Product Dissection

From GICL Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Return to Main Page

Contents

Introduction

The following Gate consists of our team’s dissection and documentation process. By utilizing and modifying our Gate 1 Work and Management proposals, we were able to successfully complete Gate 2. Below are two sections of the Gate: The Preliminary Project Review and the Product Archaeology. To help organize all of the components referenced in these two section our group has also created a parts list. Feel free to view the parts list when a part is unclear for a detailed description and photo.

Preliminary Project Review

Cause for Corrective Action:

The following assessment details the work and management proposal form Gate 1. It will encompass why the proposals worked in certain areas and why they did not work in some cases. It will detail unresolved challenges, if any, and the challenges that we addressed as a group to deal with these problems.

Work Proposal:

1) Dissection Outline-
The dissection outline was broken down into nine objectives, which were broken down into functionality components. When breaking down the system, it was more convenient to break the parts down into major subsystems. Also, some of them were renamed correspondingly. The following is a revision of the original outline with a few new subsystems and a new convenient order of dissection.
a. Gas Tank
b. Power Center
c. Muffler
d. Carbon Canister
e. Air Filter
f. Pull Start
g. Throttle
h. Electric Starter
i. Carburetor
j. Overhead Valve
k. Frame
l. Electric Generator
m. Engine

This new organization specified subsystems and provided an easier approach at disassembly.

2) Tools-
The tools listed in the preliminary overview of the dissection were some of the tools needed. The chart below shows a more accurate depiction of what was needed.
Alt text
Table 1: Required Tools Chart (Revised)
The letters correspond to the subsystems listed in the previous section referring to the dissection outline. The “X’s” denote that it was required to disassemble the particular subsystem.
3) Timeline:
The timeline and project plan has provided a very efficient way of getting the group work completed. The group meets at the beginning of the gate to discuss plans of how and when parts of the gate will be taken care of. There are also meetings to collaborate on reports and finalizing reports. These meetings have proven to be beneficial in the first two gates. The only difference in the project plan was an alternate meeting location for lab work. Instead of the Product Dissection Lab, Eric W. has provided a work space at Goodnature Products Inc. in Orchard Park. This allowed the group to arrange lab work at convenient times not limited to the lab office hours.
4) Challenges and Shortcomings:
One of the expected challenges that we foresaw as a group was “Not Enough Time”. We decided as a group that to prevent the challenge of not enough time, we can implement, “careful scheduling and overestimating the time required”. We would also, “work positively and collectively to complete the task in a timely fashion”. These ideas worked effectively as we ran into an issue with separating the generator form the engine block. We planned on finishing the dissection in two weeks, and were on schedule until we were met with this problem. It took us an extra three meetings to accomplish the problem. This was accomplished only because we worked collectively and got the job done.


Another expected challenge that we saw as being an issue was the “Absence of a Member”. If a member could not attend our meeting, “that member’s work will be distributed evenly amongst the rest of the team’s members”. This solution worked very well as for multiple meetings our documenter or team leader was gone and the group worked together to pick up the slack. In one instance the leader, John was absent so our other leader, Nick, ran the meeting with no issues. When our documenter was absent, Joe took the role of taking pictures and recording details.


Another expected challenge was the problem of “Lost or Damaged Material”. A proposed solution was to, “make adjustments as needed, purchase extra materials or contact the instructor or TA’s if needed.” Indeed we did have four pieces that mysteriously fell out of parts of the generator, and we broke a few parts in the process of using extreme force in some situations. We did not need to purchase new materials or consult the TA or instructor. We kept a zip-lock bag to collect and contain the lost parts. We found areas to put the missing parts throughout our work. As for broken parts that will be a worry for a later date, when re-assembling the generator. We plan to repair as best we can, but if it is not vital to operation, we will not spend a great deal of time worrying about it.


Another expected challenge was “Incompetence”. A proposed solution to this is, “new responsibilities will be assigned if the work load of an individual proves to be too much. If the work load is obviously not overbearing, steps will be taken to not only give the individual a chance to finish their responsibility, but the instructor will also be notified.” We did not run into this issue whatsoever, our group surprisingly worked near perfectly, with little issue. The work delegated was never “too much” and work was completed on time as assigned by our group leader.


The last challenge foresaw was “Organization”. In order to prevent this we, “created a template that will be used to document each and every part of the generator. The template is structured in such a way that not only every part receives a part number, but every part has a description”. This worked well when time was permitting, but perfect documentation was not realistic. The use of cameras was vital as we documented pictures of every part. We used zip-lock bags when necessary so we would not misplace small parts. These techniques proved to be vital to analyze the subsystems and components.
To overcome and avoid future challenges, We plan to work together seamlessly as a team. Positive attitudes an cooperation are the keys to success. Below are some foreseen strategies to deal with future challenges.
Not Enough Time” – The generator assigned is a complex machine so it is inevitable that the team will have to work regularly and often to meet deadlines. One solution to this problem is prevention. By careful scheduling and overestimating the time required, the team should be able to complete each assigned task on time. If deadlines are not met, the team will work positively and collectively to complete the task in a timely fashion. This applies to each job assigned to each person. If a job proves to be too much for one person, our group will work to finish the assigned task if deadlines are not met. Abuse of this policy will not be tolerated by the team.


Absence of Member”- If a team member is unable to attend a meeting or work on their assigned task due to a legitimate reason approved by the other group member’s, that members work will be distributed evenly amongst the rest of the team’s members. Approved excuses fall into examples such as family death, resigning of the course, prolonged sickness, etc.


Lost or damaged Material”- When reverse engineering a product, things are bound to be misplaced or maybe even broken. To work through this the team will make adjustments as needed, purchase extra materials or contact the instructor or TA’s if needed.


Incompetence”- If a team member seems to frequently be behind on his/her work, the team will go back and re-evaluate the group member’s work load. If needed, adjustments will be made and new responsibilities will be assigned if the work load of an individual proves to be too much. If the work load is obviously not overbearing, steps will be taken to not only give the individual a chance to finish their responsibility, but the instructor will also be notified.


Organization”- The generator assigned to the group has many different components and parts. To prevent clutter and unorganized documentation, the team has created a template that will be used to document each and every part of the generator. The template is structured in such a way that not only every part receives a part number, but every part has a description. The template also gives other parts that are related or connected to the part documented. Aside from the template, cameras will be used for visual reference aid during the dissection and reassembly phases. Ziploc bags and boxes will be used to sort parts into their set categories. Please refer to the management proposal for a further review of these organization techniques.
By placing these policies in effect we have a system to deal with future problems and challenges. Any other complications will be addressed as a group or with the instructor.

Management Proposal:

