.We searched these parts by internet. And we could know more about the parts to understand the work of transmission.
2. Busy schedule-Each member has different schedule. Therefore make a time to do work together was hard.We overcome this problem by make a regular meeting time in every week. And we made our own rule to keep this meeting time.

Product Archaeology: Product Evaluation

Component Summary

Part Amount Material Manufacturing Process Function Picture
13mm Bolts 32 Steel,Metal Heading, thread rolling, blackening and galvanization Hold small plate in place DSC01006.JPG
Shock Absorbing Ring 1 steel 2 plates are casting,the holes are drilled reduce shock between components 0508(1).jpg
Cylindrical Stand 1 steel machining mounts inner rings
Inner Clutch Pack 1 steel broaching for the teeth,casting for the shape of the body allows planetary gears to turn at the same rate DSC00993.JPG
Clutch Plates 6 steel machining provide friction in inner clutch pack


Clutch Rings 6 steel broaching provide friction in inner clutch pack DSC01003.JPG
Locking Belt 1 steel sheet metal forming locks clutch in place DSC00994.JPG
Ring Gear 1 steel casting/broaching adjust hear ratios DSC00997.JPG
Planetary Gear 1 steel casting, machining, sheet metal forming adjust gear ratios]]
Clutch Housing Shell 1 steel casting provide housing for clutch pack 0498(1).jpg
Hollow Shaft 1 steel casting/broaching/turning mounts ring gear, sun gear and ring bearing 0500(1).jpg
Sun Gear 1 steel Drill holes(machining),Create teeth(Broaching) adjust gear ratios 0521(1).jpg
Planetary Gear 1 steel machining adjust gear ratios
Speed Sensor Casing 1 steel casting/dring houses speed sensor and its components CIMG0504(1).jpg
Speed Sensor Shaft 1 plastic/steel plastic injection molding, extrusion, machining, sheet metal forming holds speed sensor in place CIMG0513(1).jpg
Speed Sensor/Governor 1 copper plastic iron magnet injection molding, electrical transmit signals a change in gear adjustment CIMG0505(1).jpg
Cover Plate 1 cover plate casting/machining(drilling) insulation of inside components DSC00987.JPG
Metal Clamp 1 aluminum machining apply force to component to hold it in place
10mm Bolts 16 steel Heading, thread rolling, galvanization hold component in place DSC00986.JPG
Small Plate 1 steel casting,machining(drilling) hold hydraulic block in place
Hydraulic Block 1 steel casting,machining manage hydraulic pressure DSC00985.JPG
Gasket 1 plastic machining reduce friction between two parts 023(1).jpg
Valve Lever Actuator 1 steel sheet metal forming air pressure modulator
Drive Gears 2 steel broacing adjusts to gear ratio for either a power or speed ratio DSC01009.JPG
Chain Belt 1 steel links transfer mechanical power to gears DSC01009.JPG
Side Plate 1 steel casting houses inside components
Filter 1 aluminum/plastic/ Molding (Plastic) air circulation DSC00988.JPG
Parking Lock Actuator Rod 1 steel machining mounts parking lock actuator
Valve Cover 1 steel casting hold valve in place 056(1).jpg
Short Metal Rod 1 steel extrusion supports valve piston
Valve Piston 1 steel machining manage hydraulic fluid
Long Metal Rod 1 steel extrusion holds valve cover in place 068(1).jpg
Plastic Cover 1 plastic injection molding provides extra support for bolts holding long metal rod in place
Retaining Clip 1 steel extrusion prevents movement of hinge pin
Output Shaft 1 steel extrusion supports actuator gear

Some pictures are from previous group. If theirs are much clearer, then we consider to take them.

Manufacturing Methods

  • Part

13mm Bolt, 10mm Bolts

  • Manufacturing Methods

Part:13mm Bolt, 10mm Bolts

  • Methods

Heading, thread rolling, blackening and galvanization.

