Engine Global Issues

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Contents

Description

Describe engine global issues here

Team Anonymous

Global Inpact

  • The impact that Honda's global business has in engine development and manufacturing
  • Positive
    • Honda's global business allows for the spread of jobs all around the world. This spread of manufacturing helps lower shipping costs and also helps Honda's public relations. Honda employs over 13000 in the state of Ohio, which is top 10 for number of jobs created by a private company in the state of Ohio. This number of employees is also larger then American companies like Ford. Many of those employees work in the engine plant(A breakdown of Honda jobs from the Cleveland Dispatch can be seen below). Furthermore, the development and manufacturing of engines requires many third party local companies which further increases the number of jobs from global economic development.

Hondajobs.PNG

  • Negative
    • Since Honda is a global company, what happens in one country will effect another. This is very evident by the recent disasters that happened in Japan. Since the earthquakes hit Japan production in Ohio has slowed down even though their was no direct impact of the earthquake in Ohio. This is because the supplies from Japan have stalled. Locally for the employees of Honda, Honda has never layed off workers and doesn't plan to. Instead many of the workers are now on shortened shifts. The loss of production has greatly impacted the local companies that supply Honda. Many of these companies have lost revenue and have had to cut employees.


Team Care Bear Stare

Positive Global Impact

Due to creation and refinement of the Internal Combustion Engine, the world has seen an influx of personally owned powered vehicles. From lawn mowers, to ATVs, to the Automobile, the internal combustion engine has made its mark on the world.

Specifically in one industry, the Automobile, it is head and shoulders above any other competitor for power generation of cars. What started out as a recreational activity has turned into a necessity. What started as a United States product is now a global enterprise with a multitude of other countries claiming large market shares. The figure below shows the global reaches of the automobile:

World vehicles per capita.png

Due to the automobile's prevalence, countries have been given job directly (the auto industry) as well as indirectly (car parts manufacturing, car repairs, taxi services, etc.) Also, cars have created the needs for roads and infrastructure.

As mentioned above, the internal combustion engines have met more needs than just transportation. When electricity is not available, whether due to damages or the far reaches of the world, gasoline internal engines are probably there. Generators that run the internal combustion engine have brought life saving electricity to medical facilities during times of disaster as well as light to towns in third world countries.

Overall, it is quite difficult to imagine a world without the Internal Combustion engine.

Positive Global Impact

With improvements in modern technology, the internal combustion engine has dominated the track when it comes to supercars world-wide. Allowing more horsepower than ever before and bigger, more efficient engines, the competion for the fastest street legal car has pushed the barrier to extreme limits. Although European and Asain production supercars have been pushing some of the fastest cars in the world, the 2009-2010 top speed supercar is held by the American SSC Ultimate Aero TT. To give this car all of the benifits, the designers created a lightweight body with a powerful V8 engine that produces 1,287 horsepower. Given that the car's total weight is only 2,750 pounds, its weight to power ratio is an astonishing production record of 2.14. This low ratio allows the car to achieve speeds of up to 257 miles per hour. This twin turbo supercar has the second place, French Bugatti Veyron beat by 4 mph.

Although the Bugatti cannot hold the number 1 spot anymore, it is still a tremendous piece of work. To take the original internal combustion engine where it has never been before, the street legal supercar harnesses 1,001 horsepower with a W16 engine. That's the equivalent of two V8 engines! With a very rare 16 cylinder engine, the car has 4 turbo chargers and 10 radiators to help keep the engine cool. No wonder this car goes for around $1.7 million. The internal combustion engine has come so far, and with better technology, the global competition will continue.

2009-2010 top 10 fastest cars http://www.thesupercars.org/fastest-cars/fastest-cars-in-the-world-top-10-list/



Positive Global Impact


If someone looks back to the 1800’s and views the history of just the United States in a fast forward style it would be quite evident that the internal combustion engine has had a large impact on the country. The main evidence of this impact is seen in the history of transportation. The article on the following website

http://americanhistory.si.edu/ONTHEMOVE/themes/story_48_1.html

has a good amount of information on the interesting transformation of the United States from 1800’s small settlements sprawled through out the US either on the coast or near rivers, to 1900’s simple horse drawn carriages and electric trolleys, to the early 2000’s cargo trucks, planes and giant cargo ships.

It is very interesting to see how the invention of a simple and compact engine changed the US so quickly. The country started out just like any other requiring goods and people to be able to move from one place to another quickly in the 1800’s which could only be done by water travel. However after enough invention and science were created and understood the average person could live farther from work and large cities with the use of electric streetcars and steam trains. The country then was able to utilize more of the untamed wilderness it owned. Then finally the internal combustion engine was created and transportation of people and goods became so simple. Every one could own a car and drive to work or out for trips. Goods were able to be shipped via trucks and boats with internal combustion engines and after further experimentation the airplane was invented and became the final method of transportation that secured the ease and speed of transportation.