1) Protocol for Part Documentation:
Binder-
The binder served as a useful tool. It kept the Part Templates organized and together.
Part Template-
The part template worked fairly well for the documentation of all of the subsystem’s components. It worked well in the respect that we were able to document every component in the system. It worked because the template called for the necessary information we needed when documenting the component.
Part Catalogue Checklist-
The Part catalogue checklist was not used because it hindered the flow of dissection. Our team disregarded the checklist because the dissection was delayed because of it. The team could not finish the dissection and use this checklist smoothly. The checklist did its job of helping, “…the team stay organized and informed of what other members have done.”, but it also hurt the overall flow of the dissection (Management proposal). After trying the part checklist for two parts the team discarded the checklist.
Camera-
The team did use a camera for all of the part documentation. However, the camera was not stored in a team locker. Since the generator was disassembled in Eric's workshop, the camera was left in the shop.
Storage-
As foreseen, boxes and Ziploc bags were used. Each subsystem was given its own storage box where all of the components were kept.
Label Tags-
What the team did not account for was the use of label tags. Each component had a label attached to it with its given part code. This made for an easier documentation and will help with the reassembly phase of the project.
2) Gantt Chart-
The Gantt Chart for the project as a whole was hard to see, so it has been broken down into gates below. As for gates 1 and 2, the Gantt Chart was fairly accurate. The only inconsistency was for the disassembly of the engine/generator. The allotted time was from October 8th to October 15th. Due to trouble removing the engine fly wheel (E-FW) and separating the generator from the engine block (E-B), the time line was extended until October 19th.
Gate 1:
Alt text
Table 2: Gantt Chart: Gate 1
Gate 2:
Alt text
Table 3: Gantt Chart: Gate 2
Gate 3:
Alt text
Table 4: Gantt Chart: Gate 3
Gate 4:
Alt text
Table 5: Gantt Chart: Gate 4
Gate 5:
Alt text
Table 6: Gantt Chart: Gate 5
Legend:
Legend
Table 7: Legend for Gantt Chart
3) Group Member Roles-
As a group we assigned roles based on everyone’s capabilities.
Wettlaufer, Eric
1. Chief Dissector and Parts Technician:
  • Keep group informed on current dissection tasks and procedures
  • Supply required tools
  • Account for all parts and their respective cataloguing
  • Apply established protocols
  • Parts descriptions
  • Analysis of systems and components
  • Stock all necessary supplies for cataloguing
This role worked very well for Eric as he supplied the group with the necessary workplace as we used his shop. For the majority, all of the tools were available. When we had questions about the functions of parts he knew mostly all of the answers but when he was not sure, he did research on his own time to keep the group educated. He was also present for every dissection meeting.
Marucci, Nicholas
1. Work Manager:
  • Is a point of contact for the group and will address any project related issues with the instructor and TA’s.
  • Schedules deadlines for project tasks and updates the Gantt chart as tasks are accomplished.
  • Makes adjustments to scheduling within reason to ensure task completion and to promote thoroughness.
  • Oversees other group members in order to make sure tasks are completed on time.
  • Delineates any tasks that come up unexpected to other group members as needed.
  • Assists the dissector with product disassembly and documentation.
2. Assistant Dissector/Reassembler:
  • Assist the chief dissector in wherever he may choose
  • Take role of documenting if head documenter is absent
These roles worked well for Nick. He did an excellent job of ensuring that we met the necessary time dates as the dissection took place. He periodically referred to the Gantt chart and informed the group as to when we were ahead of schedule or behind schedule. Nick was also present for every dissection meeting, which made it possible for a successful dissection every meeting. This role worked because Nick’s capabilities allowed for him to be successful in his assigned roles.
Baker, Mary Kate
1. Head Documenter:
  • Making sure documentation is done following protocol
  • Making sure all documentation tools are present before dissection
  • Be available for as many dissections as possible
2. Website Developer
  • Managing Wiki
  • Reformatting pictures
  • Final check of work
  • Keep group members updated on Wiki
  • Provide members with basic info on how Wiki works
These assigned roles to Mary Kate fit well. She was present at nearly every dissection meeting which allowed for the group to move smoothly as she was the most well suited for documentation. She has done a great job in managing the wiki site and formatting the pictures.
Robison, Joseph
1. Chief Editor and Technical Writer:
  • Typing up documentation
  • Proof read all documents before final post on Wiki
  • Ensure consistent formatting in all documents
  • Ensure all figures, tables, and graphs are properly labeled and cited
  • Promote proper use of parenthetical citations
2. Assistant Dissector/Re-assembler:
  • Assist the chief dissector in wherever he may choose
  • Take role of documenting if head documenter is absent
These assigned roles fit well into Joe’s capabilities. As the Chief Editor, he compiled every member’s individual work and ensured consistent formatting. This role worked because he used time and patience to proofread and ensure the final product was presentable as a technical document. As for being an assistant dissector, there was little need for assistance in dissecting, rather there was a need for more assistance in the documentation aspect.
Vinti, John
1. Project Manager:
Note: The project manager’s responsibilities are to ensure the success and completion of the project. These various responsibilities can be categorized into types:
1. Communication:
  • The project manager is responsible for the enforcement of the set due dates and appropriated deadlines.
  • To inform others of what will happen at each meeting prior to the date and time.
  • To find answers to questions that the team cannot formulate collectively.
  • To help resolve issues and conflicts in a constructive manner that will benefit the team as a whole in accordance with the group conflict guidelines outlined in the management proposal.
  • To recognize and celebrate individual and/ or team successes as well as to recognize and positively correct individual and/ or team failure.
  • Work in co-ordinance with the work manager.
2. Coordination:
  • To ensure that discussions and meetings are on topic and lead towards closure.
  • To work and act as a point of contact with the instructor.
  • To ensure that the team stays on track and does not deviate from the task
  • To lead by example as well as words.
  • To organize Team email address and to keep open communication between members.
John worked great as the Project Manager, as he exhibited great leadership skills and patience to lead the group to success in dissecting. He was on track with deadlines, and kept the group moving forward and did not allow for inefficiencies. He listened to all ideas from all members and made fair, respectable decisions, but took initiative in making decisions when it was appropriate. He managed the team email, keeping it organized and up to date, which allowed for the flow and progress of the group to be maintained.
4) Group Conflicts-
As outlined in the Management proposal the team had a plan for conflict resolution. The following conflicts were experienced by the team:
Task Conflicts-
At points in the disassembly, members had different ideas as to what subsystems should be dissected first. This conflict was easily resolved by reevaluating what components of each subsystems were connected. From this information the team was able to pick a correct course of action.
Inner Conflict-
Because the dissection of the generator was so difficult, all of the team members felt stressed at different times during the dissection. By helping each other and by keeping a positive outlook, the team was able to overcome the stress of the dissection.
Relationship and Authority conflicts were not experienced during Gate 2. The team was able to work well together and to complete the gate collectively.

Product Archaeology

Challenges Faced During Dissection

1. Removing the fly wheel:
  • The proper tool for the removal was unavailable.
  • Did not have proper knowledge as to how to remove fly wheel.
  • Overcame by seeking professional advice which led to the successful removal.
2. Oil leak:
  • The engine was not properly drained of all fluids, once the engine housing was cracked a large amount of oil leaked out.
  • Overcame by prompt use of kitty litter, and paper towels.
3. Removing Electric Generator (EG) from Frame (F)
  • When the generator was disconnected, the product became unbalanced, leading to it nearly falling off of the work bench. The product was prevented from falling off of the work bench at the expense of a member’s finger.
  • Overcame by repairing finger wound.
4. Loosening nut of the crank shaft:
  • The nut was extremely tight on the crank shaft.
  • Overcame by using ingenuity, and extreme force.
5. Engine to Electric Generator connection:
  • Could not figure out how to separate the two components.
  • Lack of a proper tool.
  • Overcame, after hours of failure, by deciding to seek advice of a mechanical expert, leading to the use of wedges and extreme force.
6. Documentation of small parts and components:
  • Difficult to balance the need for proper, detailed documentation and proper dissection pace
  • Would have used the parts checklist, but once again not enough time.
  • Overcame by designing component templates, which made documentation easy, and by delegating roles to members to make the documentation as efficient as possible.

Ease of Disassembly

Scale

In the disassembly of our generator, we devised a scale to help rate the difficulty of each subsystem disassembly. The scale uses the basic 1 through 10 ranking system where 10 is the harder disassembly step and 1 is the easier disassembly step. We have created a scale that is based off of four main criteria: Time, Force, Tools Used, and Accessibility. Each of the four criteria are allotted usable points that when all added together determine the final difficulty of the disassembly of the respective subsystem. The more intricate a criteria the more points a disassembly of a subsystem will be awarded. When assigning the point value to each criteria for a specific disassembly of a subsystem, we thought about the following variables for each:
I. Time - When assigning a point value to a disassembly of a subsystem for the time variable, we took into consideration the amount of time spent on planning, devising, and actual hands on of disassembling.
II. Force – When assigning a point value to a disassembly of a subsystem for the force variable, we took into consideration the amount of force required and the precision of the force.
III. Tools – When assigning a point value to a disassembly of a subsystem for the tools variable we took into consideration the amount of tools needed, the complexity of the used tools, and if there was a need for simultaneous tool usage.
IV. Accessibility - When assigning a point value to a disassembly of a subsystem for the Accessibility variable, we took into consideration the awkwardness in position of the process, and the amount of people needed to disassemble.

Gas Tank Subsystem

Components: Gas Tank (GT), Gas Tank- Cap (GT-C), Gas Tank- Filter Screen (GT-FS)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Gas Tank subsystem’s difficulty rating can be rated as a 1 on a scale from 1-10

Time: The gas tank subsystems could successfully be disassembled in 5 minutes.
Accessibility: The gas tank subsystem is located on the top section of the frame. It is located behind the top area of the power center subsystem and is the upper most subsystem in the system as a whole. It has adequate room for socket wrenches used to detach it from the frame.
Force: Minimal force required to remove bolts from frame.
Tools: #2 Phillips head Screw driver, 14 mm socket

Steps:

1. Remove F-RB
2. Remove Bolts from Frame Connection
3. Remove Line 1 (L1) from GT
4. Remove GT-FS from GT
5. Remove Subsystem from System

This subsystem is not meant to be removed by the consumer, but is easy to remove if necessary for repair. The GT-C, or Gas Cap was meant to be removed by the consumer so that gas can be put into the subsystem. The easy access to the connection bolts and the screws allows for an easy dissection.