  • Evidence:The bolts can be separated into 2 parts, such as head and thread. The first two parts of manufacturing are used to complete the whole body of the bolts, the final part is used to prevent for the bolts from oxidation.
  • Material Choice

Material choice did impact the choice. We never use rolling blackening and galvanization for plastic. We don't need to use it because it won't oxidation.

  • Shape

If there is no head part for bolts, then we won’t need the process of heading.

  • Global Concern :There is global concern for the bolts. We use English units and other countries use SI units. So the dimension of the bolts is always different. If the bolts are made by Japan and you want to use them for your car, you need to convert first and then find which you can use.
  • Economic:When a bolt is being made, we always need to consider whether it’s very expensive for manufacture. There are different classes for bolts which means different price and different accuracy. We won't use the same kind of bolt with that for a apaceship. Then the totle price of the bolt may worth a whole transmission machine.

Environmental:We won't use Ra because that it is radioactive, that's why we choose steel because it doesn't pollute the environment.

  • Societal:If the bolt is not strong enough to hold the body, the transmission will be very easy to break and thus it's dangerous to drive when the the transmission breaks.
  • Part

Sun gear

  • Method

Drill holes(drilling),Create teeth(Broaching)

  • Evidence:There is one hole in the center of sun gear , that is manufactured by drilling. There are many teeth around the big holes, that’s manufactured by broaching.

Material Choice did impact this decision. We use steel to make this part because they are hard. And for steel, we always use maching mathod because they are high procision.

  • Economic Factors: Machining process takes a long time and makes the product’s price pretty high,so we need to consider whether it's worth to spend so much time and money on them, also, whether people will accept the price is also a problem to consider.
  • Environmental Factors : After manufacturing, there will be some metal left , we need to consider how to deal with these metals. They may be poisonous to people if we just throw them into water or on the ground.
  • Societal Factors: During machining, we need to use electric. The voltages between Asia and America are different. So we need to convert voltage in different places.

Global Factors There is global concern for the bolts. We use English units and other countries use SI units. So the dimensions of the bolts are always different. If the bolts are made by Japan and you want to use them for your car, you need to convert first and then find which you can use.

  • Manufacturing Factors

Die Casting

  • Parts

Cover Plate.

  • Evidence: Cover Plate has very complicated shape and there are hollows inside of it. This part contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape so I believe it is die casting.
  • Material Choice: This affects much because we use die casting mostly on zinc, aluminum and magnesium or other kinds of metals. If the material is plastic, then we won't use casting at all.

Shape: This affects much because die casting is always for production of high volume, net-shaped, tight tolerance metal components. If the shape doen’t obey this rule, we may need to change other method.Economic Factors: Die casting is a fast, cost-effective manufacturing process for production of high volume, net-shaped, tight tolerance metal components. It has the benefit of increased quality and repeatability, often at lower costs compared to other processes. Environmental Factors: It will make the temperature around pretty high by using this method, and sometimes it leads to lots of pollution. However, if we can control the whole process pretty well, it won’t be a problem.

