Group 11 -GM V-6 Engine Final Submission

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Contents

Executive Summary

The dissection of the GM V-6 engine was a fairly smooth process. The group worked reasonably well together and developed a professional working atmosphere. This made the dissection and reassembling of the engine a much easier process. The development of large personal conflicts within the group almost certainly would have complicated the work greatly. A large reason for the smooth operation of the group was the original work and management proposal. By dividing the individual group members into distinct roles where they said they had experience helped keep the work manageable for each group member. This contributed greatly to the success of the group since all members were working in areas where they at least had some experience. Also, the work proposal assisted in the fact that the basic plan for times at which things were due was laid out from the beginning. The fact that the due dates for the gates set by the professor occurred after the due dates set by the group ensured that the assignments would get completed in a reasonable and timely manner.

Despite the smooth functioning of the members of the group, functioning of Group 10 with Group 11 was less than optimal for a large part of the project. This was due to a major flaw within the original work proposal. It failed to lay out concrete times with the other group as to what would be done and when it would be done. Instead, only verbal agreements were reached and a great number of miscommunications ensued. These miscommunications continued all the way through until the third gate. At that time, the groups sat down and laid out the exact plans as to who would do what and when it would to be done. After that meeting, the two groups functioned smoothly together and the project was completed with no further issues.

The first gate of the project was really just about finding background information on the motor. From this first part of the project, the group learned a great deal about the history of the development of the 4300 hundred series engine for GM as well as a lot about the specific model motor the group would be dissecting, the LG3. From the history of the development of the product, and from the information gathered about its uses, the group was already able to see some vague criteria the engineers had considered when designing it. Mainly, the economic consideration of gas mileage could be seen at this early stage in the project.

The second gate was when the actual dissection of the motor took place. This taught the group a great deal about the inner workings of an internal combustion engine as well the process of dissecting one. While the product was in the process of being dissected, the group could see the subsystems and there connections and make conclusions about why it was designed in that particular manner. By performing the dissection, the group was already beginning to get some ideas of possible reasons behind the design and possible ways they could modify it.

The third gate was all about an in depth evaluation of the components in the engine. This in depth examination allowed the group to consider some of the design decisions made by the engineers that they had overlooked in previous gates. Through the examination of the materials, the dimensions, and the shapes, the group was able to get a better understanding of how the engine functioned and why it functioned the way it did. It also allowed the group to consider design alterations to the engine that would improve the motor in some way. The examination of the components in such detail taught the group members a lot about what has been done to the motor and why, and how to improve on that.

The fourth gate taught the group a great deal about reassembly process as compared to disassembly. The reassembly process was fairly similar to the reverse order of the disassembly, but with some minor changes. The reassembly also allowed the group to further examine the engine and brainstorm further possible design revisions. Through the completion of gate four, the group was able to come up with its final proposed design revision to the system level.

Obviously, the dissection of the GM V-6 was a learning process for every group member involved. Every single gate taught the group something about mechanical systems or design. Through the completion of the gates, the group members were further able to brainstorm designs and gain a more in depth understanding of the mechanical systems involved in the motor.


Gate 1

Work Proposal

The GM Vortec 4.3 L LG 4300 V6 engine is to be disassembled in the order according to the most accessible sub-system present at the time. The reassembly shall be the reverse order of the disassembly, using the same tools and reverse procedure. Each component will be placed in a container marked with the appropriate sub-system so no components are confused. The engine will be first disassembled by major sub-system, and then each sub-system will be disassembled into smaller sub-systems or components.

The first and most accessible sub-system of the engine will be the intake manifold and fuel system. The distributor will first be removed by hand, and then the water hose will be removed with a ratchet and socket, then using a ratchet with appropriate sockets, several bolts that hold the intake onto the block will be removed. These steps will be fairly quick to accomplish. If the tools can be quickly located, the removal of the parts and the documentation of them should take only 3 to 5 minutes. The intake may then be lifted off the block. The next sub-system that will be accessible will be the exhaust manifold. Using a ratchet with extensions and appropriate sockets, several bolts that fasten the manifold to the head will be removed; once removed the manifold can be lifted off of the heads. Again, this step will be very quick and should not take more than five minutes. The heads will then be accessible to remove. First the valve covers that cover the head must be removed using a screw driver or ratchet and socket. This should take two or three minutes to accomplish. Once removed there will be several bolts exposed. Those bolts will be removed using the appropriate ratchet and socket. Once the bolts are removed from the heads, they can be lifted off. This should take two to five minutes. Next, the timing chain cover will be removed, once again with a ratchet and an appropriate socket. This should take no more than two minutes. The chain will be removed from both the crank shaft sprocket and cam sprocket. From there, the underside of the engine will be turned upright and the oil pan will be removed using once again a ratchet with an appropriate socket. Due to the sheer number of bolts on the oil pan, this will most likely take five to ten minutes. Once the oil pan is removed and lifted off, the bottom end of the engine will be exposed along with the crank shaft and attached connecting rods and pistons. First each connecting rod will be removed by unscrewing the bolts that encase it around the crank shaft. This can be accomplished with a ratchet and appropriate socket. This will probably take about ten minutes due to the how difficult it is to reach these bolts. Once they are removed, the crank shaft can be unbolted from the engine block using a ratchet with an appropriate socket. The crank shaft can then be lifted out from the bottom of the engine block and the pistons and connecting rods can be pushed out through the top. This again will take probably about ten minutes due to the difficulty of pushing the pistons out of the engine and the weight of the crankshaft. Next, the cam shaft can be pulled or tapped out using a hammer. This will take less than a minutes because nothing is holding it inside the motor. Finally, the push rods can be pulled out of the engine block. This will take about a minute because nothing is holding them inside the motor. Once all sub-systems are removed, they can be measured and further analyzed.

The group has identified several challenges involved with this project. First off, ensuring that all the small components are kept in an organized minor where they can be found easily for reassembly could prove to be a challenge. Also, reassembling the motor will be quite difficult. Particularly, putting the bottom part of the motor back together will be a serious challenge. Disassembling the bottom of the motor will be the most time consuming part of the disassembly.

Tools Needed

  • Ratchet set
  • Ratchet extensions
  • Metric and Standard Sockets
  • Screwdriver
  • Allen wrenches, both standard and metric
  • Wrenches of assorted sizes
  • Pliers

Strengths of the Group

  • All members of the group have at least some experience with taking apart motors.
  • Mr. Korzaniewski and Mr. Robinson have extensive experience in working with motors. Mr. Robinson has the experience from an internship at New Process Gear and Mr. Korzaniewski from working on automobiles in his garage.
  • Mr. Robinson and Mr. Kose have experience in solid modeling using CAD software.

Weaknesses of the Group

  • No one has any experience in uploading using a wiki. This will be addressed through the viewing of tutorials of the wiki site.
  • Several of the group members have very little experience with technical presentations.

Management Proposal

Proper management is vital to the success of a group. Therefore it is necessary to draw up a plan of management. The plan is to have each individual member of the group take up roles that have specific responsibilities. The project manager is then responsible for ensuring that the parts of the project are completed in time and in a professional manner. He also responsible for overseeing the project and ensuring that each member is fulfilling their responsibilities. Also, any part of the project that does not fall into any project members responsibilities, will then be distributed by the project manager. A group meeting will be held on Wednesdays and Fridays at 4:55 outside of Knox 104 to discuss the project and see if any group member needs assistance in fulfilling their responsibilities. This meeting will last twenty minutes.

Conflict Resolution Plan

In any sort of group, there will inevitably be the development of some conflict. Therefore, it is vitally important to the success of a group that there be some sort pre-developed conflict resolution plan in place. As a result, the standard conflict resolution method used by the group will be as follows. First time, a meeting between the project manager and the conflicting members will be scheduled. The conflict will addressed directly and the working relationship will be addressed. Second time, a group meeting will be held with all members present and there will be a discussion of possible ways to fix the issue. Third time, the professor will be notified of the issues. This path of conflict resolution only applies for serious conflicts in the group. Any conflict that is deemed minor will be dealt with by the project manager.

Roles

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  • Technical Expert: Group 11 has noted two of its member as technical experts. Mr. Korzaniewski and Mr. Robinson have both been selected to fill this role. This role has two major responsibilities involved with it. The aforementioned technical experts are in charge of overseeing the disassembly of the motor and then the reassembly of it.
  • Notary: Two group members were graciously volunteered for the role of notary. They were Mr. Korzaniewski and Mr. Kose. As notaries, they are responsible for documenting every aspect of the dissection of the motor and the reassembly of it. This includes documenting the tools used, the approximate time it took, the difficulty of each step, the dimensions of several components for later modeling, photographing every component of the motor, number of times a component is used, the material of the component, and the part number of the component.
  • Project Manager: Mr. Wise has become project manager. This role entails ensuring each aspect of the project is completed in a professional and timely manner, dividing up the work between group members, resolving conflicts within the group, communicating with other group assigned to the GM V6 Vortec, and assisting group member
  • Wiki expert: Both Mr. Strang and Mr. Wise are the group project Wiki experts. This role requires them to upload the information for the project to the course wiki site using the appropriate code.
  • Draftsman: Mr. Kose and Mr. Robinson were chosen as draftsman for this project. Their role includes, selecting three to five components from the motor and then modeling them on a using appropriate modeling software. It also includes creating an assembly that shows the components being assembled in the proper order.

Point of Contact

Daniel Wise (dpwise@buffalo.edu)

Gantt Chart

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Development Profile

The GM 4.3L LG3 V-6 originally began as a 4300 series motor introduced in 1985. It takes many of its characteristics from GM 350 cubic inch, 5.7 liter V-8’s by sharing very similar pistons, camshafts and cast iron block design. [3] When put into production, the 4300 series was meant to replace both the 229 and 250 cubic inch GM V-6’s in the Chevrolet Elcamino and was a welcome, more efficient change.[3] The first Vortec came out in 1988. [4] Where the engine took its next development to become closer to the LG3 motor was in 1996, when Vortec cylinder heads were introduced on that model, which are valued for their special way of spinning air and creating more power. [4] The 4300 series continued to evolve into several variants, like the L35 and LF6 until 2003 when the LG3 was introduced. Meant for use in GM S-Series vehicles like the Chevrolet S-10 and Blazer, it featured and new Multi-Port Fuel Injection System (MPI) and new emissions controls to comply with California emissions laws.[1] The LG3 was only used in 2003 and was replaced with the similar LU3, which is still in production today where all 4300 series V-6 motors were produced, Tonawanda, New York and Romulus, Michigan.[1]

When the 4300 series V-6 was first introduced, the only major world event occurring was the end of the cold war which overall, would have had little impact on engine or car production. In addition, the fuel crisis of the 1970’s was over and into the 1990’s, fuel efficiency wasn’t a very important factor to those in the market for a 4300 series powered vehicle. Where global and economic factors seem to have an impact was the construction of the LG3 model. Produced in 2003, it was meant to comply with California smog constraints for both emissions and to some degree fuel efficiency. Although the LG3 is no longer in production, the LU3 carries on this effort to comply with restrictions imposed by higher fuel prices and environmental worries. [1] Today GM offers an industrial version of the 4300 series to allow customers to be more efficient by designing the engine to run on not only gasoline but also propane and natural gas. [2]

Developed and produced in the United States, the main market for the 4300 series V-6 and more specifically the LG3, is North America but in some instances, it has been introduced into other markets. In South America, the Chevrolet S-10 is still produced in Brazil despite being discontinued in 2004 in the United States and features the 4300 V-6.[5] Also, in Japan beginning in the 1990’s the Chevy Astro Van was released in limited numbers and in its base form offered the 4300, until the vans discontinuation in 2005. [6] The other area where the 4300 was seen was in the Netherlands and in a few locations in Europe where the Chevrolet Express van was released. [7] Beginning in 1996 and still today, it was used as a cargo and personal transport vehicle but also as an ambulance and police transport vehicle. It can be assumed the 4300 series powered vehicles are operating all over the world but these are the only locations that they are documented as being sold at new.

For the consumer, the 4300 series V-6 was to be a replacement for the 229 and 250 cubic inch V-6’s in mid sized cars and small trucks. Taking many similar aspect from the 350 cubic inch V-8, the 4300 put out anywhere from 150-200 horsepower and 230-260 lb•ft of torque, respectable numbers for a V-6.[1] In 1996, GM gave the consumer a little more value by adding Vortec cylinder heads, then in 2003, with the LG3 model featured Multi-port Fuel Injection and again in 2004, a quieter cam-shaft with the LU3 model. [1] For the LG3 model, it was intended to power GM S-Series vehicles like the Chevrolet S-10 and Blazer but was phased out after one year. [1] For the industrial community, in 2011 GM is releasing a 4300 series industrial engine that can run not only on gas but also, propane and natural gas. In addition, it was documented that Toyota purchased 4300 series engines for their forklifts and also some marine variants have been produced for boats.[2] The intended impact of the 4300 LG3 on the consumer is to provide the consumer with good gas mileage as well as towing capability. This is why the motor is used in small trucks and SUVs.

Usage Profile

Since the development of the first internal combustion engine powered automobile, the intended use of the engine has been to convert chemical potential energy into mechanical energy. Specifically, the engine is supposed react oxygen and gasoline in order to create the power necessary to move the vehicle through the drive train. This intended use has remained fairly constant through the history of the internal combustion powered engine, however there are some variations on it. For example, a Ferrari motor has the same intended usage as the first vehicle, however it also is intended to travel at a high rate of speed, have excellent acceleration, and sound powerful . The Vortec V6 4300 LG3 has the same basic intended use as the motor in a Ferrari, however it varies in terms of what specific job the motor is best at performing. The Vortec V6 4300 LG3 is a truck motor that appeared in 2003 model S10s and Blazers. This shows that the intended use of the motor is to provide the consumer with a fairly cheap engine that can pull a fairly heavy load. The fact that the motor was not implemented into any large trucks or SUVs, like the Silverado, shows that it is not designed to carry very large loads on a regular basis. Still, the Vortec V6 4300 LG3 allows the operator to carry a good sized load and tow certain objects.