Alt text
Figure 1: Gas Tank Subsystem

Parts.png

Power Center Subsystem

Components: Wire 1 (W1),Wire 2 (W2),Wire 3 (W3),Wire (W4), Wire 5 (W5), Power Center- Output (PC-O), Power Center- Power Switch (PC-PS).

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the difficulty of the power center’s disassembly can be ranked a 4 on a scale of 1-10.

Time: The power center subsystem could be disassembled in approximately 20 minutes.
Accessibility: The power center subsystem is located on the outer face, adjacent to the side with the air filter and pull start, as well as adjacent to the rear end where the wheels are located. The power center itself is attached to the frame by four 8 mm hex cap screws. The screws are on the outermost face and are very easily accessible with a socket wrench. All of these wire connections were moderately accessible once the power center was detached from the frame. Access to the PC-O is an easy process of removing four screws on the back face of the interface. Access to the five wires that connect the PC-O to the Electric Generator- Terminal Block (EG-TB) is hindered by the Electric Generator- Cap (EG-C) which is only held on by four screws.
Force: Little force was required to remove the four 8 mm hex cap screws, the use of a socket wrench for the removal relatively simple. Once the bolts were removed, detachment from the frame was hindered by the multiple wire connections. All wires were removed by unclipping from the power switch or from unscrewing nuts at the EG-TB, all of which require minimal force.
Tools: Sockets, socket wrench: 8 mm socket, tape to label wires.

Steps:

1. Remove four 8 mm hex cap screws.
2. Unclip four wires from the power switch; document each connection of the wires.
3. Detach five wires from EG-TB, document each wire connection.

This subsystem was made to be easily accessible. Four screws are all that hold the power center attached to the frame, and four more screws to get to the output block, where electrical repair may be needed. The terminal block on the generator is easily accessible, also only requiring the removal of four screws. This subsystem is intended to be accessible by a mechanic.

Alt text
Figure 2: Power Center Subsystem

Parts.png

Muffler Subsystem

Components: Muffler Spark Arrestor (M-S), Muffler Body (M-B)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Muffler subsystem’s difficulty rating can be rated as a 2 on a scale from 1-10

Time: The muffler subsystems could successfully be disassembled in 5 minutes.
Accessibility: The muffler subsystem is located on the outer edge of the frame. It is located next to the carbon canister and generator subsystems. It has adequate room for socket wrenches used to detach it from the frame.
Force: Minimal force required to remove bolts from both frame and OHV connections.
Tools: #2 flathead Screw driver, 12 mm socket, 13 mm socket

Steps:

1. Remove Bolts from OHV connection and Frame Connection and Remove Muffler
2. Remove 4 screws on M-S and Remove M-S from M-B

This subsystem is meant to be removed if needed. The easy access to the connection bolts and the screws allows for an easy dissection. The owner’s manual anticipates and expects the consumer to remove the spark arrestor component for maintenance purposes. The spark arrestor component M-S tells the consumer what type of screen type is used for maintenance: Quote “SCREEN TYPE 0038984”

Alt text
Figure 3: Muffler Subsystem

Parts.png

Carbon Canister Subsystem

Components: Carbon Canister (CC), Line 4 (L4), Line 1 (L1)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the difficulty of the carbon canister’s disassembly can be ranked a 1 on a scale of 1-10.

Time: The carbon canister subsystem could be disassembled in approximately 5 minutes.
Accessibility: The carbon canister subsystem is located between the air filter (AF) and the muffler (M), and below the overhead valve (OHV). There is sufficient space between the carbon canister and each of it surrounding subsystems, which allows for tools to be easily maneuvered around the canister. Two lines needed to be removed from the canister, L4 and L1. Two 8 mm bolts attach one end of a black bracket to the frame, while the other end slides into a slotted hole, also in the frame. While mildly confusing at first, once the two bolts were removed, the bracket pulled out of the frame easily. As for accessing the carbon canister itself, the manufacturer left no conceivable way to open it up.
Force: Little force was required to remove the two bolts, the use of a socket wrench and extending lever arm made the removal relatively simple. Once the bolts were removed, a simple tug was all that was needed to detach the bracket from the frame.
Tools: Sockets, socket wrench and extender: 8 mm socket and medium extender.

Steps:

1. Remove lines L4 and L1.
2. Unscrew two 8 mm bolts.
3. Detach lip of bracket from slotted part of frame.

This subsystem was designed to be easily removed from the frame itself. However access into the carbon canister was not the intent of the manufacturer. The end cap cannot be removed without deforming the cap and canister itself. If the carbon canister was designed to have disassembling capabilities, the steps to removing the end cap would be as simple as removing a screw or perhaps a clip of some sort. If a carbon canister were to fail, needing a replacement, purchasing an entire new canister would be more beneficial than dissecting the canister and replacing the filter. The entire canister is intended to be disposed of rather than releasing the pollutants inside. Thus, the manufacturer did not make the canister an accessible product.

Alt text
Figure 4: Carbon Canister Subsystem

Parts.png

Air Filter Subsystem

Components: Air Filter Housing Back (AF-HB), Air Filter-Filter (AF-F), Air Filter Housing Front (AF-HF), Air Filter Housing Center (AF-HC)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Air Filter subsystem’s difficulty rating can be rated as a 3 on a scale from 1-10

Time: The Air filter was fully dissected in approximately 15 – 20 minutes.
Accessibility: The Air filter was easily accessible because of its location. It is located directly to the left of the pull start subsystem. The nut attaching it to the system was difficult to remove because there was little room on the AF–HB. Also the throttle subsystem located above it caused for even less room to work. Metal clamps attached to either side of the AF-HF made for easy access to the inside of the subsystem.
Force: Minimal force was needed for all of the nuts within the subsystem. Little force was needed to disengage the clamps which held the AF-HF to the AF-HB.
Tools: socket wrench, 8mm socket, 10mm combination wrench

Steps:

1. Unhook clamps that connect AF- HF. Remove AF- HF.
2. Remove AF- F.
3. Remove 8mm nuts (x6) that connect AF-HC to AF- HB.
4. Remove AF- HC.
5. Remove 10 mm nut on reverse side of AF- HB and Remove.

NOTE: Remove lines L-3 and L-4 before dissecting the Air filter subsystem. Refer to Line subsystem for lines L-3 and L-4 for dissection summary.

Some components in the Air filter subsystem are designed to be removed if need be. The AF- HF is designed to be removed. It features two clips that are easy to detach which allows the consumer to remove the AF-HF and gain access to the AF-F. The AF-F can then be cleaned if needed for maintenance purposes. The rest of the components were not designed to be easily removed for maintenance purposes, but they were not hard to remove. The consumer would have to remove the remaining subsystem components if throttle maintenance was required.

Alt text
Figure 5: Air Filter Subsystem

Parts.png

Pull Start Subsystem

Components: Pull Start Rope Wheel (PS – RW), Pull Start Cap (PS – C), Pull Start Locking Cylinder (PS – LC)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Pull Start subsystem’s difficulty rating can be rated as a 4 on a scale from 1-10

Time: The Pull Start Subsystem could be disassembled in approximately 10 minutes.
Accessibility: The Pull Start Subsystem Is located in the outside of the system covering the engine flywheel located to the right of the air filter. The three 10 mm bolts on the Pull Start Cap (PS – C) are easily removed by a socket wrench. The Pull start rope wheel (PS – RW) can be removed with 8mm socket. The Pull Start locking cylinder (PS – LC) can be removed by removing the flywheel nut.
Force: The Flywheel bolt was hard to crack loose. The rest of the bolts came off with minimal force.
Tools: Sockets and socket wrench: 8mm and 10 mm. Medium Crescent Wrench.

Steps:

1. Remove PS- C with 10mm wrench.
2. Remove PS – RW with 8mm wrench
3. Remove Flywheel Nut with crescent wrench.
4. Remove PS- LC

This Subsystem is meant to be removed. The fact that the Cap (PS – C) and Rope wheel (PS- RW) were so easy to remove means that it was designed so that the consumer could replace the rope if necessary. The rope could snap or tear meaning a replacement rope wheel could be installed.

Alt text
Figure 6: Pull Start Subsystem

Parts.png

Throttle Subsystem

Components: Throttle-Arm 1 (TH-A1), Throttle-Arm 2 (TH-A2), Throttle-Arm 3 (TH-A3), Throttle-Idle Screw (TH-IS), Throttle-Mounting Shell (TH-MS), Throttle-Rod (TH-R), Throttle-Spring 1 (TH-S1), Throttle-Spring 2(TH-S2)

Ease of Disassembly:

The throttle subsystem has intricate placement, but its parts are simple. The ease of disassembly can be rated as a 3 on a scale of 1 to 10.