  • Societal Factor : This is pretty much the same with Environmental Concern. We need to consider the energy that needs for each part. If we need too much, then we have to use other methods.
  • Global Factors: Different places have different power, this will affect much for this method. We need pretty much thermal energy to heat the metal, so if it's not convinient to get thermal energy, like south pole,we can’t use this method any more.
  • Methods
  • Parts
  • Economic:It is really expensive to use this method and also time-consuming. The most important is that whether consumer can accept the price.
  • Material Choise:It will affect much because if the material is metal, then we will use casting instead of molding.
  • Shape:Shape does affect for the process because even for molding, there are many different kinds. This requires different methods of molding.
  • Evidence: The filter is made of plastic and manufacturing process can be molding for plastic.
  • Economic Factors: Molding can be very expensive,especially when we want it to be accurate.
  • Environmental Factors :Lots of molding will produce cancer-causing air and even the people who do this can get sick because of this. This will restrict us from using this method.
  • Societal Factors: It's not that safe because there's so much pollution.
  • Global Factor:There's few global factor. Maybe the unis is a kind of global factor. There are some holes in filtor, we use SI System, then the dimension will be different from that of Europe.
  • Manufacturing method: Link
  • Evidence: Manufacture method and manufacturing apparatus for power transmission chain according to the invention are adapted to accomplish exact positioning of pin members and link plates. This permits the pin members to be positively press-inserted into pin holes of the link plates and hence, the fabrication of the power transmission chain is facilitated.
  • Material Choice:There are many choices for the material of a chain, like plastic.We don't choose them because they are not hard enough.
  • Shape Factor:Although chain is made of steel, it has some kind of softness by linking each small part together. If the is as straight as a stick, it can’t transfer mechanical power to gears and also can’t use this kind of method to make it.Global Factor
  • Global Factor

The material of the chain is steel, so we need to consider geography factor. If there is few steel, then we have to change a place. Another os the dimension factor, the units use in the USA are very different from those of Europe.

  • Economic Factor:if the reqirenment of the qulity if the pin and the tolerences are very high, the price will be high, too.
  • Environmental:There will be some steel left after manufacturing, so we need to consider how to deal woth those metals.
  • Societal Factor:This factor connects to whether it's easy for us to find a fascility to manufacture the chain.


Product Analysis

The major Engineering decisions during the design of the Transmission were based on Four important factors.
1.Global Factors: Availability of resources and geography of the area plays a major role in deciding how and in what quantity the product has to be produced.
2.Economic Factors: The cost of the raw material used to manufacture the different components of Transmission determine the overall cost of the product. Most of the parts of the Transmission are made of Steel which is an alloy of Iron and Carbon. The cost of such material is much less in comparison to other alloys and the durability of the different parts of the transmission is increased.
3. Environmental Factor: The design of the Transmission and the manufacturing of its different components leads to pollution of surrounding from the toxic chemicals produced by the manufacturing plants increasing the danger to the ecosystem. In addition to the pollution of soil from such toxic waste, the smoke that is released from the chimneys also pollute the air. Another aspect is to reduce the extra consumption of gas during the functioning of the automatic transmission. Engineers must come up with a better design of the transmission component so that it works as good as the manual transmissions.
4.Societal Factor: The cost of maintenance, reliability and comfort experienced by the customer determines how popular the particular Transmission is. Advances in technology have allowed the newer transmissions to be efficient, smooth shifting and easy to operate.

Here are some specific components of the Transmission whose design, manufacture and functions are based upon the four concerning factors of Global, Economics, Environment and SOciety.

1.Sungear:The function of the sungear is adjusting gear ratios. It helps to perform multiple functions because by controling gear ratios, the whole transmission will change to different gears.There are 2 sungears, the Primary sungear and Forward sungear. The Primary sun gear is splined to the main shaft of the transmission and the Forward is free to turn independent of the shaft, but is meshed with the pinion gears. A long pinion gear connects the Primary and Forward sugears. Environment? The shape of the sungear is like a hollow cylindrical with teeth inside.The sungear is circle symmetric. It is a three-dimensional. The diameter for sungear is 20cm and the height is 10cm. The shape of the sungear makes it easy to connect with other gears, like the teeth makes the connection between between each gear very strong and eacy to rotate , thus they can change the gear ratio.The weight of the sungear is about 10kg. It is made from steel.The manufacturing decision impacts a lot since we need strong material for sungear or it will break easily and since it is steel, we use die casting to make the desired shape. Yes, we need hard material for sungear. The economic concern will influence the manufacturing mathod a lot.Casting always needs lots of money to make a die and because of this, the price of the product will be higher than we expect. If the customer won't accept the price, all our work is useless. For global factor, the units between the USA and Europe are different. If the sungear is made in Germany, after sending to the USA, we need to change the dimension and then combine to appropriate part. The sungear looks not bad.Actually, I don't think there is any aesthetic purpose for sungear.The color is shiny because the steel is shiny. The manufacturing method for sungear is drill holes(machining) and create teeth(Broaching). Material and shape choice definitely affect the decision. The economic factor affects the choosing of the material a lot. We can't choose Au for this part because it's too expensive. We can't use radioactivity metal either because it will not only polute the environment, but also will hurt and even kill people.Sun gear is not very complex. This is the first class which means the easiest class part. I don't think there is any interaction between component and user. 2. Pump or Gear Pump:Its function is to pump fluid to the transmission using the meshing of gears to pump by displacement.The structure of the pump is made of a