Tsh5015



Negative Global Impact

While the internal combustion engine revolutionized our world with its versatility, it may also be causing harmful changes to our future. If the concept of man-made global warming is true, the IC engine is one of the biggest causes. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, gasoline that is used in IC engines accounts for 46% of all petroleum consumption and about 20% of total U.S. carbon dioxide emissions.

That means 1/5th of all CO2 entering the atmosphere each year in the U.S. is due to the IC engine alone. Considering the multitude of devices that use types of fossil fuel other than gasoline, the IC engine is one of the main players in global warming.

http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=gasoline_use


Created by Team Care Bear Stare

Negative Global Impact

The need to power vehicles, which contain internal combustion engines, has caused turmoil around the world. Below is a chart that shows how the cost of oil has changed. Wars and price controls have had an effect on the cost of oil. Oil has also been the basis for strained relationships between countries.

Oilprices.gif

http://www.wtrg.com/prices.htm


Created by Team

Even though the creation of the combustion engine has changed the way of transportation forever, but it has also caused negative global effects that may lead to the complete deterioration of the human race. It has already changed interactions between the atmosphere, the sun, the weather, and the environment. Emissions from passenger vehicles increased in Canada and the United States despite attempts to make engines more fuel efficient and despite the addition of antipollution devices. It seems to be inevitable that the combustion engine will negatively harm the world – vehicle use will continue to increase, cars will get larger more addictive. I know if I get a new car, I will be driving it all the time. An average new vehicle in 2003 consumed more fuel that its counterpart in 1988. In the USA in 1987 cars averaged 25.9 miles to the gallon. Fuel efficiency dropped to 24.6 miles/gallon by 1998 and it dropped further as larger vehicles replace smaller ones. The decision to drive cars long distances to work was common among people in North America and Europe in the past 60 years. In retrospect, it is clear that commuters made a mistake. They should now stop commuting by cars. Their mistake had health and economic consequences for them personally and for every other inhabitant of planet earth. Despite scientific evidence of climate change, governments in many affluent countries have avoided their responsibility to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The USA is the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases worldwide. US emissions increased to 7 billion tones of CO2 in 2004, 16% higher than emissions in the late 90's. The UK did better reducing their emissions to about 0.6 billion tons, 14% below 1990 levels. An accurate analysis of total greenhouse gas emission is difficult or impossible to achieve since there many variable and unknowns.

Team Crankshaft


Positive Impact

The internal combustion has played an important role in transportation. In addition to the obvious passenger automobile for moving people and trucks for moving goods over land, the internal combustion has also played a role in transportation across water and in the air. The use of internal combustion engines in ships has lead to quicker movement of people and goods between places connected by water. Also the success of the airplane is partially due to the development of the internal combustion engine. Early in the 19th century, low weight and high output gasoline engines made flight possible, helping to start the aviation industry that now thrives, moving people and goods through the air. The internal combustion engine has also positively affected food production as it has been used in tractors and modern farming equipment to increase the productivity of farmers. This has resulted in the availability of more food at lower prices. With the ability to move people and goods across land, sea, and through the air, the world has become more interconnected. Global interaction and trading has increased as a result of the internal combustion engine.

http://www.bookrags.com/research/the-internal-combustion-engine-scit-05123456/

Negative Impact

The combustion products of the internal combustion engine contain many gases that are released into the environment. One of these gases is nitrous oxide, which has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere of our atmosphere. This is a global issue that affects inhabitants all over the world. The ozone layer in the stratosphere screens the ultraviolet radiation entering the earth’s atmosphere. Nitrous oxide reacts with ozone in the stratosphere, breaking it down. This occurs according to the following chemical equation:

NO + O_3 → NO_2 + O_2

The resulting nitrous dioxide can be further oxidized by the ozone:

NO_2 + O_3 → NO_3 + O_2

The 1987 Montreal Protocol helped to phase out ozone depleting substances such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) but specified no restrictions on nitrous oxides. As a result, nitrous oxide is now believed to be a leading cause of ozone depletion. Nitrous oxide is released from human activities (such as emissions from internal combustion engines) and from natural occurrences such as bacteria breaking down nitrogen containing compounds. Nitrous oxide is also a greenhouse gas and it is a likely candidate for emission restriction in the future for the good of the planet.

http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch8en/conc8en/ch8c1en.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone#Applications_2