The engine can certainly be used for professional use by a contractor to carry tools or any other small load. As far as home use is concerned, the S10 and Blazer can be used for a daily driver all over town. The motor will also provide better gas mileage than the V8 Silverados or Suburbans.


Energy profile

The basic goal of any internal combustion motor is to convert chemical potential energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is in the form of torque. The way this occurs is through the reaction of gasoline and oxygen inside the engine block. The GM Vortec V6 4300 LG3 is fuel injected, so the gasoline is injected into the block and oxygen is sucked into it. A piston comes up and compresses the gasoline and oxygen mixture. Then the spark plug ignites the mixture firing the piston down and turning the crankshaft in the process. The crankshaft is connected to the wheels through the drive train and the wheels begin to spin. The conversion of chemical potential energy to mechanical energy is what allows an engine to function. The chemical potential energy is originally imported into the system through the fuel injector. Since a combustion reaction has the byproducts of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and energy, the energy can be used to perform work. In this case the energy released in the reaction is used to perform work by driving the piston downward causing a torque force to be applied to the crankshaft. The torque is sent through the transmission and to the wheels.

Complexity Profile

The internal combustion engine is exceptionally complex yet quite simple. It is complex in the sense that there are many moving parts performing different tasks and everything needs to be perfectly synchronized in order for the engine to function. However, the individual function of each component is simple in nature. The GM Vortec V6 engine is no different than any other gasoline powered internal combustion engine, at least in basic function. It is made up of about four hundred of components that work in unison to create a chemical reaction and convert chemical potential energy from the reaction into kinetic energy to move the car.

Components of an engine are assembled to create ‘sub-systems’. Sub-systems are assembled together to form a ‘system’ (engine). The components of each sub-system perform a simple task, however, the tasks that sub-systems perform in relation to the system are a bit more complex. The GM V6 consists of six main sub-systems, the engine block, heads, crankshaft and pistons, timing chain and cam shaft, and intake and exhaust manifolds.

  • Engine Block

The engine block is the base to which all the other sub-systems mount or assemble. The block has mounts for the intake manifold, exhaust manifolds, heads, oil pan, and various pumps while also providing the cylinder in which the pistons operate and the chemical reactions take place. Blocks are usually cast from iron or aluminum and machined to fulfill manufacturer tolerances. This particular engine block is made of cast iron.

  • Heads

The heads are the most complex sub-system within an engine. They contain the rocker arms, valves, springs, bearings, and push rods. The main operation performed by the heads is to sequentially open various valves and allow for the flow of the gas/oxygen mixture into the cylinder or to release, through the exhaust, the carbon dioxide and water byproducts of the chemical reaction. There are two heads on a V6 and they are bolted on the top of the engine block. The rocker arms are attached to a pin that runs along the top. They are pushed upwards by push rods, which are influenced by the cam shaft, and work against the action of a spring to push a valve inward, allowing for gas/oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide and water to exit.

  • Intake Manifold

The intake manifold is another simple yet vital sub-system to an engine. It bolts onto the engine block and serves as a platform for which the carburetor or fuel injection system mount. The main purpose of it is to channel the gas/oxygen mixture into various cylinders. Intakes are usually made out of cast iron or aluminum.

Exhaust Manifold The exhaust manifold performs in a similar manner to the intake manifold. The exhaust manifold bolts onto the engine block. When a cycle is completed, the waste byproducts are exhausted out of the cylinder and channeled through the exhaust manifold to the muffler and tail pipes. These manifolds are made out of formed iron or steel and get very hot.

  • Piston and Crank Shaft

The piston and crank shaft perform one of the most important functions of engine. The pistons are connected to the crankshaft via the connecting rods. The piston and crankshaft assembly fit into the cylinders of the block and the crankshaft’s bearings are secured to the block. When the gas and oxygen mixture is burned in sequential order within the cylinders, the combustion pushes the piston downward and rotates the crankshaft. As one piston moves downward another moves up compressing the gas/oxygen mixture and then combusting it. This in return causes the other piston to move up, forcing the exhaust out of the cylinder, through a valve, through the exhaust manifold, and out of the engine. This constant procedure causes the crankshaft to rotate. The rotation motion of the crankshaft is then passed though a transmission and then eventually to the wheels of a car.

  • Cam Shaft and Timing Chain

The cam shaft and timing chain are another crucial sub-system of an engine. The cam shaft is linked to the crankshaft by a chain and sprocket or gear and is bolted in the engine block. As the crankshaft rotates so does the cam shaft, usually at half the rpm of the crankshaft. As the cam shaft rotates, cams located on the shaft move the push rods up and down. The push rods open and close the intake and exhaust valves. The cam shaft is responsible for the timing in which fuel is introduced and exhaust is expelled. It is also responsible for spark plug ignition timing and for powering the oil pump. A gear located on the cam shaft rotates the distributor which distributes a spark to certain plugs at a certain time. The cam shaft is usually forged for steel or alloys.

Material Profile

The GM 4300 series LG3 V-6 motor uses basic motor building material that make the engine simple yet durable. From just looking at the engine, it is easy to see the use of a cast iron in the engine block, lower intake, valve covers, cylinder heads and exhaust manifolds and stamped steel pulleys, brackets and braces. The 4300 LG3 also utilizes a large amount of cast aluminum, seen in its oil pan, alternator housing, upper intake, throttle body and many other brackets on the front of the engine. There are also numerous plastics used on the clips, brackets and engine caps along with rubber used for the spark plug wires, hoses and serpentine belt. Various types of fastener are used but are all steel for added strength and in the alternator some copper can be seen and it is certain that there is additional amounts in the distributor and wires.

Although the materials used inside of the engine are not visible, it can be assumed that since there is enormous pressure inside of engines, the materials are all strong. Forged steel will most likely be used for the pistons, camshaft, crankshaft, connecting rods, valve springs and bolts. In addition some steel will be present in the oil pump and gaskets which will have an additional rubber coating. While operating, inside the engine there will be both oil and gasoline present.

User interaction profile

The usage of the Vortec 4300 is highly intuitive in terms of operating a motor vehicle. The only two real interfaces between the operator and engine are the gas pedal and the key operated starter. When the motor is properly installed in the vehicle, the operator only has to turn the key to start the car and push the gas pedal to control the amount of power the engine is putting out. Automotive culture is so firmly engrained in American culture that almost all people will know exactly how to operate this engine when in a vehicle.

As far as maintenance goes, it is vitally necessary that it is done regularly in order to ensure the longevity and continued optimum performance of the motor. First off, the motor needs to be supplied with eighty seven octane gasoline. Obviously, this procedure is highly intuitive and does not require much technical skill to accomplish. This requires the operator to regularly fill up his or her gas tank. Also, the oil needs to be changes every few thousand miles. This needs to be done for several reasons, but the main reason is to ensure that the friction between engine components does not lead to a catastrophic failure within the motor. This process is of moderate difficulty for the average person. It does require some technical skill, however it can be completed in a fairly short amount of time. The oil level should be regularly checked as well. The coolant level as well should be checked regularly and topped off if it is low.

Product Alternative Profile

The 2003 Chevrolet S10 came standard with either the Vortech 4.3 liter V6 or a 2.2-liter inline 4 cylinder. The 4.3 liter pumps out a respectable 190 HP at 4,400 rpm and 250 ft lb of torque at 2,800 rpm. It also is relatively fuel efficient getting 25 and 19 mpg highway and city driving respectively. [9] The base model 2.2 liter four cylinder produces only 120 HP at 5,500 rpm and 140 ft lb of torque at 3,600 rpm. [9] The four cylinder gets 22 city and 28 highway. [9] The V6 is more efficient at delivering power and torque at lower rpm’s. The only clear disadvantages of the V6 versus the four cylinder would be gas mileage and price. The base model 4 cylinder is about 2000 dollars cheaper. [9] Alternatively the Ford Ranger, a similarly sized truck is available with a 3.0 liter V6 and a 2.3 liter inline four cylinder. The 3.0 liter makes less power than the Chevy V6 producing only 154 HP at 5200 rpm and 180 ft lb of torque at 3900 rpm. [8] The 2.3 liter four cylinder produces higher numbers than the Chevy making 135 HP at 5050 rpm and 153 ft lb of torque at 3750 rpm. [8] The 3.0 liter and 2.3 liter have similar fuel efficiency numbers compared to their Chevy counterparts producing 19 and 24 city, and 23 and 29 highway respectively. [8] The base prices for the Fords are very similar, varying by only $500. The Chevy is priced only $1000 higher than the Ford.[8]

Gate 2

Dissection Process

Preliminary Project Review

The actual process of dissecting the motor went almost exactly as planned in terms of process. The process, originally outlined in the work proposal, was very similar to the process that actually took place. However, there were a few parts omitted in the work proposal that needed to be removed. The pulleys were not mentioned as needing to be removed, but the removal of these pulleys proved to be a fairly elementary task that posed no major issues. Also, the removal of the harmonic balancer was originally omitted from the work proposal. This proved to be an omission of much greater importance. The removal of the harmonic balancer was a difficult task that was both physically strenuous and technically taxing. The removal of this piece took about forty five minutes, including a discussion between group members present on the best way to remove the part. Still, once this issue was resolved, the dissection went smoothly according to the process outlined in the work proposal.

One of the major difficulties originally identified by the group can be found in the work proposal. It states, “ensuring that all the small components are kept in an organized manor where they can be found easily for reassembly could prove to be a challenge.” This was a constant concern for the group, some of the members used many Ziploc bags and garbage bags with labels to ensure that the bolts and components could be easily located and reassembled when necessary. Another difficulty was not originally identified. The removal of the flywheel turned out to be more difficult than had been anticipated. This was due to the small amount of space between the flywheel and the engine stand. Still, this difficulty was overcome by the group in a relatively short amount of time.

The group members worked very well together on this gate. That can be said for both the disassembly of the engine and the construction of the gate. Each member contributed their part of project within the specified time. Also, no conflicts have arisen between group members to this point.

The major issue that arose during the dissection of the engine was a lack of communication between group 10 and group 11. No plan for working together was outlined in the work proposal which proved to be a major weakness for the dissection. Although not outlined in the work proposal, it was agreed between the project managers that each group would remove a head from the top of the motor and at that point the bottom of the motor would be divided between the two groups. It was also stated that group 11 planned on working mostly on Mondays and Wednesdays, while group 11 planned on working on Tuesdays and Thursdays. As per the original plan, group 11 went into the lab on October 4th, around 11:00am, and began dissecting the motor. The top of the motor was removed and then a head was removed. After that, the intake manifold and intake manifold cover were reattached in order to allow the other group to disassemble it as well. On October 11th, the group again returned to the lab to see how far the other group had progressed on the dissection. They had not begun the dissection at this point. At this point, the project manager decided to go ahead and began taking apart the front of the motor. The water pump and the pulleys were removed. The timing chain cover was also unbolted, but the harmonic balancer was still on the crankshaft so it could not be removed. No one in the group was sure on the proper way to remove the harmonic balancer. The group stopped for the day and decided to meet again on Wednesday, however the meeting on Wednesday was later canceled due to scheduling conflicts. A meeting to work on the project was scheduled for October 18th, a week before the gate was due. The assumption at that point was that group 10 would have been to the lab and begun dissecting the motor. At this point, the two group managers should have met and discussed this, but no such meeting took place. On Monday October 18th, the group met up in the dissection lab at about 11:30am only to find that group 10 still had not begun the dissection. At this point, the group members needed to make a decision. They could either wait until Wednesday and hope that group 10 planned on working in the lab on the 19th , or they could get as far on the dissection process as possible and then talk to group 10 and provide them with all the information needed. If the group waited until the 20th and group 10 still had not begun the dissection, then the entire bottom of the motor would have to be dissected in three hours. This option was deemed unacceptable and so the group proceeded on October 18th to begin the disassembly of the bottom of the engine. Once the harmonic balancer was removed, the dissection process went very smoothly and the dissection was completed by about two o’ clock. At that point, it was decided to talk to group 10 and offer them the notes on the process, the tools used, pictures, the difficulties encountered, and anything that they needed since they were not present for the dissection. In class, the group managers discussed the engine and the group manager from group 10 stated that his group planned to do the dissection this week. When the project manager from group 11 informed him that the dissection was completed and offered him and his group any assistance they needed, he stated that his group planned to reassemble the motor and then dissect it again and that they would let the group know what information was needed.

Clearly this situation necessitates much improved communication between the project managers of group 10 and group 11. In order to improve the communication between groups, group 11 plans to set a time each week where the two project managers sit down and discuss the plans for the project. This will help avoid these communication issues between groups in the future.

Difficulty Analysis

  • Difficulty is a quite subjective concept. As a result, any defined scale will be inherently subjective. So this scale is written for an individual who has average strength and minor technical knowledge. The difficulty of each step of the dissection is then to be divided into two different sections. The first is the physical difficulty. This involves the difficulty of the physical labor involved with removing an individual component. This is rated on a scale of one to five using the following table:

Table 1: Physical Difficulty Rating

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  • The second section of difficulty is the technical difficulty. This involves the intuitiveness of the tools needed to remove the part.