Solid Modeled Assembly

We choose this planetary gear set for Solid Modeled Assembly because when we take apart and look inside an Automatic Transmission, we find a huge component of parts in a fairly small space. Among other things, we see a lot of gears meshed together in an intricate manner. The center of attention was the Planetary Gear-set. Its the component that creates all the different gear ratios that transmission can produce and everything else in the transmission is there to help the planetary gear set to function. Therefore, We decided to provide solid model of this component.

Also, since there are so many good softwares to draw such as Solid works, Pro engineer, and Inventor, Auto CAD is an essential skill to express an engineer's idea into an almost reality while the software being easy to learn.

Engineering Analysis

Problem statement.

Find outlet torque from engine to transmission by each inlet torque and gear ratio if inlet torque is at 3000rpm

Gear Ratio 1st 2.315:1 2nd 1.568:1 3rd 1.195:1 4th 1.000:1 5th 0.915:1

Diagram of the system.

Statement of assumptions.
The friction of each work is regardless.
The flow of transmit is constant.

Governing equations.
α x β= γ
α=inlet torque from engine.
Β=gear ratio of each gear.
γ=outlet torque from transmission.

1st 3000rpm x 2.315 = 6945rpm
2nd 3000rpm x 1.568 = 4704rpm
3rd 33000rpm x 1.195 = 3585rpm
4th 3000rpm x 1.000 = 3000rpm
5th 3000rpm x 0.915 = 2745rpm

Solution check:
No error found assumptions and calculations.
The result is reasonable.

Higher gear has lower outlet torque, so lower gear allows faster acceleration.

Component Function


 All transmission creates metal particles and band materials when transmission is operated. Transmissions filters are used to filter these particles and materials and hold until filters are replaced. The filter can keep maintaining transmission fluid clean for right transmission operation. There is only function for the transmission filters. The transmission filters are associated with all parts that require transmission oil. The filters are functioning all the time while transmission is running. The filter looks metal plate like oil fan but smaller than the fan. This filter is almost axis-symmetric but not exactly and it is three dimensional. The filter is about 7(L) x 10(W) x 1.5(H) large. The shape of filter doesn’t couple to the function but the filter is located very end of surface, so it is designed to fit area that filters goes nearby. The filter is very light weight that even can lift by two fingers. The filter is made from steel, rubber, and plastic. Steel is not best material for this but steel is relatively cheaper metal than others metal that can use for cover, so steel is chosen. Steel, material of cover, is strong, so it is used for protection. Rubber piece is used as seal that can prevent oil leak. Plastic is used to hold actual filter that is between cover and clean oil. It’s used for light weight and cheap price. Rubber and Plastic materials are terrible for eco friendly. But since rubber’s price that is relatively cheaper and very effective to prevent for leakage, it‘s very hard to find alternative. There is no aesthetic purpose other than fitness for area that goes filter. All of material is natural color that steel, cover, is metallic silver, rubber and plastic is black because the transmission is usually located invisible place under the hood. The transmission need to concern about functions but aesthetic. It is only finished for smooth surface for functional reason. Molding is used to make the filter. The filter is made of plastic and manufacturing process can be molding for plastic. It will affect much because if the material is metal, then we will use casting instead of molding. The filter shape is deep plate shape. Molding method is very good with this shape, so molding is selected for shape too. Molding can be very expensive, especially when we want it to be accurate. Lots of molding will produce cancer-causing air and even the people who do this can get sick because of this. This will restrict us from using this method. It's not that safe because there's so much pollution. There's few global factor. Maybe the unit is a kind of global factor. There are some holes in filter, we use SI System, and then the dimension will be different from that of Europe.