Time: A complete disassembly of the throttle subsystem including analysis and accessibility would take approximately 20 minutes.
Accessibility: In order to gain access to the complete throttle system, the gas tank must be removed.
Force: Little force was needed to disassemble the throttle subsystem from the engine block. All components were connected by bolts and hooks.
Tools: #2 Philips screwdriver, 10 mm hex wrench, 10 mm socket wrench.

Steps:

1. Use #2 Philips screwdriver to remove TH-IS.
2. Rotate TH-A3 so that TH-S1 can unhook.
3. Unhook TH-S1 fromTH-A2.
4. Use 10 mm hex wrench to loosen TH-A2 off of engine throttle switch (E-TS).
5. Unhook TH-R and TH-S2 from TH-A1.
6. Unhook TH-S2 from throttle valve control (CA-THVC) and slide it off of TH-R.
7. Rotate the CA-THVC and TH-R so that TH-R can slide up and out of the CA-THVC.
8. Use 10 mm hex wrench to remove 2 bolts opposite of overhead valve off of TH-MS.
9. Use 10 mm socket wrench to remove last bolt from TH-MS and lift off TH-MS.

This sub-system was not necessarily meant to be removed, although, some of the parts are easy to remove. This means that parts can be removed and replaced by a technician if needed. As for consumer needs, the starter subsystem was not meant to be removed. Some pieces were manufactured as a pair and were not meant to be detached at all. Throttle Arms 1 and 2 are an example, as well as throttle arm 3 and the mounting shell.

Alt text
Figure 7: Throttle Subsystem

Parts.png

Electric Starter Subsystem

Components: Electric Starter-Gear Housing (ES-GH), Electric Starter-Housing and Motor Base (ES-HMB), Electric Starter-Motor (ES-M), Electric Starter-Oil Sensor Unit (ES-OSU), Electric Starter-Solenoid (ES-SO), Electric Starter-Throttle Control (ES-TC), Electric Starter-Throttle Control Arm (ES-TCA)

Ease of Disassembly:

The electric starter subsystem is connected mechanically and electrically to various parts of the engine-generator system. This provides an intricate dissection of wires and small parts. The ease of disassembly can be rated as a 6 on a scale of 1 to 10.

Time: A dissection of the surrounding subsystems is necessary to have access to the starter. This would take about 20 minutes, whereas a complete disassembly of the starter subsystem including analysis and component description would take approximately 40 minutes.
Accessibility: In order to gain access to the complete starter system, the gas tank, power center, pull starter, and engine fan cap (E-FC) must be removed.
Force: Little force was needed to disassemble the starter subsystem from the engine block. All components were connected by bolts and wires.
Tools: #1 Philips screwdriver, #2 Philips screwdriver, 8 mm hex wrench, 10 mm hex wrench, 10 mm socket wrench, 12 mm hex wrench, 12 mm socket wrench with extension

Steps:

1. Disconnect yellow and black wires connected to ES-OSU at rubber cased joints.
2. Use 10 mm hex wrench to remove ES-OSU.
3. Disconnect set of four wires from power switch on power center.
4. Disconnect engine spark magnet (E-SM) wire and wire on base of ES-SO.
5. Use #2 Philips screwdriver to remove ES-SO.
6. Use 10 mm hex wrench to remove nuts holding wires onto the ES-SO.
7. Disconnect wire connected to ES-TC by unclipping at its joint.
8. Use 10 mm hex wrench to remove ES-TC and ES-TCA.
9. Use #2 Philips screwdriver to loosen the ES-TC from the ES-TCA.
10. Pull arm of ES-TCA through slot of the ES-TC and slide ES-TCA over the rubber boot.
11. Use #2 Philips screwdriver to remove ES-M from ES-HMB.
12. Pull out iron shaft from ES-M.
13. Use 12 mm socket wrench with extension to remove ES-GH.
14. Use #2 Philips screwdriver to detach ES-HMB from ES-GH.
15. Remove gears and shaft from ES-GH.

This sub-system was not necessarily meant to be removed, although, some of the parts are easy to remove. This means that parts can be removed and replaced by a technician if needed. As for consumer needs, the starter subsystem was not meant to be removed.

Alt text
Figure 8: Electric Start Subsystem

Parts.png

Carburetor Subsystem

Components : Carburetor- fuel float(CA-FF), Carburetor- fuel reservoir (CA-FR), Carburetor- throttle valve control (CA-THVC), Carburetor- choke valve control (CA-CVC), Carburetor- choke manual control (CA-CMC), Carburetor- choke mount (CA-CM), Carburetor- choke disengager (CA-CD), Carburetor- vacuum chamber (CA-VC)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Carburetor system can be rated a 5 out of 10.

Time: The Carburetor can be disassembled and removed in 30 minutes.
Accessibility: The Carburetor is located on the engine block, between the air intake and the piston chamber. All of the components easy to see and access, but not all are easy to remove.
Force: Moderate force needed to remove a few of the connections, especially where CA-CD (Choke Disengager) connects to the CA-CVC (Choke valve control). There is a very complex system of levers and springs that fits tightly into its location.
Tools: Philips (#1, #2, #3), Socket (10mm, 14mm), Pliers (needle nose)

Steps:

1. Disconnect L-5, L-2F, L-6
2. Remove 2 mounting rod nuts
3. Disconnect and remove Choke Control system and corresponding mount (CA-CVC, CA-CM)
4. Disconnect throttle control components (CA-THVC) by pushing up on the bottom of the throttle rod
5. When all components disconnected from carburetor, slide off the mounting rods
6. Slide Vacuum chamber (CA-VC), located directly behind carburetor, off of mounting rods
7. Unscrew the brass bolt holding the CA-FR (fuel reservoir) and remove float (CA-FF) and pin from the reservoir (careful not to lose tiny pin)

This system was intended to be adjusted, but not removed by the consumer or operator. It has easily accessible nuts and screws, and enough space is open to fit tools around all sides of the carburetor. There is however a great deal of difficulty involved in the disconnection of the choke system. The rods and springs involved are under tension and compression, and require dexterity to manipulate them in and out of their functional locations.

Alt text
Figure 9: Carburetor Subsystem

Parts.png

Overhead Valve Subsystem

Components: Overhead Valve Housing (OHV- H), Overhead Valve Cap (OHV-C), Overhead Valve Cap Bolt (OHV-CB), Overhead Valve Exhaust Valve (OHV-EV), Overhead Valve Intake Valve (OHV-IV), Overhead Valve Lever (OHV-L (x2)), Overhead Valve Actuating Rods (OHV-AR (x2)), Overhead Valve Housing Base Plate (OHV-HBP)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Overhead Valve subsystem’s difficulty rating can be rated as a 6 on a scale from 1-10

Time: The dissection of the entire overhead valve subsystem was completed in approximately 45 minutes.
Accessibility: The overhead valve’s placement was relatively easy to start the dissection on. As the dissection progressed, and the dissection got more involved, the accessibility of some components decreased. For example the OHV-C and OHV-HBP were easily removed with an 8 mm socket and socket wrench. The rest of the components required more attention and precision.
Force: Very Minimal force for OHV-AR (x2) removal. Minimal Force for 8 mm bolts on OHV-C and OHV-HBP. Moderate amount of force for OHV-H bolts(x4). Precise and Moderate force required for OHV-L (x2), OHV-IV, OHV-EV.
Tools: Socket Wrench, 8mm socket, 10mm socket, 12mm socket.

Steps:

1. Ensure that Carburetor subsystem is removed. If not, disconnect with 10mm socket and wrench.
2. Ensure Muffler subsystem is removed. If not use 12mm socket and wrench.
3. Remove OHV-C with 8mm socket and wrench.
4. Remove OHV-H from Engine subsystem with 12mm socket.
5. Remove OHV-AR that have been exposed in Engine subsystem.
6. Remove OHV- IV by compressing the spring, rotating the OHV-L, and removing the plunger spring components.
7. Remove OHV-EV using the same method for OHV-IV.
8. Remove OHV-L (x2) by using a 10mm socket.
9. Remove OHV-HBP using a 10mm socket

NOTE: Line L-3 should be removed before dissection of overhead Valve. Please refer to the Line subsystem component L-3 for more details.

The overhead valve is designed so that a mechanic would be able to access the subsystem. No routine maintenance is required to be done by the consumer. This is clear because the Overhead Valve is a complex subsystem and should only be removed by mechanics or students from MAE 277. A reason for accessing the OHV would be to replace a component within the OHV or to remove the entire subsystem in order to maintenance the combustion chamber.