Table 2: Technical Difficulty Rating

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Table 3: Dissection process

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Step 1

  • The throttle body of the engine was removed using a 10mm socket and a ratchet with a 3/8in drive and counter-clockwise rotations until the bolts were completely removed from the threaded hole. A total of three 10mm x 4-7/16in bolts were removed with ease and no unforeseen challenges arose. The throttle body is located on the intake manifold towards the front of the engine. The throttle body is a lightweight part and required very little force to remove, so the physical difficulty was rated as a one. Only a socket and ratchet were needed to removed it, making the technical difficulty a two. The part was obviously design to be removed since it was held in place by several clearly visible bolts. The reason it was designed to be removed is so that maintenance can be easily performed to areas on the top of the engine block.

Throtin.jpg

Step 2

  • The distributor was removed without any tools. A threaded hole was present but there were no bolts securing the part to the engine. It is located on the top of the engine towards the back. The distributor extends down into the motor and is connected to the camshaft. The distributor was removed simply by lifting it up and out of its hole by hand. Since the distributor is plastic, very lightweight, and required no tools to remove, the physical and technical difficulty were both rated as a one. It is impossible to say whether or not it was designed to be removed since it was just placed back into the engine block without connecting it in any way.

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Step 3

  • The intake manifold cover was removed. This was located on the very top of the motor. Six, 10mm x 2-1/4in bolts were removed using a 10mm socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet and counter-clockwise rotations until the bolts were completely removed from the threaded hole. Once all of the bolts were removed, the cover was simply lifted off of the intake manifold by hand. This step required little mechanical knowledge and no unforeseen challenges arose. Since the intake manifold cover is plastic and lightweight, the physical difficulty was rated a one. The technical difficulty was rated a two since a socket and ratchet were necessary. The intake manifold cover was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that maintenance can easily be performed to the top of the motor.

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Step 4

  • The exhaust manifolds (qty. 2) were removed using a 9/16in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet and counter-clockwise rotations until the bolts were completely removed from the threaded hole. These were located on the side of the engine. A total of twelve, six on each side, 9/16in x 1-1/2in bolts were removed using the socket and ratchet and the manifolds were lifted off by hand. This step required little mechanical knowledge and no unforeseen challenges arose. Since the exhaust manifold was fairly lightweight and easy to remove, the physical difficulty was rated as a one. The technical difficulty was rated as a two since a socket and a ratchet were needed. The exhaust manifold was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably because the exhaust manifolds are often changed by truck owners in order to alter the sound of the truck.

Exhaustmani.jpg

Step 5

  • The valve covers (qty. 2) were removed using a 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet and counter-clockwise rotations until the bolts were completely removed from the threaded hole. These were located on the top of the motor on the top of the head. There were a total of six bolts, three on each side of the valve cover. Once the 1/2in x 2-1/8in bolts were removed the covers were easily lifted off by hand. No unforeseen challenges arose during this step. Since the valve covers are plastic and lightweight, the physical difficulty was rated as a one, while the technical difficulty was rated as a two because a ratchet and socket were needed. The valve covers were designed to be removed since they were held in place by three obvious bolts. This is probably so that maintenance can easily be performed to the top of the head.

E.jpg

Step 6

  • The intake manifold was removed from the top of the engine. This was affixed to the top of the engine block with eight 1/2in bolts. These bolts were removed with a 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet. After several counterclockwise turns, the bolts were easily removed. Once all bolts were removed from their threaded holes this part was lifted off by hand without any interference. The physical difficulty of removing the intake manifold is rated as a three because the intake manifold is of moderate weight. The technical difficulty was rated as a two because a socket and a ratchet were needed. The intake manifold was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that maintenance can easily be performed to the top of the motor.

Intakemani.jpg

Step 7

  • The heads (qty. 2) were removed using a 9/16in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet and counter-clockwise rotations until the bolts were completely removed from the threaded hole. The heads were located on the top of the motor towards the sides. There were a total of sixteen bolts, eight on each head. The bolts toward the center of the engine block measured 9/16in x 2-1/8in while the bolts toward outside of the block measured 9/16in x 2in. Once the bolts were removed the covers were easily lifted off by hand without any interference. No unforeseen challenges arose during this step. The physical difficulty of removing the heads was rated as a two because a small amount of force was needed to remove them. The technical difficulty was rated as a two because a socket and ratchet were needed to remove them. The heads were not designed to be removed by the average person. This can be seen by sheer number of bolts and the difficulty accessing them. This is probably so that a consumer does not take the heads of and allow dirt and grime to fall down into the motor thereby jeopardizing the longevity of that engine.

D.jpg

Step 8

  • The push rods were removed from the engine block. These were located on the inside of the head. After the heads were removed, all twelve of the push rods were easily removed by hand as they were not affixed securely to any part of the engine block or the engine’s sub-system. No unforeseen challenges arose in this step. Since no tools were needed and the push rods were easily removed by hand, the physical difficulty and the technical difficulty were both rated as ones. The push rods were not designed to be removed since the heads were not designed to be removed. This is probably to prevent damage to the internal working of the motor.

Pushrod.jpg

Step 9

  • The rockers were removed from the inside of the heads. Each rocker was held on by a 1/2in nut. These were removed by using a 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet and then completing multiple counterclockwise rotations. Underneath the nut was an ordinary washer. The washer was removed by hand. Once the washer was removed, the rocker was easily removed from the valve train. On top of the rocker sat a roller which fell right off as soon as the washers were removed. No unforeseen challenges arose in this step. The removal of the rockers required a socket and a ratchet, which made the technical difficulty a rating of a two. The physical difficulty was rated a one because the rockers were very lightweight. The fact that they were held in place by only a nut and washer indicates that they were meant to be removed. This was probably so that aftermarket rockers could be added to the engine, as is common practice.

Picture9.jpg

Step 10

  • The water pump was removed from the front of the motor. The water pump was affixed by four 9/16in bolts. These bolts were removed using a 9/16in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet. After several counter clockwise rotations, the bolts were easily removed and the water pump could be lifted off by hand. No unforeseen challenges arose in this segment of the dissection.The physical difficulty was rated as a one because the water pump was fairly lightweight. The technical difficulty was rated as a two because a socket and a ratchet were needed. The water pump was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that maintenance can easily be performed to the front of the motor.

Waterpumpin.jpg

Step 11

  • The serpentine pulley attached to the harmonic balancer and crankshaft was then removed. This was affixed by three 9/16in bolts. These bolts were removed using a 9/16in socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet. After several counterclockwise rotations, the bolts were easily removed. No unforeseen challenges arose in the segment of the dissection. Since the pulley is fairly lightweight, the physical difficulty was rated as a one, and the technical difficulty was rated as a two since a ratchet and a socket were required to remove the part.The serpentine pulley was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that maintenance can easily be performed to the front of the motor.

Picture16.jpg

Step 12

  • The oil sensor was then removed. This was affixed to the engine block by two 1/2in bolts. These bolts were removed using a 1/2in socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet. After several counterclockwise rotations, the bolts were easily removed. No unforeseen challenges arose in this segment of the dissection. The physical difficulty was rated as a one because it was lightweight and the technical difficulty was rated as a two since a ratchet and socket were needed. The oil sensor was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that the oil pan could be accessed.

Picture18.jpg

Step 13

  • No part was removed in this step. The motor was rotated 180 degrees to expose the underside of the engine. This step required a moderate amount of strength to slowly rotate the engine. The rotation of the engine required no tools other than the engine stand, so its technical difficulty was rated as a one. Since it was a fairly physically demanding process, the physical difficulty was rated as a four.

A.jpg

Step 14

  • The oil pan was then removed from the bottom of the motor. The oil pan was affixed to the bottom of the engine block by ten 1/2in bolts. These bolts were removed using a 1/2in socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet. After several counterclockwise rotations, the bolts were easily removed and the oil pan was lifted off by hand. No unforeseen difficulties arose. Since the oil pan is fairly lightweight, its difficulty was rated as a one,while the technical difficulty was rated as two because a socket and a ratchet were needed to remove the part. The oil pan was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that maintenance can easily be performed to the bottom of the motor.

B.jpg

Step 15

  • The oil pump was then removed from inside the oil pan. This was affixed by two 5/8in bolts. These bolts were removed using a 5/8in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet. After several counterclockwise rotations the bolts were removed and the pump was lifted out by hand. No unforeseen challenges arose. The removal of the oil pump had a physical difficulty rating of a one because it was lightweight and easy to remove. The technical difficulty was rated as a two since a ratchet and a socket were needed. The oil pump was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that it can easily be replaced on the motor.

C.jpg

Step 16

  • The harmonic balancer was removed from the front of the motor. The harmonic balancer was affixed to the crankshaft using a keyway. The harmonic balancer was removed by repeatedly tapping it with a hammer. Eventually, the component was removed from the motor. This process was much more difficult than the group had anticipated. It was much more time consuming and physically strenuous than had been expected. The group had anticipated a bolt or some other basic fastener to be present, but the presence of a keyway made things much more difficult. Since the process was somewhat difficult and required a good amount of force, the physical difficulty was rated as a three. The technical difficulty was rated as a three because it was not obvious which tools were needed. The harmonic balancer was not designed to be removed from the motor. This can be seen by the great difficulty the group had removing it.

Picture11.jpg

Step 17

  • The timing chain cover was then removed from the front of the engine block. This was accomplished by removing six 1/2in bolts with a 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet. Once the bolts were off, the cover was lifted off by hand posing no further complications. The removal of the timing chain cover was rated as a one is the physical difficulty department because it was lightweight and fairly easy to remove. The technical difficulty was rated as a two because a socket and a ratchet were needed to remove the part. The timing chain cover was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that maintenance can easily be performed to the front of the motor.

Timingchcov.jpg

Step 18

  • The sprocket attached to the camshaft was then removed. This was located inside the timing chain cover at the front of the engine. This was affixed by three 9/16in bolts. These were removed using a 9/16in socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet. After several counterclockwise rotations, the sprocket came right off of the cam shaft. No unforeseen difficulties arose in this part of the dissection. The physical difficulty was rated a one because the part was lightweight and easy to remove. The technical difficulty was rated a two because a socket and a ratchet were needed to remove the part. The sprocket was designed to be removed since it can easily be removed by taking off several obvious bolts. This is probably so that the timing chain could be easily removed for maintenance.

Timch.jpg

Step 19

  • The timing chain was then removed. After the sprocket was removed, the timing chain was easily taken off the by hand. This process was much easier then the group had anticipated. since the timing chain was lightweight and required no tools to remove, both the technical and physical difficulty were rated as ones. The timing chain was designed to be removed since it was easily removed from the motor. This was probably so it could be easily replaced.

Picture7.jpg

Step 20

  • The cam retainer was then removed. The retainer was held in place by two T30 Torex bolts. Once the bolts were removed with a T30 socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet, the cam shaft was free to be taken out. No unforeseen challenges arose. The cam shaft retainer was a lightweight part and required little force to remove, which gave it a physical difficulty rating of a one. Since a T30 Torex socket was used the technical difficulty rating was rated as a four, since this was a specialized tool. This was not designed to be removed since it was held in with T30 Torex bolts. This is probably so that the cam shaft will remain insde the engine.

Camretain.jpg

Step 21

  • The cam was then removed. This was done by pulling the cam straight through the front and out of the engine block. No unforeseen difficulties arose in this process. Since the cam shaft is of moderate weight, the physical difficulty rating was a three. Since no tools were necessary, the technical difficulty was rated as a one. This was not designed to be removed since it was held in with T30 Torex bolts. This is probably so that the cam shaft will remain insde the engine and no grit or grime is able to enter the engine.<

Camreinstall.jpg

Step 22

  • The balancing shaft was then removed. A T30 Torex bit was needed to loosen the Torex bolts that bolted the balancing shaft retainer to the engine block. After that, it could easily slide out of the top of the motor after it had been tapped by a hammer. No unforeseen difficulties arose in this process.Since a T30 Torex bit was needed, the technical difficulty was rated as a four, because that is a specialized tools. Since it only required a slight amount of force to remove, the physical difficulty was rated as a two. This was not designed to be removed since a T30 Torex bolt was used to hold it in place. This is probably because the part is not vital to the operation of the motor and could be forgotten on reassembly.

F.jpg

Step 23

  • The flex plate was then removed. There were a total of seven 5/8in bolts that needed to be removed. This was accomplished with a 5/8in socket and 3/8in drive ratchet. Once all of the bolts were removed the flex plate was lifted off of the crankshaft. Since the flexplate was very difficult to get to and it was physically difficult to get to the bolts that needed to be removed, the physical difficulty was rated as a four. The technical difficulty was rated as a two because only a socket and a ratchet were needed to remove the part. This part was designed to be removed since it was held in place by obvious bolts. This is probably so that an aftermarket flex plate can be installed.

Flexplate.jpg

Step 24

  • The connecting rods were disconnected from the crankshaft next. The rods were affixed to the crank by two 9/16in nuts and bolts. This was removed using a 9/16in socket and a 3/8in drive socket to remove the nuts that held the connecting rod retainer to the rest of the connecting rod. Once the nuts were removed, the retainers were pried off using a flat head screw driver. Upon removing the nuts, the rods and pistons were now able to be moved by hand within the cylinder wall. After much coaxing and the use of a hammer, the pistons were pushed out of the top of the cylinder. This step required moderate physical force to turn the crankshaft in order to expose the retainers that needed to be removed. Although this step required moderate physical force and technical skill no unforeseen challenges presented themselves during this step of disassembly. Due to the sheer weight of the crankshaft, the physical difficulty was rated as a five. Since intuitive tools were needed, but it was somewhat unclear at times what tools, the technical difficulty was rated as a three. The crankshaft was clearly not designed to be removed. The use of so many bolts and retainers shows that it is designed to stay inside the engine. This probably to prevent any foreign substance from entering the engine.

P.jpg

First Level Subfunctions

Subfunc.png

Figure 1: First Level Subfunctions

Second Level Subfunctions

2Ls.png

Figure 2a: Second Level Subfunctions.