cover plate

The functions of cover plate is protecting and fixing the transmission parts to do their job more efficiently. There is no association with any function of other transmission part with cover plate. The reason is that the main role of cover plate is just protecting and fixing the parts. The cover plate is located on the outer side of transmission. Therefore it is faced with all of other environments. And endure the obstacles from the environments. The general shape of cover plate is not special. The scale of this component is enough to cover the outer part of transmission. It is shaped like plate. And the scale of the component is about (L x W x H)= (55cm x 15cm x 45cm). There are 16 hole at the outer boundary of cover plate. And the holes are used to fix the plate to the transmission by using the bolts. The shape of cover plate is like a bowl it has space at the center of it. And the space is used to protect well the other transmission parts. The weigh of cover plate is about 10lb. it is made by zinc, aluminum, magnesium or other kinds of metals. When the transmission has a problem in working , we need to change the whole of this machine. Metals are used for the transmission mainly. Their for it we can use the metal which can be recylcled, it would be helpful to environmental section. There will be casting/machining/molding can be used to make the cover plate. Casting and machining will be used to make holed of outer boundary of transmission. And the molding will be used to make the whole shape of transmission. The metal is used to compose the cover plate. The reason is that the role of cover plate is protecting the other parts of transmission. Therefore some strength should be contained on the material.The meaningful scale of the transmission is just enough to cover the space of transmission.


1.What function does the component perform? The main function of our component Transmission system is that it provides speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device using gear ratio. When the input shaft rotates, the countershaft rotates also. The gears in countershaft rotate to forward or reverse as a respond of rotates of input shaft. Each of forward gears on the counter shaft is permanently meshed with a corresponding gear on the output shaft. A Torque Converter connects the Transmission to the Engine via a rotating Crankshaft providing torque to the Torque converter. In addition, the running Transmission Fluid provides Kinetic Energy within the converter which allows it to gain extra torque and hence keeping the engine running while the vehicle is stationary. Thus, it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds and therefore increasing "breakaway" acceleration. A Pump pumps in pressurized Transmission fluid to Torque Converter from a sump. In the same way it is responsible for pumping pressurized fluid to other components of the transmission. The input of the Pump is the rotating Flywheel connected to the engine. Hence the pump provides pressure whenever the engine is running and also when there is enough transmission fluid. The Torque converter is connected to the Planetary Gears via a Lay-shaft over which the Planetary Gears are setup. The rotational motion of the shaft provides the working of the gears. The Planetary Gears are as set of gears arranged in a definite order. When arranged in a certain ratio, they are responsible for the different variations in rotational energy of the Drive shaft or the Output shaft of the Transmission. However the different variations in speed are accomplished by the help of Clutches and Bands. These help in setting up of the different ratios of the Planetary Gear in order to gain certain amount of Torques or rotational energy for the preceding Lay-shaft or the output. These Clutches and Bands a particular member of the planetary gearset motionless, while allowing another member to rotate, thereby transmitting torque to the shaft. The Bands are also used for Braking. The mechanism that helps the clutch and the bands to actuate is done by the Valve Body. The Valve Body works on the principle of fluid mechanics. Pressurized Fluid is injected into the valve body by the same Pump that is responsible for the Torque Converter. The valve body comprises of a number of a network of spring-loaded valves, check balls and servo pistons. The valves use this pump pressure and the pressure from a Governer on the output side (as well as hydraulic signals from the range selector valves and the throttle valve or modulator) to control which ratio is selected on the gearset via the clutches and bands. As the vehicle and engine change speed, the difference between the pressures changes, causes different sets of valves to open and close hence triggering the clutch and bands to select the best gear ratio possible. Next, the output of Rotational energy from the different Gear rations of the Planetary Gearset is conveyed through the Driveshaft or the Output shaft to the Differentials or Axles. Note: The Fluid used for lubrication, corrosion prevention of the various parts of the Transmission is the same Transmission fluid that is pumped from the sump to the various parts in the Valve body and the Torque Converter. It is called Automatic Transmission Fluid.
2.Does the component help to perform multiple functions? Yes. In a nutshell, (a) The transmission directs the power from the engine to the wheels. (b) It is responsible for the different variations in speed and power of the vehicle as desired by the driver.
3.What flows are associated with the component? The different Flows can be classified into three terms:
Mass: Most of the components of transmission are made up of steel which makes the whole system to withstand high amounts of stress over the component enabling it to resist forming cracks and bends.
Signal: In our Turbo-Hydramatic transmission, main functions are carried about by the Valve body. The valve body consists of the Transmission fluid which is responsible for the energy transmission with in the system at high pressure. The Transmission Pump is responsible for the pressurized fluid in the valve body which in turn is controlled by electronics.
Energy: The transmission of energy from the rotating parts of the engine to the wheels of the vehicle is carried about by the transmission. There is almost no conversion of rotational energy from the engine to the wheel of the vehicle by the transmission.
4. What environment does the component function in? The transmission works under high stress produced by the immense kinetic energy produced through the engine. There is friction involved with in the different parts of the transmission and hence the different parts are kept lubricated.

Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)

What material is the component made from? Every component is aluminum except oil fan seal. Oil fan seal is rubber. Mass of material is lighter than other possible materials.So, it can be used for higher fuel efficiency. Aluminum is approximately, 3 times lighter than steel.One of advantage for using aluminum is not only for lighter car weight but also for fuel efficiency.Another advantage for using aluminum is aluminum makes ease of processing a wide range of cosmetic techniques that can be used.Aluminum cosmetic material has two main materials. One is pressing cosmetic material and another is die-cast cosmetic material. Pressing cosmetic material allows sequential process even shape is complicated. Moreover,it can be made light weight and high strong property structure. Aluminum material can decrease number of parts.Die-cast cosmetic material can make complicated shape for one and join the pressing material to small parts.Like this, manufacture can make parts light weight, high strong property, and high level of safety by using property of aluminum. Aluminum material is also good for environmental reason because of recycling. It’s easy to recycle aluminum and has been upgraded recycling technology. Energy for recycling is also relatively small. Because aluminum material can be processed high strong property, it’s easy to satisfy global safety standard.Aluminum is usually expensive than other possible materials. Even though higher price, aluminum’s advantages bring high satisfaction. Manufacturer chooses aluminum material. Rubber is very efficiency to block from leaking, so oil fan is sealed by rubber.

What are the aesthetic properties of the component?

The transmission components don’t have any aesthetic properties and aesthetic purpose because the transmission is usually locatedinvisible place under the hood. The transmission needs to concern about functions.Color of components are all silver, natural material color because it is located invisible place, so don’t need to concern for aesthetic purpose. It is only finished for smooth surface for functional reason.

Component Complexity

  • How complex is each component?

Generally, Hydramatic is composed by fluid coupling and gearsets. Especially, the component of gearset is complex. In gear set, gears and shafts are meshed each other to trasfer the power.The hydramaic has four different gear ratios in forward speed. Therefore the gears are located in their own place to make the gear ratios.

  • Define a meaningful scale?

Hydramatic has four different gear ratios. And these gear ratios are made by different scale of gears which are meshed. The differences are make different outlet power. Hydramatic have fixed gear ratio. It means that gears have fixed scale to make that gear ratios.