Alt text
Figure 10: Overhead Valve Subsystem

Parts.png

Frame Subsystem

Components: Frame-Body (F-B), Frame-Engine Damper (F-DE), Frame-Eclectic Generator Damper (F-DEG), Frame-Handle Arm (F-HA), Frame-Handle Bracket (F-HBr), Frame- Removable Section (F-RS), Frame-Stand Legs (F-SL), Frame-Wheel Axle (F-WA)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Frame system can be rated a 4 out of 10. Many of the subsystems are connected to the frame and it was very difficult in many cases to remove cumbersome subsystems, such as the engine.

Time: The Carburetor can be disassembled and removed in 1 hour.
Accessibility: The Frame is located on the outer-most surface of the system. It is accessible everywhere, as well as fairly simple to disconnect, but some of the subsystems were heavy to take out of the frame.
Force: Moderate force needed to remove a few of the internal subsystems, such as Engine and Electric Generator. Disconnecting the frame is fairly simple, but actually moving some components out of it posed a challenge.
Tools: Open wrench (8mm, 10mm, 13mm), Socket (10mm, 13mm)

Steps:

1. Using an 8mm socket, remove F-RS
2. After checking to make sure the fluids are drained from the machine, turn the machine over, exposing the wheels and the support arms.
3. With a 13mm open wrench and a 13mm socket, remove both F-SL from the frame.
4. With a 13mm and 10mm open wrench, remove F-WA by loosening the bolts holding the support brackets.
5. Turn machine back onto the base.
6. Remove both F-RA using an 8mm open wrench a 10mm socket.
7. In order to completely separate the frame from the machine at this point, all other subsystems must first be removed. To do this, follow their disassembly procedures in their corresponding dissection guides.

This system was intended to be accessed and repaired by the consumer. All of the components are easy to see and remove. This is probably due to the fact that the frame was meant to not only to act as a housing for the machine, but to also protect it. Because it is on the outermost portion of the system, it takes a lot of wear and tear and therefore needs to be easily accessible.

Alt text
Figure 11: Frame Subsystem

Parts.png

Electric Generator Subsystem

Components: Electric Generator-Cap (EG-C), Electric Generator-Center Bolt (EG-CB), Electric Generator-Fan Cover (EG-FC), Electric Generator-Housing Rods (EG-HR), Electric Generator-Terminal Block (EG-TB)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the Gas Tank subsystem’s difficulty rating can be rated as a 9 on a scale from 1-10.

The Electric Generator was very difficult to remove and access. Many of the components are pressed onto the shat of the generator, and once pressed on leave little room for tools to remove them. We were unable to disable this subsystem without damage to a few of the components

Time: The engine subsystem could be taken apart in 2-3 hours.
Accessibility: All the extraneous subsystems must be removed prior to accessing the Electric Generator.
Force: High force required to separate the generator shaft from the crank shaft. With no ‘puller’ available by manufacturer, we had to resort to using steel wedges and heavy mallets to separate components.
Tools: Crowbar, 5lb hammer, steel wedges, large flathead screw drivers (#2, #3), Phillips head (#1, #2), and open wrench/ socket (8mm, 10mm, 11mm, 13mm).

Steps:

1. Remove EG-C with 8mm socket
2. Using a 13mm socket, remove EG-CB
3. Using a 10mm socket, remove all 4 EG-HR
4. Disconnect engine side wall (EG-SW) from engine block (E-B) by removing or loosening all 6 11mm bolts
5. Insert steel wedges at even spacing between E-B and E-SW
6. With a 5lb hammer, strike wedges with moderate force, and increase force evenly on all wedges until EG shaft separates from crank shaft.

This subsystem is not intended to be accessed by the consumer or operator in any major way. The manufacturer does not provide a tool that would safely separate the pressed-on components from the engine block. It would be to the benefit of the manufacturer and the consumer if the electric generator was removable, allowing access to the engine. This would give mechanics the ability to work on the engine’s most core components.

Alt text
Figure 12: Electric Generator Subsystem

Parts.png

Engine Subsystem

Components: Engine-Block (E-B), Engine-Balancing Weight Gear (E-BWG), Engine-Crank Shaft (E-CS), Engine-Fan Cap (E-FC), Engine-Fly Wheel (E-FW), Engine-Fly Wheel Fan (E-FWF), Engine-Oil Level Switch (E-OLS), Engine-Piston (E-P), Engine-Plunger (E-PL), Engine-Starter Magnet (E-SM), Engine-Spark Plug (E-SP), Engine-Side Wall (E-SW), Engine-Throttle Gear (E-TG), Engine-Throttle Switch (E-TS), Engine- Valve Actuating Gear (E-VAG)

Ease of Disassembly:

Overall the engine subsystem's ease of disassembly was 8 out of 10. The fly wheel removal required a puller or wedges to pop off of the tapered shaft.

Time: The engine subsystem could be taken apart in 1-2 hours.
Accessibility: All other subsystems must be removed prior to disassembly of the engine. Dissection of the engine would be impossible as a complete functional system.
Force: High force required to remove the fly wheel (E-FW). All other components are either bolted to engine block or sit freely within engine block.
Tools: Crowbar, 5 lb hammer, steel wedges, large flathead screwdrivers(#2, #3), open wrench/socket (10mm, 12mm, 14mm), spark plug socket wrench, socket wrench (15/16", 13/16"), socket extension.

Steps:

1. Using 10 mm socket wrench, remove E-FC.
2. Pop off E-FWF by pulling with hands.
3. Using 10 mm socket wrench, remove E-SM.
4. Remove E-SP by pulling it out of wire cap connected to E-SM.
5. If wheel puller is available, continue to step 6. If it is not available, skip to step 8.
6. Clamp wheel puller onto E-FW.
7. Rotate threaded shaft on wheel puller until E-FW pops off. Skip to step 11.
8. In the absence of wheel puller, wedge 2 crowbars opposite to each other behind E-FW.
9. Apply pressure to crowbars and use hammer to strike the end of the E-CS.
10. E-FW should pop off. If not, strike E-CS until it does.
11. Using 10 mm socket wrench, loosen wire 3 shield.
12. Using 10 mm socket wrench, remove E-SM.
13. Assuming electric generator has been removed, open E-SW with 12 mm open wrench.
14. Free up and remove, by hand, all gears including the E-BWG, E-VAG, and E-TG.
15. Using 14 mm open wrench, remove mounting nut from wire 1.
16. Pull wire 1 and threaded stem through mounting hole into E-B.
17. Using a 10 mm socket wrench with extension, remove E-OLS from E-B.
18. Rotate E-CS for accessibility to E-P journal bolts.
19. Using a 10 mm socket wrench remove journal connected to E-P shaft.
20. By pushing the E-P into combustion chamber and pulling out the top, remove E-P.
21. Pull out E-CS from E-B.
22. Release cotter pin from E-TS.
23. Remove the E-TS from E-B.

This subsystem is not intended to be accessed in any major way except for the oil reservoir. The oil caps are provided for consumers to change oil and to check oil height with the dip stick. The caps twist off and are easily accessible.

Alt text
Figure 13: Engine Subsystem

Parts.png

Connection of Subsystems

Frame:

The frame is connected to almost every subsystem contained in the Honda HW7000eh. This can be explained by considering that the frame was intended to house and support the entire machine, as well as make it transportable and usable.

For information on how the frame is connected to a specific subsystem, locate that subsystem’s connections profile and fine the section pertaining to the frame.

Connection 1: Gas Tank (GT) to Carburetor (CA)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- Directly connected through fuel line, which is held in place with the use of spring clamps.
b) Signals- Flow of fuel is maintained based on float switch in CA (CA-FF)
c) Mass-Fuel passes through fuel line into CA
d) Energy- Stored chemical energy in fuel leaves the GT and enters the CA.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- Provides CA, which performs the job of preparing fuel to the engine, with a steady supply of fuel.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- Material of fuel line is very common and easy to locate. IT is a widely used natural rubber that can be found in many applications world-wide. Connection is removed simply without the need for tools.
b) Societal- Lines are easily removed and can e serviced without great knowledge of the physics of the engine. This allows a user to perform basic problem solving, such as checking for fuel flow.
c) Economic- Hose used in the fuel line is cheap and common, making replacement very affordable.
d) Environmental- Because the fuel line is easily repaired, there is less of a chance that a consumer will allow for a leaky hose, wasting gasoline.
e) Performance- Lines are flexible, which cuts down the risk of damaged or cracked lines if they are removed, twisted, or bent. Also, the connection is easily removed by the consumer, which is appropriate due to the common need to remove and check fuel lines.