22SL.png

Figure 2b: Second Level Subfunctions.

Connection of Subsystems

When looking at each of the individual subsystems of the GM V6 motor, all directly interact with the motor itself and are key to its proper and efficient functioning. These subsystems include the intake and exhaust system, the electrical system, the lubrication system, the drive system, and the combustion system. The systems that provide mechanical energy to the vehicle power the electrical system and maintain proper engine functioning. Physically, all systems are linked to one another through the crankshaft, which rotates in the center of the engine and is responsible for all processes that the motor produces. Further, this crankshaft spins pulleys and pumps that are connected by belts. This in turn spins other pumps or an alternator to produce electrical and power the elctrical system. The initial first level functions that involve fuel, air, and a signal input interact with lower level functions by directly starting the engine in order to perform further functions. The first system is the intake and exhaust system. When this system is activated, air will flow into the piston and gas will be injected in through the fuel injector. Once the mass flows into the cylinder, it is compressed by the piston system and then combusted by the spark plugs. The combustion reaction forces the piston downward which activates the drive system. The piston being forced downwards causes the crankshaft to spin which causes the lubrication system to to activate. The oil pump then lubricates the engine components. The crankshaft is connected to the cam shaft via the timing chain where it spins and causes the opening and closing of the valves which allow the intake and exhaust of air inside the motor. The signal from the operator is directly transmitted by the turn of the key to the engine. Also, the when the crankshaft spins, the alternator is spun and electricity is distributed to the spark plugs causing a spark.

Mass can be seen connected to the systems in the crankshaft. The crankshaft is a weighted and balanced object; it produces power by pulling on the pistons and in turn opening and closing the valves. This process uses both the air and fuel present in the initial starting process, and the power produced in both the first and second level systems. Energy is a connection which is made between every system. Initially, electricity is imported into the system via the starter, which converts the electrical energy to mechanical energy. This mechanical energy continues through the motor and combines with the combustion of fuel and air in the valves and pistons producing additional mechanical energy. This mechanical energy continues into the engine to power oil pumps, the coolant system, pulleys and belts, resulting in the involvement of itself in every system of the engine. The mechanical energy is again turned into electrical energy through the use of an alternator connected to the motor\'s belt. Electrical energy is converted from mechanical energy in the distributor. As the camshaft spins, it spins the distributor sending electricity to the spark plugs to ignite the fuel in the engine, directly interacting with all other systems of the motor. This linking of all of the engine’s systems makes for an efficient combustion process and use of input factors.

The connection of systems in a motor is vital to its functioning and efficiency. The initial systems involve the input of air and fuel for the following reason; direct connection is the only method for such factors to be introduced to the other systems. Since all of the systems run off of each others\' energy, mechanical, electrical and chemical energies can only be transported in an engine through connection of systems. Each system runs off of one another, making other devices unnecessary to complete the task. This causes an increase in the energy needed for the motor and vehicle to perform. In systems where a fan, oil pump or other subsystem are powered by a battery or other power source, the surplus energy of the motor can be utilized instead of consuming additional energy. To a certain extent, an engine can sustain the subsystems attached directly to it but when systems become too large, in some cases, they can cost the motor power and efficiency. That is the reason for a well-designed engine. In addition, systems are connected because they keep the motor in balance and running smoothly as revolutions increase or decrease. There are different requirements to keep it running. If a system were not directly linked to the engine, it might not properly read the engine\'s needs and efficiency would lag as a result.

The subsystems are all connected more or less through the cam shaft, timing chain, and crankshaft. The reason for this is so that all the subsystems are activated at the proper time. For example, the engine intakes air at the proper time because the camshaft is spun by the crankshaft. This means that the intake will occur at the exact proper time each time. The piston system is connected to the drive system through a retainer and Torex bolts that attach the connecting rods to the crankshaft. This is done in order to ensure that the energy from the chemical reaction translates into mechanical energy and the turning of the crankshaft.

The fact that the subsystems are connected in such a well organized fashion is indicative of a concern for economic factors, particularly fuel economy[9]. In order to have optimum fuel efficiency, the engine must be well maintained by these subsystems. For example, if the distributor is sending the charge to the spark plug at the wrong time, a misfire could result. This would adversely affect the fuel economy and could even damage the piston. Therefore, having the systems connected properly in the motor helps both fuel mileage and durability. The fuel mileage could also be affected by the societal factors caused by an increased consumer desire for fuel economy.

The subsystems are arranged in this manner due to the nature of there duties. Obviously, since the drive system connects to the intake and exhaust system through the timing chain, these two system need to be placed in close proximity to each other. Also, the lubrication system needs to be placed near the drive system since it is run off of it. Since the intake and exhaust system require lubrication as well, it also needs to be placed near the drive system. As a result, the lubrication system, the drive system, and the intake and exhaust system are placed in close proximity to each other. Also, some subsystem can not be put adjacent to each other. For example, the electrical system can not be put adjacent to the lubrication system inside the oil pan because it will damage the alternator and will interfere with the electric signals being sent from the alternator.

Gate 3

Cause For Corrective Action

The completion of this gate went very smoothly for the group. The only real major issue that arose on this gate was the time at which this gate was completed. Portions of this gate were completed well in advance of the due date but other portions were not completed until the night before it was due. This was different from the previous gates in which everything was completed, at least for the most part, well in advance of the impending due date. In terms of correcting this, the group and the project manager discussed the issue and decided it was a onetime thing due to the overloaded schedule each group member has been dealing with in the past two weeks. For the next gate, the only major change that will be made to the plan is that the group will sit down and discuss their schedules two weeks before the project is due. This will allow the team to distribute portions of the project accordingly and assure that the gate is completed in a timely manner.

From last gate, the major issue was the communication between Group 10 and Group 11. This issue has been discussed by the two groups. Communication between the two groups in this gate went well with minimal issues. The discussion of the communication issue went well and hopefully that will be evident in the next gate. The next gate requires the engine be reassembled, which will require a great deal of interaction between the two groups.

Component Summary




Table 1:Component Summary
Component Name Image of Component Quantity Used Function Material Manufacturing Process Fastener Used
Throttle body Gate 2 1st lvl sub-fun step 1.jpg 1 Regulates the amount of air taken into the engine. Aluminum The throttle body is not one single piece. It\'s an assembly of 3 smaller pieces, all of which have been cast, finished and then assembled. 3 10mm bolts that are 4.4375in long
Intake Manifold Cover Gate 2 1st lvl sub-fun step 3.jpg 1 Protects the Intake Manifold and provides an airtight seal between the throttle body and the intake manifold. Prevents unwanted substances from entering the engine. Molded Plastic with a rubber seal Injection molded. 6 10mm Bolts that are 2.25in long
Fuel Injector Fuelinjector.jpg 1 Injects gasoline into the engine to allow combustion to take place Plastic and rubber The plastic was injection molded and the rubber hoses were 2 1/4in Allen Screws
Distributor Gate 2 1st lvl sub-fun step 2.jpg 1 Fires the spark plugs located on the cylinder heads in the proper order. Bakelite (a nonconductive heat resistant plastic) and Inner shaft of cold rolled Steel High heat and pressure process of several layers to process bakelite and Low Temperature Rolling One 1/2in bolt
Intake Manifold Gate 2 1st lvl sub-fun step 6.jpg 1 Diverts optimal amounts of air into the cylinders. Also contains piping for fuel to flow. Aluminum Casting and Finishing 8 1/2in bolts that are two inches long and the threads extend from the bottom up 3/4in
Valve Cover Gate 2 1st lvl sub-fun step 5.jpg 2 Seals the cylinder heads from outside material and protects the valve springs and rockers. Plastic Injection Molding 3 1/2 bolts
Exhaust Manifold Header.jpg 2 Connects to engine block at exhaust port. Removes exhaust gases from the cylinders and sends them through the cat converter and eventually out of the muffler. Iron Casting 6 9/16in bolts
Cylinder Head Gate 2 1st lvl sub-fun step 7.jpg 2 Housing for multiple components including the rockers, valves, and valve springs. Steel Casting and finishing 6 1/2in bolts that are 2in long are located towards the outside edge of the head. 7 1/2in bolts that are 3.25in long are located towards the center of the motor.
Rocker Arm Picture9.jpg 12 Opens and closes the valves via the motion of the rotating camshafts allowing fuel and air into the cylinders for combustion. Carbon Steel Forging 1 1/2in nut and 1 1/2 in bolt.
Pushrod Pushrod.jpg 12 Transfers motion from the lifters on the cam to the rockers and valve springs which in turns opens the valves. Carbon Steel Rolled No fastener used, it is held in place by the lifters and the rocker arms.
Valve Spring Valvespring.jpg 12 Returns the valves back to their closed position after the spark plug ignites the fuel air mixture in the cylinders. Assists pushrods in transferring motion to the valves. Carbon Steel Coiling and hardening No fastener used, it is tightly attached to the valve.
Valve 12 Regulates the entry and exit of the Fuel-air mix and exhaust from with in the cylinders. Carbon steel Rolling No fastener used, it is held in place by the valve spring.
Lifter Lifter.jpg 12 Converts the horizontal movement of the camshafts to vertical motion that gets transferred to the rockers and valves. Carbon steel Casting and machining No fastener used, it is held in place by the camshaft and the push rods.
Water Pump Waterpump.jpg 1 Pumps coolant through the engine block in order to cool the engine. Alluminum body containing mostly plastic and cast iron components Casting and machining 4 9/16in bolts that are 2.375in long
Oil Pan Picture15.jpg 1 The oil pan acts as a reservoir for oil. The oil pump will take oil from the reservoir to lubricate engine internals. Aluminum Casting and forging 10 1/2in bolts
Oil Pump Picture17.jpg 1 Takes oil from bottom of oil pan and pumps it through the engine in order to lubricate engine internals and components. Aluminum Casting and forging 2 5/8in bolts
Piston Piston.jpg 6 Transfers the energy produced by the combustion of the fuel air mix into rotational energy at the crankshaft. Aluminum Machining It is attached to the connecting rods via a roller which allows it to spin.
Connecting Rod Connecting Rod.jpg 6 The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. The connecting rod in conjunction with the crankshaft converts linear energy into rotational energy. Steel Forging 2 9/16in bolts that attach to the retainers which wrap around the crank.
Piston Ring Pistonring.png 12 Provides a tight seal between the combustion chamber and the pistons. Aluminum Stamping No fastener is used, it is held in place by the cylinder wall.
Serpentine Pulley Picture16.jpg 1 Connects to crank and uses a belt so that the crank can turn outer engine components such as the power steering pump and alternator. Steel Casting 3 9/16 in bolts
Timing Cover Picture12.jpg 1 Protects the timing chain and timing gears from unwanted materials and substances. Plastic Injection Molding 6 3/8in bolts of varying lengths
Timing Chain Picture7.jpg 1 Connects both timing gears in order to turn them in conjunction with one another. Steel Stamping No fastener is used, it is held in place by two sprockets.
Camshaft Picture8.jpg 1 Raises and lowers the lifters which in turn raises and lowers the pushrods which pivots the rocker arms thus opening and closing the valves. Iron Machining and casting No fastener is used, it is held in place by the holes in the block
Harmonic Balancer Picture11.jpg 1 The harmonic balancer reduces most of the torsional vibration caused by the crankshaft. It also serves as a pulley. Steel Stamping It is held on to the crankshaft by a keyway.
Retainer Crankretainer.jpg 1 Holds the crankshaft safely inside the engine block. Steel Stamping It is attached by two 9/16in bolts.
Balancing shaft Picture10.jpg 1 Offsets engine vibrations due to unbalanced engine designs. Iron Casting It is held in place by the holes in the block.
Flex Plate Flexplate.jpg 1 Stores large amounts of rotational energy caused by it\'s large rotational inertia. It transfers rotational energy received from the crankshaft and applies it through the clutch and transmission into the drive shaft. Steel Casting 7 3/4in bolts of the flywheel
Crankshaft Crank.jpg 1 Connects pistons via connecting rods. The crankshaft converts linear motion from the pistons into rotational energy. That energy is transferred to the flywheel which passes it on to the drive shaft. Iron Casting No fasteners are used, the crankshaft is held in place by bearings, the holes in the block, and a system of pulleys.

\'\'Figure a. Summary of Major Components in the Engine \'\'

Product Analysis

Complexity Definition

Complexity of a component can be divided into two categories, complexity of the shape and complexity of the function. These two categories will effectively cover the complexity of each component. A component can have a very complex task to complete, but that does not necessarily mean that it has a complex shape. The complexity of the shape and function of each individual component will be rated on a scale of 1-5. The table below shows the meaning of each rating.

Table 1: Scale of Complexity
Complexity of Meaning of a 1 Meaning of a 2 Meaning of a 3 Meaning of a 4 Meaning of a 5
Shape Very basic uniform shape Very basic shape but not entirely uniform Shape is not basic and not uniform Shape is complex in geometry Shape is very complex in geometry
Function Simple function Simple function of lesser importance Simple function of higher importance Complex function of lesser importance Complex function of higher importance


Pushrods


\'\'Figure 1. Pushrod\'\'


Component Function

The push rods connect the camshaft, through the lifters, to the valve train. By connecting these two parts of the motor, the push rods assure the proper intake of oxygen and the proper exhaustion of the byproducts.

  • The push rods really only serve one function, to connect the camshaft to the rockers.
  • The main flows associated with this component are the flow of oxygen into the motor and the flow of reaction byproducts out of the motor.

This component is located inside of the engine block. It extends down from the head all the way down through the engine block to the camshaft. Obviously, this will be an environment with very high temperatures and many different applied forces.

Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)

The general shape of this component is a rod. The ends of the rod are rounded off. This shape allows easy interface with the lifters and rockers. The shape is cylindrical in order to achieve smooth motion. It allows a slight margin of error in the movement of the pushrod. It allows a slight twisting motion while still operating smoothly.