  • How do the three categories above impact complexity?

There are different color, scale and locations in each components. And transmission has a lot of components. Therfore the diversity in components make this machine more complex.

  • How complex are the interactions?

In gearbox, the matching of the gear are changed continuously during the driving. Because eachgear ratio has their own object to drive more efficiently.

  • How can you define a meaningful scale?

Hydramatic has four different gear ratios. And these gear ratios are made by different scale of gears which are meshed. The differences are make different outlet power. Hydramatic have fixed gear ratio. It means that gears have fixed scale to make that gear ratios.

Design Revisions

These are our proposed design revisions to the Transmission that we feel would improve the overall performance and maintenance of the product.
1.Bolts and screws:While dissecting the components of the Transmission, We had been using different size wrenches to unscrew the bolts. If there was a common screwdriver for all the screws on the transmission then it would have been very easy fpr us to take apart the transmission rather than look for the various screwdrivers. This satisfies the societal concern as any person with a screwdriver could take apart the transmission casing.
2.Hydraulic Valve system: This component of Transmission is used to control the clutches responsible for meshing the different gears in the correct ratios. This is done when fluid at high pressure runs through the valves which are connected to the parts holding the clutches. Our idea is to get rid of this Hydraulic valve system and replace it by an electronic mechanical system. In this way, the response time for the clutches to act on the gearset will be improved and will also help in reducing the cost of maintenance of the component as there will be less moving parts.
3.Heat sink: 90% of the transmissions breakdown due to overheating. We suggest a bigger and wider Heat sink than the original one so that it can absorb more heat and reduce the temperature with in the transmission. This could immensely help in lowering the probability of transmission failure and thereby would help satisfy the economic concern arising from the cost fixing the transmission. Another suggestion could be the introduction of a transmission cooler.

Gate 4


The purpose of this gate is to document the procedure of the reassembly of our product and present it in the form of a technical report in a professional manner. The aim of this gate is to gain the better understanding of the working of the product, what are its origins and how it was manufactured, and lastly what changes can be made to the product keeping in mind the four factors of Economic, Societal, Global and Environmental concern. At least three design revisions will be proposed based on these factors.

Project Management: Critical Project Review

Group meeting will be December 11 2010 to revise all of the gates. 2 people will revise gate 1~4. 3 people will start Final gate. The previous graded gates will be used to figure out what is missing. Wiki for the gates will be arranged sturcters and uploaded missing pictures too.

Product Archaeology: Product Explanation

Project Reassembly

How was the product originally assembled? The Product was originally assembled in an Assembly plant in Windsor. Most of the components of the automatic transmission components are put in place by hand with the aid of machines. Other heavy parts of the automatic transmission are placed solely by machines guided by computers. The following video shows how the assembly of an Automatic transmission takes place.

Design Revisions

1.In general , the hydraulic transmission machine is not engine efficiency. The motor’s speed is faster than hydraulic transmission can bear by breaking the gear. So we need to use stronger gear so they can work better. For example, we can use Ti. Even though Ti is always very expensive, I think it’s much better because fixing the transmission machine also needs lots of money. This has relationship with economic concern by reducing the money for consumer to maintain the machine but also increasing the money for Ti material itself.


2.The body of transmission machine is too heavy, thus it will reduce the efficiency of the car. It is better to choose Aluminum because the density of aluminum is not as high as steel and the price is also substantial. Even though the strength of the Aluminum is not very good, it doesn’t matter because the body is not involved in working with the other parts of the transmission machine , that means it won’t have much damage. Global concern: there are lots of places which have Aluminum and thus we don't need to worry about where to find Aluminum. Environmental: Aluminum is a kind of recyclable metal, thus it won't create much polution


3. Most of transmission machines don’t have drain plugs to drain the old fluid. This make it really a messy job when we try to change the fluid. So we suggest to put a drain plugs into the machine so that it will make it easy for maintenance. This has relationship with economic factors because this will make it easier when changing the fluid and thus save more money for maintenance.