Connection 2: Gas Tank (GT) to Frame (F)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- through 4 bolts
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- The Gas tank is connected to the frame so that it has something to secure it in place, otherwise it would not be sturdy.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The bolts are a very standard way of connecting multiple things, this will most likely allow this generator to pass standards in several different countries. The bolts are also metric which is also convenient to the rest of the world.
b) Societal- These bolts are easily accessible to the consumer and to mechanics making repairs less complicated.
c) Economic- Bolts have been around for a long time and will be around for much longer, so replacement of the bolts will be easy in the future.
d) Environmental- Metal is environmentally friendly because it can be melted in the future and reused for something else entirely.
e) Performance- The gas tank is the uppermost subsystem on the system as a whole; this is most likely because it allows the fuel to flow more effortlessly through the rest of the system due to gravity. By being at the top, it also makes the gas tank more accessible so the fuel can be replaced. The connections of these subsystems to one another are very sturdy as the gas tank can become heavy when filled with fuel.

Connection 3: Power Center (PC) to Frame (F)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- Four 8 mm hex cap screws
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- To fix the power center onto the frame and orient it in a place where the user can easily interact with it.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The use of a metric screw was used because the majority of the world uses the metric system, making the product more universal.
b) Societal- None
c) Economic- Cheap, inexpensive screws.
d) Environmental- The use of universal screws means that if they were taken out of the generator, they could be saved and reused since they are not specific to the generator itself.
e) Performance- Steel was used because it is a strong, inexpensive material that will not fail. Easily removed by the user, if necessary. Steel screws are readily available.

Connection 4: Power Center (PC) to Electric Generator (EG)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- By five steel nuts and five steel washers that connect the brass terminals of the wires to the terminal block on the generator.
b) Energy- Current and Voltage transmit power from the generator to the output on the PC.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- Allows for electricity generated in the EG to be passed into PC, where it is then utilized by the consumer.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The steel nuts and washers are available worldwide, as well as the copper wires and brass terminals. Materials used for transfer of electric energy pass minimum safety standards and flammability standards world-wide.
b) Societal- Because energy passes out of the EG into the PC, the consumer only has to interact with the PC, which is much safer and easier to understand than the EG. Also, the simple changing of the outlet type would be the most major alteration if it was used in a society where the standard outlet was different from that of the standard outlet used in the previous location.
c) Economic- Maintenance costs are low. Compact, simple connection reduces cost of shipment, manufacturing, and required material.
d) Environmental- Wires selected won’t burn, overheat, or waste an excessive amount of electrical energy, which saves material and fuel usage. Also, the proximity of the EG to the PC means long lengths of wires are not necessary. The use of universal nuts and washers means that if they were taken out of the generator, they could be saved and reused since they are not specific to the generator itself.
e) Performance- Steel is used for the nuts and washers because it is a strong material that is not likely to fail. Copper is used for the wires because it is a non-corrosive, highly conductive material. Brass is used for the terminals because it is still very conductive but more durable than copper.

Connection 5: Power Center (PC) to Electric Start (ES)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- Wires connect the power center to the electric starter solenoid (ES-SO), electric starter-oil sensor unit (ES-OSU), electric starter motor (ES-M), and electric starter throttle control (ES-TC).
b) Signals- A signal is sent to the solenoid once the switch is activated and the circuit is closed.
c) Energy- A minimal amount of energy as current is used in the signal transfer. Once the circuit is closed, the solenoid draws a large amount of current from the battery into the starter motor.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- To send a signal to the solenoid, which closes the circuit. The solenoid then draws a large amount of current from the battery to the starter motor, which then turns the flywheel.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The clips, nuts, washers and wires are all universal, which allows for the product to be sold in many areas of the world.
b) Societal- Wires are all grounded to ensure safety.
c) Economic- Battery life is not infinite, therefore production of replacement batteries is needed. Wires are cheap, lowering costs.
d) Environmental- Electric method provides an emission free energy transfer.
e) Performance- Steel is used for the nuts and washers because it is a strong material that is not likely to fail. Copper is used for the wires because it is a non-corrosive, highly conductive material. Brass is used for the terminals because it is still very conductive and non-corrosive but more durable than copper.

Connection 6: Muffler (M) to Overhead Valve (OHV)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- 12mm Nuts (x2). Metal Reinforcement Bracket. Gasket
b) Mass- Air Particles
c) Energy-Thermal Energy in the form of hot air. Sound.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- The Muffler and the Overhead valve are connected because the Overhead valve system transports the exhaust out of the combustion chamber and sends it to the muffler. The muffler then transports the Exhaust to the environment while dampening the sound energy.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The use of metric size nuts make them easily removable by a wide consumer base. The metal gasket and reinforcement bracket are easily recognizable and understood by large consumer base.
b) Societal- The use of a bigger nut (12mm) provides for a stronger and safer connection. The reinforcement bracket adds to the strength of the connection. The gasket reduces leakage which also makes for a safer connection
c) Economic- The small gasket is cheap and easily machined. The 12mm nuts are easily machined by an array of different companies creating for a wider buying market. The metal bracket is heavy and is expensive to manufacture.
d) Environmental- The gasket helps reduce leaked emissions which could harm the environment if not passed through the muffler. The gasket also ensures that all the sound will pass through the muffler and not make an excessive amount of noise. The nuts are easily recycled and reused in other machines. The metal bracket is not environmentally friendly but is needed to ensure that the connection is sealed tight.
e) Performance- The connection ensures that all of the sound and exhaust is transferred from the overhead valve to the muffler. It performs well due to the tight seal and strength of all three of the connection components.

Connection 7: Muffler (M) to Electric Generator (EG)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically-13mm nuts (x2)
b) Energy- Vibrations
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- This connection holds the muffler up in the system. The large metal bracket fits right over threaded rod from the EG, allowing the nuts to squeeze the bracket to the EG.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The use of metric size nuts make them easily removable by a wide consumer base.
b) Societal- The use of a bigger nut (13mm) provides for a stronger and safer connection.
c) Economic- The 13mm nuts are easily machined by an array of different companies creating for a wider buying market.
d) Environmental- The nuts are easily recycled and reused in other machines.
e) Performance- The combination of the bigger nuts and the strong bracket on the M-B creates a strong reliable connection to hold the muffler upright.

Connection 8: Carbon Canister (CC) to Frame (F)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- Two 8 mm hex cap screws
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- To fix the carbon canister onto the frame, to maintain a spatial relationship to other subsystems.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The use of a metric screw was used because the majority of the world uses the metric system, making the product more universal.
b) Societal- None
c) Economic- Cheap, inexpensive screws.
d) Environmental- The use of universal screws means that if they were taken out of the generator, they could be saved and reused since they are not specific to the generator itself.
e) Performance- Steel was used because it is a strong, inexpensive material that will not fail. Easily removed by the user, if necessary. Steel screws are readily available.

Connection 9: Carbon Canister (CC) to Air Filter (AF) / Carburetor (CA)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- Rubber hoses connect the spouts on the carbon canister to the spouts on the air filter and carburetor. The hoses are secured on the spouts by steel compression clamps.
b) Mass- Air/vapor flow
c) Energy- The unburned carbons can be considered negligible, as well as thermal energy in the air/vapor.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- The purpose of the connection to the carburetor is to capture unburned hydrocarbons that would have otherwise been vented off into the atmosphere. The connection to the air filter is to allow fresh air to cleanse the charcoal filter and allow for the trapped carbons to be sucked back into the combustion chamber to be burned during normal operation.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The rubber tube and steel clamp are available worldwide and is a common connection used by most products. The steel compression clamps are easy to use and require no specific tool to remove.
b) Societal- Rubber does not get as hot as a metal connection would thus making it safer for the consumer to handle. The compression clamps keep tight fit preventing leaks.
c) Economic- Rubber is cheap, it will last long in the system, and rubber hoses will be supported by the manufacture and other manufacturers because of its popularity. The compression clamps are cheap metal and affordable.
d) Environmental- A leak tight connection prevents the escape of hydrocarbons that could pollute the atmosphere. Rubber can be reused.
e) Performance- Rubber is used for the hose because it is resistive to hydrocarbons, has elastic properties allowing for a leak-tight connection. The steel clamps are a strong mechanical device to provide the required compression onto the connection points.