  • The most notable thing about this component is its’ symmetrical nature. It has rotational symmetry if it is rotated about its longest axis, and it is symmetrical along its x axis, y axis, and z axis.
  • The push rods are 3-dimensional having a length, width, and height in all locations.
  • The push rods are 7.125in long and have a .25in diameter

It is a steel component and the main reason for this is the fact that it needs to be fairly lightweight, yet strong and fairly cheap. Steel was deemed the most effective in order to address the economic issues of cost to manufacture, and fuel economy because the heavier the push rod, the worse the fuel economy will be.

This component is exceedingly light; it is not even a pound.

The pushrods are made from carbon steel.

  • Manufacturing processes didn\'t effect the material selection nearly as much as functionality did. The pushrods need to be very strong and durable to reliably serve their function
  • The carbon steel is a good choice because it\'s fairly light weight but very strong.
  • The main factor involved in this design is economics. A lighter push rod means better fuel efficiency, while a heavier push rods means worse fuel mileage. Also, more friction on the push rods mean worse fuel economy.


The aesthetic properties are actually quite impressive to view. The rod is extremely lustrous and is chrome in color.

  • The reason it is chrome is due to the highly polished nature of the part. It is so highly polished because it needs to maintain a low coefficient of friction inside the motor. By being so well polished, and with the addition of oil, the push rods can easily slide up and down in the block.
  • The surface finishes of the pushrods are very smooth. This causes a small friction coefficient inside the engine.

The finish is for functional purposes only and not for aesthetics. The pushrods were never intended to be seen by the operator, therefore having no aesthetic purpose. The surface finish is purely for functional purposes, reducing the coefficient of friction, thus reducing the amount of force needed to make them move.

Manufacturing Methods

The push rods were made through the shaping and forming process of rolling.

  • The most obvious evidence is the fact that it was clearly shaped and formed in order to get the shape since there are no cutting marks on the component. Since it was shaped and formed, it still could be die cast, however, the absence of draft angles indicate it was not cast. The shape of the rod is indicative of rolling the steel into that shape.
  • If it were cast or machined, there would be imperfections in the shape of the rods which could lead to the push rods breaking or being severely damaged. By rolling it, the rod shape will be much more smooth and precise than with die casting or machining.

The decision to roll the push rods took into account the economic concern of long-term durability of component. If the component breaks down fairly early into the product’s lifetime, General Motors will likely have to recall the motors of these vehicles potentially costing them millions of dollars. Therefore it is vitally necessary for the part to be durable enough to last a longtime.

Component Complexity

The pushrods are not overly complex. We rated the complexity of shape as a 1 on our scale. The shapes are very basic. The shape of the pushrods are cylindrical rods which are all identical. The pushrods are rated as a 3 on our complexity of function scale. The function of the pushrods is fairly simple, but it is integral to the function of the engine. The pushrods are constantly moving while the engine is on. They are constantly receiving motion from the lifters, and are constantly transferring that motion to the rockers.

Throttle Body


\'\'Figure 1b. Throttle Body\'\'
Component Function

The throttle body performs the function of allowing air into the engine through the manifolds to take parts in the combustion of the fuel. Depending on how far open the throttle is, determines how much power the engine is able to produce. The only other functions that the throttle body takes part in is the relaying of information back to the computer to help make sure that the engine runs smoothly. When it comes to flows, the initial input is user interaction, which leads to the intake of air into the engine resulting in combustion and the overall functioning of the engine. For this motor and almost all other motors, the throttle body functions on the top of the engine, exposed to the environment and not internally located in the motor like many other parts crucial to its functioning.

Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)

The general shape of the throttle body is a three dimensional rectangle with a cylinder located at the center in which the air flows through. The dimensions of this rectangle are 4 5/8 inch long, 4 3/8 inch wide and 2 9/16 high with a 3 1/2 inch circular hole in the center. The rectangular shape of the throttle body only plays a role in its’ fastening to the intake manifold but the circular passage in the center is key to smooth airflow into the engine. Roughly, the throttle body weighs 5 pounds and is made mainly of aluminum with some steel components. Overall, the choice of producing it from aluminum is due to the metals’ light weight and the very little contact that the throttle body will have with heat. When it comes to how manufacturing impacted the material choice, the only factor may have been how easy it is to machine and form aluminum. Where there is steel used in the component is anywhere that might see some kind of mechanical movement, especially where the throttle cable links to the throttle body. The only reason for this use of materials is due to is strength of aluminum. Otherwise, no global, societal, economic or environmental concerns could have been influential in the production of the throttle body. Aesthetically, the throttle body has no roles and as long as it functions it could be made to look like anything. It is gray in color, which is the natural color of aluminum and the steel used and has a rough finish on the outside and a smooth one where the air passes through. The smooth finish is to allow air to flow easier and faster to the motor. Aesthetically, there is no reason for the type of finish.

Manufacturing Methods

When taking a look at the throttle body the overall aluminum body is cast and some machining was done on the inside and bottom where precision is needed for fitment. Evidence to support this are the lines left on the sides from the forms used in the casting process and the overall rough exterior of the component. Where the aluminum was machined, there is a highly polished surface that is much smoother than those that are cast. The reasons for casting and machining the throttle body were most likely because they were the simplest and cheapest ways of producing the part. Almost any material can be cast and machined along with any shape, so the aluminum body and rectangular shape did not have a large impact on the production methods.

Component Complexity

The throttle body is not a very complex component; with its main job as regulating the flow of air it may be an important task but one that can be done simply. When looking at he three categories above, all together they are meant to make the throttle body as simple, reliable and cheaply produced as possible. This simplicity is carried into the interactions with the throttle cable being pulled and the specified amount of air entering the throttle body and engine.

Camshaft


\'\'Figure 1c. Camshaft\'\'
Component Function

The function of the camshaft is to ultimately open and close the valves and turn the distributor shaft. The cam first transfers its “elliptical” motion via the lobes of the shaft to the lifter/pushrod assembly. That motion is then transferred to the rockers, which pivot pushing the valves down. There is a lobe for each cylinder. They are offset from each other causing the valves to open at the proper time to let air in, or let exhaust gases out.

  • The cam overall has one major task, to open and close the valves. It is however part of an important system. It connects via timing gears to the crankshaft. When the crankshaft turns, it turns the cam, opening and closing the valves in the proper order and timing. The cam also turns the distributor shaft, causing the proper firing order.
  • There are several flows dealing with the camshaft. The camshaft converts elliptical rotational motion into linear motion. The actual shaft moves rotationally, while the lobes move elliptically. That motion gets transferred to the lifters, which convert it to linear motion.

The camshaft operates in a high heat location. The nature of the cams movement, and the amount of movement it incurs, causes it to heat up greatly. There are many points of contact on the cam, which need to stay cool and lubricated to properly function. Oil and lubricants help to keep the camshaft cool and rotating smoothly.

Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)

The inner shape of the camshaft is cylindrical while the lobes are elliptical (tear drop shaped). The inner shape could be square if it was well balanced and still operate smoothly. However being cylindrical is preferred as it wouldn\'t have to be as exact and precise to operate smoothly.

  • The camshaft is axis-symmetric while it rotates. The lobes move in an off-axis, offset fashion. The cam is very notable by it’s teardrop shaped lobes.
  • The cam is 3-dimensional having a length, width, and height in all locations.

The camshaft is cylindrical because it needs to properly rotate at its’ points of contact. The lobes are shaped elliptically and are offset from each other in order to open and close valves at different times. If the lobes were shaped cylindrically, or had the point of the lobe in the same location, all of the valves would open at the same time, causing all cylinders to fire at the same time, which would not properly function.

The camshaft weighs roughly 6-7 pounds.

The camshaft is made of iron.

  • The manufacturing processes did not influence the material chosen. The cam needs to be relatively light weight, but above all very hard, strong, and durable.
  • Hardness is the most important property for the camshaft to have.


Aesthetically, the camshaft is very smooth and shiny due to being heavily machined in order to maintain low friction at points of contact.

  • These properties serve a very important purpose. Since the cam rotates constantly and pushes the lifters, it needs to be very smooth on all surfaces in order to turn smoothly.
  • The heavy machining of this component caused a very shiny, smooth, metal surface. The machining achieved a much higher surface quality then if it were to be cast or another similar process. Machining was the best choice for manufacturing.
  • The surface finish of the camshaft is very smooth. This causes a small friction coefficient between the lobes and lifters as well as the cam and its’ mounting points.

The finish is for functional purposes only and not for aesthetics. The cam is never intended to be seen by the operator, therefore having no aesthetic purpose. The surface finish is purely for functional purposes, reducing the coefficient of friction, thus reducing the amount of force needed to make it rotate.

Manufacturing Methods

The cam was made using machining and casting.

  • The very smooth even finish shows that the cam was machined. Before it was machined it was likely cast. There is some evidence of draft towards the center of the cam.
  • The material was picked for functionality of ease of manufacturing.
  • The fairly simple shape impacted the manufacturing methods. The shape was able to be cast fairly easily. Since the cast left a lower quality surface finish, machining was necessary. The machining left the cam with a high luster, metallic like surface finish.
Component Complexity

The cam is a fairly complex component. We rated it a 2 on our complexity of shape scale. The shapes are very basic but are not necessarily uniform. The overall shape is a simple cylinder. The most complex shapes are those of the lobes, which are tear drop shaped. They are all the same shape, but are offset in their angles from each other, making them slightly more complex. We rated it a 3 on our complexity of function scale. The function of the camshaft isn\'t overly convoluted, but it is a very important function where everything needs to function correctly. The cam is constantly receiving motion from the crank shaft and constantly inputting motion to the lifters. It is part of a very complex system.

Distributor


\'\'Figure 1d. Distributor\'\'
Component Function

The function of the distributor is to transfer electricity from the ignition coil to the spark plugs in the proper firing order. A gear on the camshaft drives the distributor shaft. The metal on the rotor makes contact with a spring loaded carbon brush that is connected to the high voltage cable. The metal on the rotor arm than passes just close enough to the output contact of the spark plugs for the electrical current to jump the gap and ignite the spark plug.

  • The distributor shaft drives the oil pump.
  • There is a flow of electrical energy within the distributor. There is also a flow of rotational energy along the distributor shaft.

It operates on the exterior of the engine, allowing for greater airflow to reach this part. It being on the outside of the motor is one of the reasons that plastic can be used in this case. Due to the large number of components operating in it\'s vicinity, this is a high heat environment in which the component functions.

Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)

The shape of this component is a disk at the top with a shaft extending down into the motor.

  • It is rotationally symmetrical however this is its only symmetry.
  • The component is three dimensional. It needs to be three dimensional in order to properly extend down into the motor to drive the oil pump and distribute electrical charge to the spark plugs.
  • It extends down six inches into the motor and it has a diameter of four inches.

The components shape is coupled with the job it most performs because the spark needs to be distributed to the spark plugs at precise timings. Therefore, a circular head allows the spark to be distributed at regular intervals. This is why it has that axis of symmetry.

The component is very light, weighing about a pound or so.

The component is made of Bakelite, which is a plastic, and steel. The steel extends down into the motor and interfaces with the oil pump. The bakelite stays outside the motor.

  • Manufacturing decision did not really influence the material it was made out of in this case. The bakelite is a heat resistant and non-conductive. This was already a highly suitable material for the component and manufacturing processes did not come into play in the decision to use it.

The main factor considered here was the societal factor of safety. If the distributor was made of something conductive, the vehicle would run the risk of catching the oil on fire. The distributor is black on the top. The colors may be driven purely by aesthetic since the distributor is a visible part of the motor. There is no real surface finish to speak of, it is just regular molded plastic. this is most likely because the distributor already looks good and does not need a surface finish.

Manufacturing Methods

The manufacturing method used to make this part was injection molding.

  • The main evidence for this comes from the fact that the material is plastic. Also, the marks from a mold can clearly be viewed on the completed distributor.
  • The use of plastic meant that injection molding was an option, had the distributor been entirely metal, this would not have been an option.

The main reason for this method is due to economic factor. Mainly because injection molded plastic is quite cheap to make.

Component Complexity

The shape of the component is rated as a two in complexity. This is because the shape is very basic, but it is not uniform. The complexity of the function of the component is rated as a three. Just from looking at the distributor on the motor, it is not at all clear what the function is supposed to be. However, there are a few clues that indicate its function, such as its connection to the oil pump and the presence of wires. If the distributor still had its spark plug wires connected to it, the function may be a bit more intuitive. The three categories above impact complexity because the shape can be complex and the function can be complex, but they are not necessarily related. A component can have a complex form with a basic function or vice versa.

Intake Manifold


\'\'Figure 1e. Intake Manifold\'\'
Component Function

The primary function of the intake manifold is to supply the air/fuel mixture to the cylinders. It is essential for the fuel mixture to be evenly distributed between the cylinder heads in order to optimize efficiency and performance for the engine.

  • A partial vacuum exists within the intake manifold that can be used to help drive auxiliary systems such as power assisted breaks, emission control devices, cruise control, power windows, and other various systems.
  • The primary flow of this component is a material flow that consists of the injection of the fuel mixture into the cylinders.

The intake manifold sits on top of the engine block allowing it to maintain a high airflow to combine with the fuel mixture. The engine block gives off a large amount of heat from the various components and processes contained within, making this a high heat area.

Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)

The intake manifold has a very complex overall shape. It has a spot for the fuel injector to sit near the center the center of the component. It also contains piping for the fuel to flow.

  • There is a basic symmetry down the center of the component, and has a distinctive appearance from the rest of the components.
  • It is primarily 3-dimensional, with a length, height, and depth.