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090827141344.htm


Created by Team Sparkplug



Team FlingerDinger

Positive Global Impact: Competition

Since IC combustion has allowed the cost of production of a standard vehicle to drop dramatically, it makes it hard for companies to lower their cost by simply improving production and management. This provides companies with incentive to innovate existing IC engines or invent whole new systems that would be more efficient, less expensive, and better for the environment. Innovations and inventions are what fuel the entire car industry, and companies would have incentive to start to innovate without global competition.

http://www.futurelab.net/blogs/marketing-strategy-innovation/2007/02/how_toyota_became_the_most_inn.html

Negative Global Impact: Loss of Alternate Transportation

Through the every growing demand of personal vehicles due to the affordability of the IC engine, the world has seen a decline in alternate transportation. Countries have chosen to not invest in transportation infrastructure such as railroads. Now with the rising cost of fuel, the world is stuck using IC, because the cost of getting the infrastructure back in alternate forms of transportation is too much. From GSN, "...the existing systems are facing critical issues. America’s rail infrastructure is aged, making many transit systems vulnerable to new security threats and unnatural acts of destruction, while the passenger rail network is fractured, often leaving passengers with exposed modes of transportation and inefficient rail corridors." The rise of the IC engine led to the loss of transportation infrastructure.

http://www.gsnmagazine.com/node/22426?c=infrastructure_protection

Created by Team FlingerDinger ---

Global Issues by Team Eight

Positives

The development of the combustion engine and its use in boats, ships, railroads and cars has allowed humans to move vast quantities of materials and people much longer distances and in shorter time than previously. This has allowed increasing levels of trade between peoples and countries around the globe. In times of scarcity or emergency, this movement of goods has helped to protect human life. For example, when there is a crop failure in a certain region, such as the United States, crops produced in far away places can be transported to feed an otherwise starving population.

Further, this movement of goods and peoples has allowed for increasing specialization so that populations can take advantage of their natural resources and skills to a much greater degree than before the combustion engine. By being able to maximize the value for their resources, populations around the world have increased their standard of living. An example would be comparatively poor countries that can utilize their relatively cheap labor to manufacture goods and then transport them cheaply to other countries. Another example would be the movement of raw materials such as iron ore from the area in which it is mined but can not use this material to another area of the globe that can make use of this material in the production of other goods. Both the buyer of the goods and the seller benefit from this trade and both increase their standard of living beyond what would be possible without this ability to trade which would not be possible without the ability to move these materials long distances.

[[1]]

Negatives

The internal combustion engine has had many negative impacts on the world. These include the quest for territory containing oil, and competition between people to own the biggest, fastest cars.

With the advent of the internal combustion engine, the demand for oil and quest for territories containing it has become the prime objective for many countries and corporations. This demand for oil has led to corporations to search in locations which would normally be off limits due to insufficient technological knowledge. The results of these ill-prepared corporations’ actions can be seen in the events in the Gulf Coast. Along with corporate demand, many countries need access to oil and its derivatives in order to maintain its functions. If a country is unable to access cheap oil, transportation and business will cease to function.

[[2]]

The internal combustion engine has become a status symbol in many parts of the world and in many cases this means bigger and faster is better. The downside of this is that larger, faster cars with high volume engines tend to have low efficiency. Low efficiency vehicles burn more gas per distance traveled, which causes more pollution. With the increased fuel consumption rate, the demand for gas increases. This demand for gas then causes prices for fuel to increase, which then causes an increase in price for any product that involves fuel at any stage of production. [[3]]

   The demand for cars is also so high that companies have found that there is more profit to be had if they are able to produce more cars less expensively. This has caused a shift in the location where many cars are produced. Though this is good for the countries that are receiving the business, it is bad for those losing it.

[[4]]---


Positive Global Impacts of the Internal Combustion Engine

Although criticized for its impact on the environment the internal combustion engine has revolutionized transportation across the globe since the day it was created. Before the automobile was created transportation particularly in the United States was slow and unreliable. The automobile with its internal combustion engine changed all of that. It has revolutionized not only the personal transportation industry but also the shipping industry. Now mail and packages can be shipped nationwide in just a matter of days. Without the engine we would be stuck in the 19th century. It makes the shipping of materials and products fast and easy thus allowing businesses to make money and expand quickly. The engine is often criticized for its environmental impacts but the negative effects are negligible when compared to what the engine allows us to do. It holds are country together. It is the center piece in the transportation of both goods and people. If this important aspect of the transportation industry was taken out of the picture, our country would fall apart very quickly. Now with the negative environmental impacts of the engine being resolved for the most part by our automobile industries, the positive impacts are far outweighing any negative aspects.

http://www.economywatch.com/world-industries/transportation-industry.html Mark Antes-table 4