Connection 10: Air Filter (AF) to Overhead Valve (OHV)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- L4 a rubber hose line that slides into holes in each the AF-HB and OHV-C.
b) Signals- As pressure builds up in the OHV-C it gets transferred to the Air Filter.
c) Mass- Air Particles Flow from OHV-C to AF-HB
d) Energy- Thermal heat energy.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- This connection acts as a breather. As pressure builds up in the OHV-C from the oil being pumped in the connection to the Air filter gives that pressure and air a place to release. Thus this connection is categorized as a breather because it recycles the used air.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The rubber hose is available worldwide and is a common connection used by most products. The rubber hose works well in most weather conditions.
b) Societal- Rubber does not get as hot as a metal connection would thus making it safer for the consumer to handle.
c) Economic- Rubber is cheap, it will last long in the system, and rubber hoses will be supported by the manufacture and other manufacturers because of its popularity.
d) Environmental- The rubber material can be recycled and used in a variety of different products such as playground mulch or even bike tires.
e) Performance- The rubber hose connection is the best choice. In this situation no type of clamp is needed because the hose only acts as a breather. Overall the plan rubber hose is safe and reliable connection.

Connection 11: Air Filter (AF) to Carburetor (CA)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- A slot cut out in AF-HB allows for airflow into the Carburetor via a valve on the Carburetor. The Carburetor Valve is flush to the AF-HB.
b) Signals- The Air filter allows for air to flow into the Carburetor when the valve opens.
c) Mass- Air particles
d) Energy- Thermal energy in the form of hot air
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- The function of this connection is to supply the Carburetor with useable air for transfer to the Overhead Valve. Without this connection the Carburetor could not send air to the OHV and combustion Chamber.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The cut out is simple. It makes for an easy connection that most people can recognize without having to read specifications about the connection. The simplicity of the connection makes it universally understood.
b) Societal- The cut out makes for a more compact system and for one less hose for the consumer to worry about. The internal connection is safe because there are no hot tubes to consider when working with the connection.
c) Economic- No extra connection parts means less money spent.
d) Environmental- There is no extra material used meaning there is no material to recycle.
e) Performance- The connection itself is durable because of the lack of potential replacement parts. The fact that the valve is flush to the AF-HB makes for a simple yet effective connection.

Connection 12: Air Filter (AF) to Frame (F)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- 10mm nut on the reverse side of AF-HB
b) Energy-Vibrations
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- To hold the Air Filter subsystem in place and to adequately space it from the other subsystems.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The use of a metric size nut makes it universally removable by metric tools.
b) Societal- The hex nut is a low profile connection that is reliable and durable. This makes the connection safe.
c) Economic- Hex nuts are cheap and inexpensive to manufacture.
d) Environmental- The small size nut uses less material which has to be recycled.
e) Performance- The overall performance of the hex nut is the best of all other options because it is in the manufacturer’s best interest. It is the most economically viable connection.

Connection 13: Pull Start (PS) to Engine (E)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- 3 10mm bolts on the PS-C. 22mm nut on the crankshaft.
b) Energy- Rotational kinetic transferred from PS to E.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- The 22mm nut compresses the PS-LC to the crankshaft so that the rotation from the pull start can be transferred to the flywheel thus starting the engine. The 10mm bolts hold the PS-C and PS-RW onto the engine subsystem.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- The use of metric nuts and bolts makes them easily recognizable and removable by a large consumer basis.
b) Societal- The use of the larger nut on the crankshaft provides a more secure and safer connection. The three bolts that hold the PS-C to the E could have been a better connection had Honda added more bolts to make the connection safer.
c) Economic-Bolts and nuts are easily manufactured and are offered by a variety of suppliers.
d) Environmental- the nuts and bolts can be recycled or reused in other machines.
e) Performance- High yield-strength steel won’t sheer under applied force. 22mm nut is durable and reliable whereas the three 10mm bolts were not. More 10mm bolts should have been added to make the connection safer.

Connection 14: Throttle (TH) to Engine (E)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically-Mounting shell (TH-MS) bolted onto engine block (E-B) by 3 threaded bolts.
b) Physically-Throttle arm 2 (TH-A2) tightened onto engine throttle switch (E-TS) by a threaded bolt and threaded shaft.
c) Signal-TH-A2 directly affects E-TS by switching on while running or switching off to stop gear movement within the E-B.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection-TH-MS is connected to the E-B which serves as a mount to a couple components of the throttle subsystem. The base of the overhead valve and the top of the E-B has ribs to release heat. The TH-MS provides a heat shield for the throttle and gas tank. The position of the TH-A2 directly determines the position of the E-TS. This relates to the signal purpose. The signal to the E-TS switches to an on position for continual operation of the engine. It switches off if the engine turns off.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global-Metric bolts are used to provide a more universal option for tools around the world.
b) Societal-Metric bolts provide a reliable form of connection and increase safety.
c) Economic-Replacement bolts will most likely always be available for replacement. They are also fairly cheap.
d) Environmental-Using metric bolts provides for easy manufacturing due to the large number of metric bolts already being processed.
e) Performance-Metric bolts are easy to use and provide a durable connection. The steel flange heads also provide a good seal and yield strength when tightened.

Connection 15: Throttle (TH) to Electric Start (ES)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically-Throttle arm 1 (TH-A1) is pressed on by electric starter throttle control arm (ES-TCA) when starter starts engine.
b) Energy-Kinetic energy is transferred from the ES-TCA to TH-A1.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection-ES-TCA presses onto TH-A1 when starting engine to throttle up quickly for ignition. The transfer of energy comes from the electric starter throttle control (ES-TC) to the ES-TCA, TH-A1, and TH-R which controls the CA-TC.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- No actual connection pieces are needed for this interaction, so any region in the world can use it.
b) Societal- The connection is spring based. So that if anything comes between the lever arms, there will be no detrimental results.
c) Economic- No connection means zero connection costs. Manufacturing of the lever arms is required for proper press.
d) Environmental- Manufacturing for the modified pieces will be an extra need. There will be no need for bolts or any other connection pieces to be manufactured.
e) Performance-There is no need for user interaction. The durability of the steel on steel connection depends on fatigue over long periods of time.


Connection 16: Throttle (TH) to Carburetor (CA)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically-Throttle rod (TH-R) and throttle spring 2 (TH-S2) are attached to the carburetor throttle control (CA-TC) by hooks.
b) Signal-TH-R rotates CA-TC to allow for fuel flow and more throttle.
c) Energy-TH-S2 provides potential energy and pulls back on CA-TC to control amount of throttle.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection-The TH-R and TH-S2 are attached to the CA-TC to control the rotation of the throttle valve which controls the amount of the air/fuel mixture. The TH-R acts as a switch to open the throttle valve when it is pressed. The TH-S2 is a tension spring pulling the throttle valve closed if it is not being pressed on by the TH-R.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global-High temperature locations would need to be cautious using the thin coil spring.
b) Societal-Safety concerns are low.
c) Economic-Low cost connections are used and can be supported in long term situations due to easy manufacturing.
d) Environmental-Plain steel rod used for low manufacturing needs. Thin spring used which provides easy manufacturing.
e) Performance-Hooks are used for the connections. This may provide for bending over time. Creeping is another concern due to constant loads at high temperatures. Spring elongation may occur as well. The TH-R is made of steel which has a high yield strength. This means that bending is unlikely in short term.

Connection 17: Engine (E) to Electric Start (ES)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically-Electrical starter gear housing (ES-GH), ES-M, ES-SO, ES-OSU, and ES-TC mounted onto engine block (E-B) by various sized metric bolts.
b) Physically-Gears within ES-GH rotate E-FW to jumpstart operation rotation.
c) Signal-ES-IIDA gets a signal from the engine oil level switch (E-OLS) and shuts power off if oil level is too low.
d) Energy-Kinetic motion transfer from ES-GH to E-FW.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection-Electric starter components attached to E-B for mounting purposes. The gears spin the E-FW to get a jumpstart motion. If oil gets too low, the signal is passed and the engine will shut off, so that the gears do not break. Transfer of kinetic energy continues onto E-FW.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global-Metric bolts are universal connectors.
b) Societal-Safety is provided by the switch determining that the oil level is too low. If engine gears are rotating will ungreased, they make catch and break, possibly causing catastrophic failure.
c) Economic-Bolts are highly manufactured providing low cost.
d) Environmental-Gears require no connector pieces, making manufacturing of the connection minimal.
e) Performance- High strength steel makes durability of bolts and gears higher.