The shape of the intake manifold is essential for the air/fuel mixture to be evenly distributed between the cylinders. Its shape allows the fuel injector lines to properly reach the cylinders, while still providing room for other components in the engine block.

The intake manifold weighs around ten pounds.

The piston is made of cast aluminum.

  • Manufacturing decisions most likely affected the decision to use aluminum, because aluminum is a relatively easy material to shape and finish. Since the component has such a complex shape, it would be safe to assume that the manufacturers decided that aluminum would be the best choice in casting and finishing this component.
  • A specific material property is not needed for it to function, because only the shape of the component is necessary for it to function.
  • One of the Global factors influencing this decision are that aluminum is widely available. Another factor is that this component is not exposed to any external elements besides the air which moves through the filter into the cylinder. Even with the passing air, aluminum would be a good choice of material due to good resistance to corrosion versus other metals such as steel which have high corrosion factors
  • Economic factors which influence this component are those such that aluminum is widely available and fairly inexpensive. It also has a decent life length before breaking down and corroding, which provides a longer life of the compressor and less maintenance cost for the owner.
  • Environmental factors were likely not heavily considered in the deciding aluminum to be a material due to the fact that aluminum is not a heavy metal and that there is no intended disposal of the component after a specific amount of time.
  • Societal factors were likely also not heavily weighted.


The aesthetic properties of the component are shiny on the inner surface due to being finished after casting. The outside is left as is after casting.

  • There is no purpose aesthetically for this component.
  • The component is a shiny silver color on the inside, likely caused by the machining during the manufacturing process. On the outside it is a flat gray color, since the finish was not
  • The surface finish of the intake manifold is smooth on the inside. This is so there is little problem with the flow of the air/fuel mixture.

The finish is for functional purpose only. The consumer is not meant to see the inside of the intake manifold.

Manufacturing Methods

The intake manifold was first cast and then machined for smoothness.

  • Casting is evident due to parting lines down the middle of the intake manifold. These parting lines are clear indications of an initial process of casting to create the overall shape. The inside surface then went through a machining process to smooth out the inside.
  • The process was not chosen because of the material. The material was most likely chosen because of the the low cost and ease of going through this process.
  • The shape likely affected the process, because casting would be the most efficient way to create such a complex shape.

Global factors taken into consideration may have been that aluminum casting is available everywhere, not limited to one area.

Societal factors were most likely not taken into account for the decision to cast the aluminum.

Economic factors were very important in the decision to cast the part due to the fact that casting is faster and cheaper then using machining techniques alone to create the aluminum part. A combination of casting and machining was used to achieve the best economic outcome for manufacturing.

Environmental factors taken into account are the ability to make the part a significant number of times without wasting any resources.

Component Complexity

The complexity of the shape of the intake manifold is a 5, because of the complexity of the overall design. The complexity of the function however is only a 2, because it only guides the air/fuel mixture to the cylinders.


Solid Modeled Assembly

\'\'Figure 2. Solid Modeled Assembly


  • The components shown here are the camshaft, lifters, push rods, rockers, valve springs, and valves. The group choose this assembly because this is what controls the chemical reactions taking place in the motor. Without the proper intake stroke and exhaust stroke, the motor can not function. Really, without this assembly, the motor ceases to generate power. The valvetrain assembly was modeled using Autodesk Inventor Pro 2010.
\'\'Figure 2b. Throttle Body Assembly\'\'



  • The group also did the throttle body. The group did this because this controls the amount of power the engine is outputting. This assembly was modeled using Solidworks 2010.















Engineering Analysis

\'\'Figure b. Combustion Process\'\'

One of the major components of almost any type of motor is the piston. The piston is what causes the crankshaft to be turned and is therefore where an engine really gets its power. Since this component is vitally necessary to the functioning of the engine, it would be of the utmost importance to perform a full and complete engineering analysis on the piston. The major question regarding a piston is how light can the piston be made while ensuring it does not break down? Clearly the piston should be as light as possible in order to reduce rotational resistance, however, the piston also needs to be able to withstand the forces from the reaction of the gasoline and oxygen, the upward force from the connecting rod, and the forces from the cylinder wall. In order to complete this analysis, first the engineer would have to state the problem. The problem here, as stated previously, is how light can the piston be made while ensuring it does not break down? Then, the engineer would have to diagram the problem. Then he would have to make assumptions. There are several assumptions that would be fairly obvious to make. First off, the individual would have to assume that only oxygen and octane were being combusted. Also in this combustion, the engineer would probably be safe to assume that oxygen is the limiting reagent in the reaction since if gasoline was the limiting reagent, gasoline would be wasted which is clearly not preferable. This assumption allows the engineer to approximate the amount of heat the piston is being exposed to in the system. The engineer would also probably assume an evenly divided force across the top of the piston. This assumption makes it far easier to calculate how the strong the piston needs to be. He would also have to make an assumption regarding the amount of upward force the connecting rod can apply. It would not be too difficult to find the maximum amount of force the connecting rod could apply. The connecting rod is connected to the crankshaft at a certain distance from it. This means the connecting rod provides a torque force to the crankshaft. All that needs to be done is to find the amount of force that is needed to turn the crankshaft. Since the pistons fire one at a time, one piston would have to exceed this force. After making these assumptions, the engineer would be ready to figure out what equations are governing this problem.

First off, Octane reacts with oxygen in the following equation:


2C8H18 +25O2-----16CO2+H20

From there, we can figure out what the amount of heat released per mole of Octane would be using Hess’s Law.

H(reaction)=Hf(products)-Hf(reactants)

Both the Hf(products) and the Hf(reactants) can easily be looked up by an engineer in any sort of chemistry reference material. The


The change in maximum temperature that the piston could be exposed to could be found by using the following equation:

H(reaction)=Cm(change in temperature) C= specific heat of reactants

This equation will give you the maximum temperature that the piston will be exposed to inside the motor.


The maximum force on the piston could be found using the following equations:

Torque required to turn the crank=(Force)*(Radius)

Here, the force would be equivalent to the amount of force the connecting rod exerts on the piston.

Then by using these equations to perform the calculations, the engineer can figure out an approximate temperature the piston will be exposed to in the system. After the engineer performs a check on his calculations, he can then start analyzing the data. In the analysis, the individual can rule out materials which will melt at a temperature lower than the temperature that the engineer just found will be present in the motor. Other materials will then be ruled out due to the amount of force imparted on the piston by the connecting rod. This will leave the engineer with a list of possible materials that should be able to with stand the heat and forces inside the motor. From there, the engineer would need to further eliminate materials based on cost. If a material is too expensive for the product to be profitable, it obviously would need to be eliminated. From this point, the engineer would probably have the list of materials whittled down to only a few and he potentially could begin testing pistons made of different materials. Obviously, this would depend on the company’s economic standing. If this was a smaller company, creating several piston prototype pistons may not be economically possible, so the engineer may have to pick only one for further testing. However if it is a larger company with the resources for testing multiple prototypes, this should be done by simply placing them in a motor and running the motor in order to see how well they endure the stresses inside the engine. This would be done for a short period of time and then check to see if the piston has been damaged or if any components around it show signs of abuse. Also, it would be done for long term wear in order to see if the pistons had the durability to survive say fifty thousand miles or one hundred thousand miles. Clearly, these would be highly expensive tests and only a company with a large amount of resources would be able to afford such testing, however, such testing could prove to be invaluable to a company if a new lighter material was found to be safe for use in a motor.


So, the engineering analysis would look something like this:

Problem Statement: How light can a piston be made while ensuring it does not fail?


Diagram: See figure b.


Assumptions: Octane is being combusted. Evenly distributed force from the reaction on the top of the piston. Oxygen is the limiting reagent The connecting rod provides a maximum force to the piston when the crankshaft is just about to begin turning


Governing Equations:

2C8H18 +25O2-----16CO2+H20

H(reaction)=Hf(products)-Hf(reactants)

H(reaction)=Cm(change in temperature) C= specific heat of reactants

Torque required to turn the crank=(Force)*(Radius)

Design Revisions

Titanium Flexplate

The first proposed design revision is to replace the current flex plate with one made of titanium. Currently, the flex plate is made of steel. The change in material from steel to titanium would address one major concern. It would address long term economic concerns for the vehicle due to improved fuel mileage. The titanium flex plate would decrease rotational weight on the motor leading to less resistance. This decreased resistance would increase the gas mileage of the vehicle and allow for more power to be transferred to the wheels. Since one of the main purposes of the Vortec 4300 LG3 is to be fuel efficient, the decreased rotational inertia would most certainly be appealing to General Motors. The improved power would also improve the vehicles power to weight ratio and allow the operator to haul more material. This would also address an economic concern, because that consumer could now haul more work materials per trip than previously, potentially allowing the individual to save time and money in having to make multiple trips.

This change would only have one notable adverse impact, the increased initial cost. As of November 12th, titanium was trading for about eleven dollars and twelve cents per pound, while cold rolled steel was trading for about 34 cents per pound. Over the past two years, titanium has been as expensive as thirteen dollars and seventy five cents per pound and as inexpensive as eight dollars and fifty cents per pound. In the past three years, steel has been as expensive as fifty seven cents per pound and as cheap as twenty five cents per pound. These prices clearly demonstrate steel’s initial cost superiority over titanium. Steel is not only cheaper, but its price is much more consistent. The more consistent price is obviously more preferable since an inconsistent price could lead to wild swings in the profitability of the product. Still, the current steel flywheel is only about five pounds. Since titanium is sixty percent the weight of steel, the titanium flywheel would only be about an additional thirty two dollars and sixty four cents. Of course, this is assuming comparable forming costs for the two materials.

Another potential concern is the change in durability for the backing plate due to the material change. Without heat treating or any other hardening process, titanium has a hardness of approximately 160 VHN. Steel on the other hand, when fully hardened can have a hardness of 900VHN. Clearly the steel used for this flywheel is not fully hardened and is most likely an alloy of some sort, however, it is still harder than the titanium flywheel will be without heat treating. This means that there is a possibility of long term durability concern due to the force of the torque converter on the flex plate. This concern clearly necessitates testing to ascertain if a flex plate made out of titanium could with stand the load from the engine.

Still, despite these potential issues, the titanium flex plate should be examined further. The main purpose of Vortec 4300 LG3 is to provide smaller trucks and SUVs with enough power to haul materials and tow vehicles, while providing the consumer with decent fuel economy. The titanium flex plate can further that aim on both accounts.

Supercharger

\'\'Figure 3. Supercharger model\'\'

The second proposed design revision is the addition of a supercharger. A supercharger in its basic form is an air compressor that is run off of a pulley attached to the crankshaft. A supercharger uses the rotational inertia of the crank to rotate two helical shaped shafts that mesh together and compress air. The compressed air is then forced down into the cylinders. Superchargers force more air into each cylinder than they can normally intake by means of atmospheric pressure alone. This is called “boost” and typically a supercharger will create about 10-12 psi of boost. This results in more oxygen to catalyst the combustion of gasoline creating a larger and more evenly distributed explosion across the top of the piston thus creating more horsepower. Because superchargers increase the power of the engine by utilizing more oxygen, they do not require a larger engine superchargers condense incoming air so the requisite mass fits in the relatively small volume of the engine, therefore fuel efficiency is increased and cars can be made lighter by reducing the need for extra cylinders to create power.

The addition of the supercharger would allow this motor to be used in a much greater variety of vehicles. Originally, this motor was designed for use specifically in small trucks and SUVs. The exact model, the LG3 was only used in Blazer\'s and S10s. The extra horsepower generated by the addition of a supercharger would lead to greater fuel efficiency in smaller cars and provided extra power needed to increase hauling capacity in larger trucks. This addition could potentially allow the GM V6 to be used in larger trucks such as a Silverado where extra power is needed for towing or hauling. The addition of this supercharger would likely add about $3000 dollars to the current price. The ability to use this engine in a wider selection of vehicles however, could potentially lower the overall cost.

An image of the proposed supercharger can be viewed below. This assembly was modeled using Autodesk Inventor Pro 2010.

Active Fuel Management

As gas prices continue to rise, fuel efficient vehicles become more and more appealing to consumers. The price of gasoline and the instability of that price is a serious economic concern for most Americans. The addition of Active Fuel Management to the motor would significantly improve its fuel economy. This would help address the economic concerns of the consumer over gas prices. Active Fuel Management is the General Motors technology that allows a V-6 or a V-8 motor to operate as an Inline three cylinder or Inline four cylinder motor under certain driving conditions. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the vehicle equipped with this Active Fuel Management can expect to improve its fuel mileage by about six to eight percent. Clearly, this is a large improvement in fuel mileage and it is applicable to trucks and has been used in truck and SUV motors. The 2010 Yukon XL, the 2010 Cadillac Escalade, and the 2011 Chevrolet Tahoe come equipped with Active Fuel Management. Also, the Chevrolet Suburban, Silverado, and Avalanche come available with this option. The addition of this technology also addresses the large societal factor of the United States’ consumption of oil. Congress has enacted legislation mandating that all companies making vehicles that are “manufactured for sale in the United States” meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy of thirty five miles to the gallon. Previously, small trucks and SUVs have been exempt from the Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFÉ) legislation; however as of 2016, they are included. Therefore it is vitally important for a small truck motor like the Vortec 4300 LG3 to meet the new standards and to address the societal concern of over consumption of gasoline.

Active Fuel Management works on the premise that a powerful motor is inefficient under normal driving circumstances. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the number of cylinders that are functioning and still keep the vehicle operating at an acceptable level. The vehicle still can operate the electrical devices it is equipped with and it can still maintain its speed. The only real notable change is the amount of fuel being consumed. If more power is needed, the inactive cylinders readily reactivate to provide the additional power. This is the major advantage of this technology, since the motor still would have a six cylinders, it would still have the torque necessary to haul large loads.