Reassembly process

<Front part>

 Step 1
 (1) We assemble the clutch rings and the ring gears to make the inner clutch pack
 (2) we put the inner clutch pack inside the front big hole of transmission.
     The big circular ring is used to fix the part inside the transmission.

Step 2 
(1) we assembled sun gear, hollow shaf and clutch housing shell to make this part.

(2) We put the assembled part inside the front big hole of transmission.

Step 3  
(1)we put chains, gears and shafts to the transmission.
(2) we cover fist shell of transmission. at this time we used some 
   bolts to fix the shell

Step 4
(1) we assemled small parts on the hall of the shell.
(2) we put the shell on the transmission. and we put the thin metal board between the transmission and the shell.
(3) we put this part on the shell. we used some bolts to fix this shell.
 Step 5
 (1) we use small shell to cover the parts what we put on the transmission. during the work we used some bolts to fix it.
  (2) we cover outer shell to the front part of transmission.

 <Side part>
 Step 1
 (1) we put the shaft and rubber ring the the small hall of transmission.
 (2) we cover the shell on the shaft to fix it.
 Step 2
 (1) we put 3 shafts on the fit place of the transmission. and fix it with the small metal plates and bolts
 (2) we cover the metal plate on the transmission.
 (3) we cover the outer shell on the transmission and fix it with bolts.

Is the assembly the same as the disassembly?

In general, assembly and replacement are in reverse order of disassembly and removal. However we have to know the correct site to place bolts and nuts because there are so many them with various lengths. And when we put the clutch ring into the transmission, it was so hard to find exact direction with various indents.
Because thinking the correct place to fit is more difficult than finding the bolts and nuts to loose them, the assembly was more difficult than the disassembly. Moreover, because we did not have suitable tools to put clutch rings into the transmission, we was so hard.

Gate 5


As a group, we did lots of work this semester for transmission machine. We learned a lot and corrected lots of problems by checking with the previous Gates. These thing are what we have changes from Gate 1 to Gate 4.
Gate 1

  • Added "How long will each stage take".
  • Meeting plan
  • Added "Who"; "Where";"when";"what"; Add more details anout"why".
  • Added"Contact information" to "Should identify a point of contact".
  • Added information to the benefit to a lighter engine.
  • Added more information to whether the competition is the only use.
  • Added more to whether or not our product really be used on a tank.
  • Added more to the type of the energy being used.
  • Added more to how to import energy.
  • Added more to the number of the component are used.
  • Added more to the intuitive of the interface.

Gate 2

  • Added everything to "Product Management".
  • Added everything to Product Archaeology.
  • Added details to Professionalism.
  • Added more details for table 1.

Gate 3

  • Added detatils into corrective action for "Project Management".
  • Added detatails to how the analysis will help this transmission.
  • Added everything to design revision.
  • Added figure labels to general.
  • Added details for "Product Analysis".
  • Added all pictures for "Product Analysis".
  • Added details for "Project Management".

Gate 4

  • Added evaluation to how the plan works so far.
  • Added difficult metric.
  • Added details to what differented the reassembly from the disassembly.
  • Added methods and tools used by GM.
  • The design revision is waiting for regrade.
  • Change the formate for reassembly process.
  • Added figure labels and captions.
  • Added pictures for design revision.
  • Change format and figures.

Technical Report

After revising all the previous gates, we tried our best to fix all the things. The technical reports is in the main page(this page) of every gate and we have subtitles for each topics of different Gates. The technical report can be accessed by clicking the links to different Gates.

Oral Presentation

Group 15 will give a presentation on 20th of December based on the previous work they have done. The presentation will be given by three persons. They are Mohammed Siddiqui, Kuocheng Wang and Seungkuk. The presentation will be seperated by three part:The introduction for autotransmission, the design revision and the conclusion.