This technology effectively shuts cylinders off by keeping the exhausting valve closed. This is done through a solenoid control valve assembly. This assembly receives a signal from pressurized oil on when to activate and deactivate the hydraulic lifters. Since the lifters control the exhausting of byproducts and in-taking of reactants, the cylinder well will be filled with the byproducts of the combustion reaction and no more intake of reactants will take place. The gaseous byproducts in the cylinder act as a gas spring that keep the piston from contacting the head. Obviously a great number of sensors and electronic controls would be necessary in order to maintain a seemingly seamless transition from cylinder being inactive to being active and vice versa. This would necessitate the altering of several components on the motor. First and most obviously, hydraulic lifters would need to replace the current ones. Secondly, the solenoid control valve assembly would need to be installed in the motor. Thirdly, the current throttle body would need to be replaced by an electronic throttle controlling device. This would greatly assist in ensuring that the shutting on and off of the cylinders is very difficult for the operator to notice.

Despite the advanced electronic and design, there are some draw backs to this device. First off, it is expensive. All the electronics needed for this make for a more expensive vehicle. Still, the 2011 Chevrolet Tahoe with Active Fuel Management starts at $37,750, while the hybrid starts at $50,735. So despite the increased cost to install this device, it is still quite a bit cheaper than a hybrid. Also, another potential drawback is the durability of the technology. Although General Motors first used the technology in 1981, the current system using the well developed electronic controls debuted in 2005. This means that vehicles using this technology have only been on the road for five years and therefore it is possible that unforeseen failures occur in the system due to the wear and tear of everyday use.

Gate 4

Cause for Corrective Action

Gate 4 went quite smoothly for the group as there were no real conflicts that arose during the process of completing the gate. The reassembly of the engine was completed approximately one week before the due date on the gate. This gave the group members plenty of time to complete their respective assignments before the due date. Although the due date had been pushed back from its original date, the early completion of the reassembly is a testament to the smooth operation of the group during the final gate.

The smooth operation with Group 11 was also assisted by the much improved communication between groups 10 and 11. In Gate number two, both groups cited inter-group communication as a major source of frustration and difficulty. After Gate 2, it was stated that the project managers would sit down and discuss the plans for the rest of the project. Gate 3 did not require a great deal of interaction between groups 10 and 11, so the problem really was not fully resolved. Almost immediately after Gate 3 was completed, the two groups discussed their plans for the reassembly. From this discussion, the plan for reassembly was laid out and everything went smoothly from that point.

Difficulty Analysis

Difficulty Scale

When considering the difficulty of the reassembly process of the Vortec 4300 LG3, the question how many forms of difficulty there are must be considered. When examining this, it became apparent that only one category for difficulty would not adequately describe the level of difficulty of reassembling the motor. Therefore, the difficulty assessment has divided into two separate categories. The first category is physical difficulty. This category encompasses the level of difficulty to physically perform the task. The physical difficulty would include the weight of the part, the difficulty of getting the part into place, the difficulty of lining up holes, and more. The second category is technical difficulty. This category encompasses how difficult it is to figure out how to perform the task. This includes how difficult the tools are to use, how obvious it is how the tools are used, and how obvious it is to reinstall the part in that manner.

Also vitally important to the successful creation of a scale of difficulty, is knowing who is going to be performing this task. In this case, it was decided that the scale of difficulty would be written for an individual who had not seen the engine before and has only a minor amount of technical knowledge. This is adequate because it is unlikely that anyone without the knowledge of what ratchet or socket is will try to reassemble this piece of machinery.

Table 1: Physical Difficulty Rating

Difficultytable.png

Table 2: Technical Difficulty Rating

Difficultytech.png

Product Reassembly

Assembly Compared to Reassembly

The reassembly of the engine was quite similar to the reverse of the assembly process. Some of the steps were done in a slightly different order compared to the disassembly. This was not done not due to necessity, but rather due to convenience. The exact reverse order of the disassembly process would have been an acceptable way in which to reassemble this engine. The only real differences would have been the necessity to use a piston ring compressor in order to reinsert the pistons and the necessity to already have the timing chain on the sprockets on the cam and balancing shaft before installing. The big difference between the reassembly process used for Gate 4 and the disassembly process used for Gate 2 was where the oil pump and oil pan were dealt with. In the disassembly, they were removed before the camshaft, balancing shaft, and timing chain. In the reassembly, the oil pump was reinstalled right after the bearings were installed. The reason for this was sheer convenience. The motor was already turned upside down which allowed for easy access to the area where the oil pump was located. Afterwards, the pistons were reinstalled and the retainers were bolted down again, and then the oil pan was put back on the motor. The reason for this was again convenience. From the completion of the disassembly, the group knew that there was not anything else that needed to be reinstalled before the oil pan was put back on the motor. Since this was the last time the motor needed to be upside down, the oil pan was put back on at that point rather than waiting and then having to turn the motor upside down again. This slight alteration in the process saved the group some difficulty in the reassembly. The tools needed for the reassembly process were the exact same as were needed for the disassembly. The only other tool needed was a piston ring compressor.

Necessary Tools

The tools needed were as follows:

  • Piston Ring Compressor
  • 9/16in socket
  • 3/8in drive ratchet
  • 10mm socket
  • 1/2in socket
  • Hammer
  • T30 socket
  • 1/2in wrench

Reassembly Difficulties

As stated earlier, the reassembly process went smoothly, however some difficulties were encountered. The greatest difficulty encountered was the installation of the timing chain and accompanying sprocket. The reason for the difficulty was the way in which the sprocket needed to be installed. The sprocket was quite difficult to align properly on the motor. If it was left in its slightly offset alignment, it could have done serious damage to the timing chain. It took several attempts and some difficulty but finally the sprocket was successfully installed in the proper alignment. Another serious difficulty the group encountered was the reinstallation of the heads. The issue here was alignment of the push rods sitting in the engine block with the proper holes in the head. This again took several attempts and the eventual use of a second person in order to get the push rods into the holes in the head. Eventually these two difficulties were overcome and the reassembly went smoothly from that point.

Reassembly Process

Step 1

The crankshaft, with flywheel attached, is put back into the engine block. In order to do this, the engine must be turned upside down. The crankshaft can then be placed back in the motor with the same orientation as when it was removed from the engine block. This is difficult to do since, since the crankshaft fits so tightly inside of the block. No tools are necessary to do this. The crankshaft is a very heavy component which is quite awkward to get into the proper position. As a result, the physical difficulty of the installation was rated as a 4. It is quite obvious where the crankshaft is to be installed and the process needed. Therefore, the technical difficulty was rated as a 1.

Crankshaftinstall.jpg

Step 2

The bearing retainers are placed back into the motor and bolted on to the engine block in order to hold the crankshaft in place. There are four of them and each has two 5/8in bolts. They are fairly easy to install and will effectively hold the crankshaft in the block. The bolts must be adequately tightened in order to ensure that the bearing due not become loosely fastened to the block. A 5/8in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet is needed to complete this task. The bearing retainers are very lightweight and easy to install. Therefore the physical difficulty was rated as a 1. Since a 5/9in socket and a ratchet were needed and these tools tools are highly intuitive and obvious how to use, the technical difficulty was rated as a 2.

Bearinginstall.jpg

Step 3

The oil pump is reinstalled in the motor. The oil pump is placed at the back of the motor and three 5/8in bolts are used to affix it in place. A 5/8in socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet are needed to complete this task. Since the oil pump is quite lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty is rated as a 1. Since only a ratchet and a 5/8in socket are needed, the technical difficulty was rated as a 2.

Oilpump.jpg

Step 4

The pistons are reinserted into the engine. In order to do this, a piston ring compressor must be used. The piston is inserted in the ring compressor and then the compressor is tightened in order to force the rings back inside of the piston. The piston is then tapped out of the compressor and back into the cylinder well. The piston must be aligned so that it sits correctly on the crankshaft. The only tool needed to complete this task is a piston ring compressor. Since the piston is lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty was rated as a 1. Since a piston ring compressor is needed and this tool is unfamiliar to many people, the technical difficulty is rated as a 4.

Pistonin.jpg

Step 5

The retainers are placed back on the piston. Then, two 9/16in bolts are used to affix the connecting rods and retainers. There are six connecting rods and six retainers. A 9/16in socket and a 5/8in drive ratchet are necessary to complete this task. Since the retainers are lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty was rated as a one. It is very obvious which tools are needed and how they are to be used. As a result, the technical difficulty is rated as a 2.

Pistonretainer.jpg

Step 6

The oil pan is then placed back onto the motor. The pan is then affixed by ten 1/2in bolts. The bolts must be tightened properly. A 1/2in socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet are necessary for the successful completion of this task. Since the oil pan is lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty is rated as a 1. Since it is obvious that a ratchet and a socket are needed to install the part, the technical difficulty is rated as a 2.

Oilpan.jpg

Step 7

The cam shaft is then put back inside the motor. This is done by simply sliding the cam shaft with the gears pointed toward the rear of the engine through the hole it was taken out of originally. The cam will slide right back into place, but make sure that is goes as far back as possible in order to ensure that it goes into the fitting for it in the rear of the engine. No tools are necessary to put it back in place and for the time being, the cam will just sit in place. Since the cam shaft is lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty is rated as a one. Since no tools are needed and it is obvious how to install it, the technical difficulty was rated as a 1.

Camreinstall.jpg

Step 8

The cam retainer is then reinstalled. The cam retainer is located at the very front of the motor and two Torex T-30 bolts must be reinstalled in order to hold it in place. The proper installation of this part will ensure that the cam shaft is held in place. A T30 socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet are needed to complete this task. Since the cam retainer is lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty is rated as a 1. Since a specialized tool that a technical novice would not know is needed, the technical difficulty is rated as a 4.

Camretain.jpg

Step 9

The balancing shaft is then reinstalled. The balancing shaft is slid through the hole it originally came out of at the very top of the engine block. Once in place, two T-30 Torex bolts must be tightened on the balancing shaft retainer in order to hold it in place. A T30 socket and a ratchet with a 3/8in drive are necessary in order to complete this task. Since the balancing shaft is lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty is rated as a 1. The technical difficulty is rated as a 4 since a specialized tool is needed for the installation of this part.

Balshaf.jpg

Step 10

The sprocket attached to the camshaft, along with the timing chain, is then reinstalled. In order to do this, the timing chain must be put on to the sprocket. The sprocket must be put approximately in place on the cam shaft, and the timing chain must go onto the sprocket on the balancing shaft as well. Once the timing chain is on the sprocket attached to the balancing shaft, the sprocket is put on the cam shaft. A small rod sticks off of the cam shaft retainer that goes through a hole on the sprocket. Once in place, three 9/16 in bolts must be tightened on the sprocket. This will hold the sprocket in place and prevent the timing chain from coming off the engine. A 9/16in socket and a 3/8in drive ratchet are needed in order to complete this task. Since this part is very difficult to align properly on the motor, the physical difficult is rated a 4. The technical difficulty is rated as a 2 since only a ratchet and a socket are needed to install the part.

Timch.jpg

Step 11

The timing chain cover is then reinstalled on the front of the motor. It is placed over the timing chain and then affixed with six 1/2in bolts. A 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive is necessary in order to complete this task. Since the cover is lightweight and easy to install, the physical difficulty was rated as a 1. Since a ratchet and a socket were needed to install the part, the technical difficulty was rated as a 2.

Timingchcov.jpg

Step 12

The harmonic balancer is then installed on the front of the motor. This is done lining up the key way on the crankshaft with the slot on the harmonic balancer. Once it is aligned, the harmonic balancer is tapped into place with a hammer. The only tool necessary in order to complete this task is a hammer. The physical difficulty was rated as a 2 because it required a small amount of force to reinstall the harmonic balancer. The technical difficulty was rated as a 3 since it was not very obvious how to reinstall the part.

Harm.jpg

Step 13

The serpentine pulley is then installed on the front of the motor. It is placed onto the harmonic balancer and then bolted in place with three 9/16in bolts. A 9/16in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty was rated as a 1 since the pulley is lightweight and easy to install. The technical difficulty was rated as a 2 since a 9/16in socket and a ratchet were needed.

Pul.jpg

Step 14

The water pump is then installed on the front of the motor. The water pump sits over the timing chain cover and directly above the harmonic balancer. It is bolted in place by four 9/16in bolts. A 9/16in socket and a 3/8 drive ratchet is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty was rated as a 2 since the component is fairly lightweight but must be held up for a fairly long period of time in order to install the part. The technical difficulty was rated as a 2 because a ratchet and 9/16in socket were needed.

Waterpumpin.jpg

Step 15

Each of the twelve rockers was then installed inside of the heads. The rockers were affixed in position by a 1/2in nut. When placing the rocker back inside the head, the roller inside the rocker must be in place. Once the rollers are in place, the rockers can be tightened down. A 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty was rated as a 1 because the rocker is very lightweight and easy to install. The technical diffculty is rated as a 2 since a ratchet and 1/2in socket are needed.

Rock.jpg

Step 16

The twelve lifters are then placed back inside the motor. These are placed into holes in the top of the engine block and sit on the camshaft. No tools are required in order to accomplish this task. The physical difficulty is rated as 1 because the part is lightweight and easy to install. The technical difficulty is rated as a 1 since no tools were needed for this process.

Lifterin.jpg

Step 17

The push rods were then placed back inside the motor. All twelve push rods are put through holes in the top of the motor and are then slid into place on the lifters. No tools are required to install the push rods. The physical and technical difficulty of this step is rated at a 1 because of the overall ease.

Pushrod.jpg

Step 18

The heads are then installed. The heads sit at the very top of the engine block on the each side of the motor. The push rods must be aligned through the holes in the heads. This required one person lowering the head into position and another person aligning the push rods in the proper place. Once the rods are aligned with the appropriate holds in the heads, the heads can be lowered onto the engine block. A small rod sticks off of the engine block and must be aligned and placed into the appropriate hole on the heads. Once properly aligned, the heads can be affixed to the block using twelve 9/16in bolts. A 9/16in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty of this step is rated at a 5 due to the weight of the part and the need for a second person to align the push rods. The technical difficulty is rated at a 2 due to the easily identifiable bolts and tools needed.

Heads.jpg

Step 19

The intake manifold is then installed on the top of the motor. The intake manifold is lowered down onto the motor at then sits in place. It is then held in place by installing eight 1/2in bolts. A 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty of this step is rated at a 2 because the part is fairly heavy and requires that the bolt holes be lined up. The technical difficulty is rated at a 2 because of the easily distinguishable tools needed to complete the task.

Intakemani.jpg

Step 20

The valve covers are then reinstalled on the heads. This is done by place the plastic cover over the valve train on the heads and then aligning the holes in the valve cover with the appropriate holes in the engine block. Two 1/2in bolts are then attached to hold the valve cover in place. A 1/2in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty of this step is rated at a 1 due to the lightweight of the covers. The technical difficulty is rated at a 2 as the tools needed are easy to identify.

Valvecover.jpg

Step 21

The exhaust manifolds were then reinstalled on the sides of the engine block. These are aligned with the appropriate holes in the engine block and are then affixed to the engine block by six 9/16in bolts. A 9/16in socket with a 3/8in drive ratchet is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty of this step is rated at a 3 because of the weight of the part and the strength needed to hold the part in place to insert the bolts. However, technical difficulty of the step is rated at a 2 because it was easy to distinguish the tools needed to complete the assembly.

Exhaustmani.jpg

Step 22

The intake manifold cover is then reinstalled. It is lowered into place on the top of the intake manifold. Six 10mm bolts must then be installed in order to hold the cover in place. A 10mm socket with a 3/8in drive is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty of this step is rated at a 2 because although the part is lightweight, some alignment was needed to ensure the bolt holes lined up and the cover fit properly. The technical difficulty of this step is a 2 as the tools needed were easily identifiable.


Intakecover.jpg

Step 23

The distributor is then installed on the top of the motor in the very back of the engine block. It is simply lowered into position and place down the hole in the engine block. A 1/2in bolt is used to hold the distributor in place on the top of the engine block. A 1/2in wrench is necessary in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty of this step is rated at a 1 due to the fact the distributor was simple placed in the hole without and trouble. The technical difficulty of this step is a 2 as the tools needed were easily identifiable.

Distributor.jpg

Step 24

The throttle body is then installed on the top of the intake manifold. It is simply lowered into place and then bolted down by three 10mm bolts. A 10mm socket with a 3/8in drive is needed in order to complete this task. The physical difficulty of this step is rated at a 2 because although the part is lightweight, some alignment was needed to ensure the bolt holes lined up and the cover fit properly. The technical difficulty of this step is a 2 as the tools needed were easily identifiable.

Throtin.jpg

Design Revision

Active Fuel Management

As gas prices continue to rise, fuel-efficient vehicles become more and more appealing to consumers. The addition of Active Fuel Management to the motor would significantly improve its fuel economy. This would help address the economic, global and societal concerns of the consumer and gas prices. Active Fuel Management is the General Motors technology that allows a V-6 or a V-8 motor to operate as an Inline three cylinder or Inline four cylinder motor under certain driving conditions. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the vehicle equipped with this Active Fuel Management can expect to improve its fuel mileage by about six to eight percent. Clearly, this is a large improvement in fuel mileage and has been used in truck and SUV motors. Specifically the 2010 Yukon XL, 2010 Cadillac Escalade, and 2011 Chevrolet Tahoe come equipped with Active Fuel Management and do so effectively. The addition of this technology also addresses the large societal factor of the United States’ consumption of oil. Congress has enacted legislation mandating that all companies making vehicles that are “manufactured for sale in the United States” meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy of thirty-five miles to the gallon. Previously, small trucks and SUVs have been exempt from the Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFÉ) legislation; however as of 2016, they are included. Therefore it is vitally important for a small truck motor like the Vortec 4300 LG3 to meet the new standards and to address the societal concern of over consumption of gasoline.

Active Fuel Management works on the idea that a powerful motor is inefficient under normal highway driving conditions. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the number of cylinders that are functioning and still keep the vehicle operating at an acceptable level. The vehicle can still operate the electrical devices it is equipped maintain its speed while the drive is unaware that a portion of the cylinders are not operating. With the only real notable change is the amount of fuel being consumed there are really negative aspects of such a system. If more power is needed, the inactive cylinders readily reactivate to provide the additional power. This is the major advantage of this technology, since the motor still would have a six cylinders, it would still have the torque necessary to haul large loads.

This technology effectively shuts cylinders off by keeping the exhausting valve closed. This is done through a solenoid control valve assembly. This assembly receives a signal from pressurized oil on when to activate and deactivate the hydraulic lifters. Since the lifters control the output of exhaust and in-take of reactants like fuel and oxygen, the result is that cylinder will be filled with the byproducts of the combustion reaction and no more intake of reactants will take place. These gaseous byproducts in the cylinder act as a gas spring that keeps the piston from contacting the head. Obviously a great number of sensors and electronic controls would be necessary in order to maintain a seemingly seamless transition from cylinder being active to being inactive and vice versa. This would necessitate the altering of several components on the motor. First and most obviously, hydraulic lifters would need to replace to ones that support cylinder deactivation. Secondly, a solenoid control valve assembly would need to be installed in the motor. Thirdly, the current throttle body would need to be replaced by an electronic throttle-controlling device unlike the current mechanical system. This would greatly assist in ensuring that the shutting on and off of the cylinders is very difficult for the operator to notice. In addition new software would be needed to included in the vehicles computer to sense vehicle speed and RPM so that cylinder deactivation would be enabled and disabled at the proper times. This software would also effect the ignition and distributor of the engine so that when the cylinders are not being used spark is not being created by the spark plugs. This may also require that a different distributor be installed on the engine. Also, the fuel injectors would have to be shut down that supply fuel to the affected cylinders so that excess fuel is not used and flooding of the engine does not occur.

When it comes to the systems that cylinder deactivation affects they are throughout the engine and vehicle. The fuel system will require have to supply less fuel so the fuel pump and injectors will be influenced, this in turn brings the heads into the equation. Also, the pistons will no longer be moving and part of the crankshaft will in turn be affected. In reality all moving parts of the engine will feel the affects of the cylinders being deactivated. In the electrical system the computer will be required to be changed and all of the ignition and the sensors will be receiving different signals. The throttle body and intake of air will be changed and during deactivation will be dramatically affected.

Despite the advanced electronics and design, there are few draw backs to this system. First off, it is expensive. All the electronics needed for this make for a more expensive vehicle. Still, the 2011 Chevrolet Tahoe with Active Fuel Management starts at $37,750, while the hybrid starts at $50,735. So despite the initial increased cost to install this system, it is still quite a bit cheaper than a hybrid and the savings in fuel would eventually be worthwhile. Also, another potential drawback is the durability of the technology. Although General Motors first used the technology in 1981, the current system using the well-developed electronic controls debuted in 2005. This means that vehicles using this technology have only been on the road for five years and therefore it is possible that unforeseen failures occur in the system due to the wear and tear of everyday use.

Supercharger

\'\'Figure 3. Supercharger Assembly\'\'

Another design revision that could be made to the GM V6 is the addition of a supercharger to the engine in order to alter the engines intake system. A supercharger in its basic form is an air compressor that is run off of a pulley attached to the crankshaft. It uses the rotational inertia of the crank to rotate two helical shaped shafts that mesh together and compress air. The compressed air is then forced down into the cylinders. Superchargers force more air into each cylinder than they can normally intake by means of atmospheric pressure alone. This is called “boost” and typically a supercharger will create about 10-12 psi of boost. This results in more oxygen to catalyst the combustion of gasoline creating a larger and more evenly distributed explosion across the top of the piston thus creating more horsepower. Because superchargers increase the power of the engine by utilizing more oxygen, it replaces the need for a larger engine. Superchargers condense incoming air so the requisite mass fits in the relatively small volume of the engine, therefore fuel efficiency is increases and cars can be made lighter by reducing the need for extra cylinders to create power and thus reducing the amount of material required to build the engine.

To add the supercharger to the engine slight modifications need to be made to the existing components. The intake manifold needs to be replaced with one that will allow the supercharger to sit atop the engine securely and must contain the fuel injectors. In addition to the manifold the pulley system must be altered. An additional pulley must be added to the crankshaft and a belt must be affixed to the crank pulley and supercharger pulley. Other than these simple modifications nothing else is needed when adding a supercharger.

This design revision takes into account societal, environmental, and economical concerns. The addition of the supercharger would allow this motor to be used in a much greater variety of vehicles. Originally, this motor was designed for use specifically in small trucks and SUVs. The exact model, the LG3 was only used in Blazer\'s and S10s. The extra horsepower generated by the addition of a supercharger would lead to greater fuel efficiency in smaller cars. The increased fuel economy addresses both economical and environmental concerns. By getting a better mile-per-gallon rating the consumer spends less on gas and gets farther on a tank, which decreases that cars carbon foot print. The extra power addresses societal factors. The supercharger allows the engine to be used in larger trucks that could be used for towing or hauling. For certain consumers this is a desired function.

The basic design of the supercharger can be seen in the image below. This was modeled using Auto Desk Inventor Profession Edition 10.

Convert the Engine to Run on E85

The price of gasoline and the gas mileage of a vehicle almost always are a consideration when a customer decides to purchase a motor vehicle. By converting the LG3 to run on E85 rather than conventional gasoline, the consumer can be sparred some of the pain and frustration of filling up the tank with conventional gasoline. The modifications required to change this engine from running on standard gasoline to E85 would be quite extensive and require an entire reworking of the fuel system as well as other alterations to other components and subsystems.

One of the major differences between gasoline and ethanol is the corrosive nature of ethanol. It is corrosive to the point that all rubber lines must be changed to plastic coated lines. [11] The material the intake manifold is made out of may also need to be altered, since it is composed of aluminum. [11] Also, all gaskets in the motor will need to be changed.[2] The corrosive nature of the ethanol requires specialized gaskets be used in order to prevent corrosion. The fuel injector will need to be changed as well. [11]Ethanol has a different stoichiometric ratio, which means a different mix between oxygen and fuel is necessary. [11] More ethanol will need to be injected into the motor than gasoline. This will be most effectively utilized if a computer is installed in order to properly control the amount of ethanol injected.

The big advantage of E85 is that it addresses the global factor of the country’s dependency on foreign oil. The use of ethanol can greatly decrease the national dependency on foreign oil. This is a major driving factor in the development of E85. It also addresses economic factors. Currently, the national average price of E85 is about $2.51. [12] The average price of gasoline is about $2.90. [12] Although it is cheaper by the gallon, ethanol is less efficient than gasoline and ethanol is about 20 to 25 percent less efficient. [10] This means that it is more expensive to run E85 in a vehicle than it is to run gasoline. Still, E85 address the economic concern of price stability. One of the major issues with fuel prices is the instability. E85 has been much more consistent in terms of price than gasoline over the past two years. When gasoline prices reached their peak in price in June of 2008 at over $4 per gallon, E85 had only reached $3.25 per gallon.[12] This means that at that time, E85 was cheaper than gasoline. In terms of the cost of manufacturing E85 motors, the cost will not rise much at all. The changes to the motor outlined earlier will not drastically affect the cost of production of the engine. Since the idea behind this motor is to be fairly cheap while also providing the consumer with decent fuel economy and power, a switch to ethanol can help stabilize the price of fuel for the consumer. This could greatly sway a perspective buyer who is concerned about rising gas prices.

Work Cited

Works Cited

[1] "Engines for Offroad Apllications". Agile Rugged Terrain Vehicles. 10/1/10. http://www.agileruggedterrainvehicles.com/engines.html

[2] "2011 GM Industrial Engine Portfolio". GM Powertrain. 10/1/10. http://www.gm.com/vehicles/innovation/powertrain-technology/engines/specialized/industrial/industrial_engines.jsp

[3] "GM Vortec Engine". Trip Atlas. 10/1/10. http://tripatlas.com/GM_Vortec_engine

[4] "Cast Iron Cylinder Heads" Word Press. 10/1/10. http://www.castheads.com/blog/tag/vortec-cylinder-heads/

[5] "Chevrolet Blazer History". Chevy Blazer. 10/1/10. http://www.chevrolet-blazer.info/history/

[6] "Chevrolet Astro Van". Chevrolet Astro. 10/1/10. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/216796

[7] "Chevrolet Express". Designer Cars. 10/1/10. http://www.designercars.net/membercars/802

[8] "Compare 2003 Chevy S10 LS 2Dr Regular Cab Competitors". Intellichoice. 10/1/10. http://www.intellichoice.com/1-12-2003-10229-23/2003-chevrolet-s-10-ls-2dr-regular-cab-compare.html

[9] "Chevy S10 Specifications". motor trend. 10/1/10. http://www.motortrend.com/used_cars/11/chevrolet/s10/specifications/index.html

[10] "E85 versus Gasoline Comparison Test". Edmunds.com. 12/10/10. http://www.edmunds.com/fuel-economy/e85-vs-gasoline-comparison-test.html?articleid=120863&

[11]"Difference Between Flex Fuel Engines and Gasoline". eHow.com. 12/10/10. http://www.ehow.com/list_5780695_differences-fuel-engines-gas-engines.html

[12] "E85 Prices". E85price.com. 12/10/10. http://e85prices.com/





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