Connection 18: Overhead Valve (OHV) to Engine (E)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- OHV-H mounted onto E-B with four 14mm bolts. NOTE: OHV-VAR (Valve actuating rods) rest freely on E-VAG
b) Signals- Actuating Rods open and close valves.
c) Mass-Gas and air into Engine. Exhaust from engine.
d) Energy-Chemical potential gasoline, Kinetic (OHV-VAR and E-VAG connection), Thermal energy in the form of hot exhaust air.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection-The OHV housing connected to Engine Block provides a closed combustion chamber above piston head, and controls intake and exhaust of piston chamber. Mass connection is providing fuel to combustion chamber, and reacted components leaving. Waste heat leaves with exhaust. Chemical energy from OHV is converted to pneumatic energy in the engine, part of which is redirected in the form of kinetic energy in the opening and closing of valves. Thermal energy is released through OHV.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global-The use of a metric nut is easily recognizable and removable by a wide consumer base.
b) Societal- Thermal connection protects engine from overheating. The OHV-AR (x2) are enclosed in the OHV-H meaning nothing can interfere with their operation making the connection signal safer.
c) Economic- Nuts are cheap to produce and use little metal. The OHV-AR (x2) are generic rods and have no outstanding features making them relatively cheap to produce.
d) Environmental- Valve and Engine connected in a way that creates a 4-stroke combustion cycle. This makes the engine more efficient, burning less fuel and oil. Also, many of these components are manufactured in large quantities, bringing their price down and efficiency up.
e) Performance- Connection involves high heat-resistant gasket, extended bolts, stainless steel. These materials have high stress tolerances and heat tolerances. Also, they are resistant to any corrosion that may result in combustion of gasoline.


Connection 19: Overhead Valve (OHV) to Carburetor (CA)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- CA is mounted onto 2 mounting rods that fasten into the housing of the OHV. 10 mm nuts and gasket.
b) Mass- Fuel and air pass through CA into OHV
c) Energy- Stored chemical energy passes into OHV from CA in the form of fuel.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- Allows fuel and air mixture that was prepared by the carburetor to be passed into OHV, which supplies it to the engine. The function of the mounting rods is to ensure a tight, flush lining up of the CA and OHV
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- SI universal tools can be used for maintenance. The gasket is a common seal most all machines utilize.
b) Societal- Because this connection is so vital for the function of the system, the distance between the CA and OHV is minimal, resulting in a smaller risk of damage.
c) Economic- Maintenance cost low. Compact, simple connection reduces cost of shipment, manufacturing, and required material. Also, due to the very low tolerance of the manufacturing, there is no loss of fuel or pressure, ensuring an efficient mix of fuel enters the engine.
d) Environmental- Simple connection makes for a more compact design, cutting down on shipping and materials used.
e) Performance- High heat-tolerant materials resistant to corrosion used for gasket, which seals gap between CA and OHV, resulting in a tight seal that will not break down quickly.

Connection 20: Electric Generator (EG) to Engine (E)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- Generator shaft pressed directly into crank shaft, and supported by long EG-B (Electric generator-Bolt). EG-FC bolted to the E-SW with 4 14mm bolts.
b) Energy- Kinetic rotational energy passes from engine crank shaft to generator.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- Allows energy from running engine to transfer through crank shaft into generator. Generator uses this rotational energy to create electrical energy. Mounting screws keep crank shaft and generator shaft lined up. Electric generator bolt creates a secondary system of support keeping the generator and engine connected.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- SI units used for universal accessibility.
b) Societal- The permanent connection of these two subsystems prevents the user from separating or misaligning the two high speed shafts. The misalignment of these two shafts could result in damage to machine or injury.
c) Economic- Since the two shafts attach in a 1:1 ratio, no extra gears or linkages are required, cutting down cost.
d) Environmental- Direct connection of two shafts, supported by ball bearings, makes the turning of the shafts efficient, maximizing electricity output, and minimizing fuel input.
e) Performance- Hardened stainless steel will not deteriorate under the high torsion and heat of the connection. The minimized diameter allows for a low rotational inertia.

Connection 21: Electric Generator (EG) to Frame (F)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- EG bolted to 2 rubber dampers (F-DEG) with 2 13mm bolts.
b) Energy- Kinetic energy due to vibration is transferred from EG into frame. via the rubber dampers (F-DEG)
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection-The bolts prevent EG from falling out of the frame as it vibrates. It is connected to the rubber dampers to allow for flexing and absorption of energy.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- Metric bolts used, making replacement of dampers universal.
b) Societal- Dampers control vibration, which reduces wandering of system and noise. Also makes the machine much more tolerable as it runs.
c) Economic- Simple rubber connection with highly manufactured bolts.
d) Environmental- All wear is applied to small rubber dampers, extending the life of the machine. The replacement of the small rubber dampers is miniscule in comparison to some of the larger components.
e) Performance- Rubber used due to its high dampening properties. This connection will wear out over time , but was intended to withstand a great deal of the abuse from the vibration of the system, which saves some of the more complicated and expensive parts from breakage.

Connection 22: Engine (E) to Frame (F)

  • How are they connected
a) Physically- Engine mounted onto frame with the use of rubber dampers (F-DE) and (2) 14mm bolts.
b) Energy- Mechanical energy in vibration is absorbed by dampers.
  • Why are they connected
a) Function of connection- Frame provides a housing for the engine, and all other subsystems.
  • How are the connections implemented
a) Global- Metric bolts used, making replacement of dampers universal.
b) Societal- Dampers control vibration, which reduces wandering or system and noise.
c) Economic- Simple rubber connection with highly manufactured bolts.
d) Environmental- All wear is applied to small rubber dampers, extending the life of the machine.
e) Performance- Rubber used due to its high dampening properties. This connection is not highly durable, but was intended to withstand a great deal of the abuse from the vibration of the system, which saves some of the more complicated and expensive parts from breakage.


The following table, (Table 1), outlines every documented line connection throughout the generator, detailing its connection and its purpose.

Alt text
Table 1: Description of Lines

The Arrangement of Subsystems

Gas Tank (GT)

Location-
  • Located on top of machine with fuel cap easily accessible.
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • CA- Connected to carburetor via fuel line
  • CC- Connected to carbon canister via vapor line
  • F- Supported by frame
Purpose of Location-
  • Allows easy access for filling
  • Takes spillage into account by not overhanging any sensitive subsystems
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located near any excess of heat (E, M, EG) due to its highly-combustible contents

Power Center (PC)

Location-
  • Located on front of machine
  • Oriented vertically toward top of machine
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • EG-Receives electric energy from Electric Generator
  • F-Supported by Frame
  • ES-Signals Electric Start to engage engine
Purpose of Location-
  • Ergonomics- Allows ease of access and readability for consumer
  • Elevates electric components off of floor
  • Not proximal to any high-heat source
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located near any excess of heat due to its heat sensitive components

Muffler (M)

Location-
  • Rear of machine
  • Exhaust directed out and away from machine
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • E-Dampens sound from engine
  • E-Receives post-combustion materials from engine
Purpose of Location-
  • Directs waste away from machine
  • Located on rear, where consumer rarely needs to access.
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located near any subsystem that is heat-sensitive

Carbon Canister (CC)

Location-
  • Rear of machine
  • Between Air Filter and Muffler
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • AF- Supplies chemically altered air to Air Filter
  • OHV- Chemically removes contaminants from air used by Overhead Valve
  • GT- Equalizes pressure between Gas Tank and atmosphere
Purpose of Location-
  • Allows for short connection between related subsystems
  • Vertically below Gas Tank, to allow for equalization of vapor pressure and removal of contaminants
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located near any excess of heat due to its heat sensitive plastic components

Air Filter (AF)

Location-
  • Below Carburetor
  • Left side (Pull-start side) of the machine
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • CA-Provides filtered air to Carburetor
  • CC-Receives chemically altered air from Carbon Canister
  • OHV- Filters air entering Overhead Valve spring chamber
Purpose of Location-
  • Allows for short connection to related subsystems
  • Not adjacent to any high-heat sources
  • Allows for a fresh air supply
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located near any high-heat source due to its heat-sensitive plastic construction
  • Needs to have access to clean air- CANNOT be adjacent to muffler

Pull Start (PS)

Location-
  • Left side of machine
  • Centered on top of fly wheel (E-FW)
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • E-Allows human energy to turn fly wheel, starting engine
Purpose of Location-
  • Shares a rotational axis with fly wheel and cranks shaft (E-FW, E-CS), which are the key components to starting the engine
  • Ergonomics- Located at a convenient height with an easily-accessibly handle to pull
Restrictions
  • Cannot be inaccessible
  • Cannot be oriented in a direction that requires unnatural human motion during pull

Throttle (TH)

Location-
  • Mounted on top of engine block (E-B)
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • CA-Controls fuel flow into carburetor
  • E-Communicates with engine to achieve efficient fuel flow
  • ES- Automatically adjusted by electric start to achieve ideal fuel flow during startup
Purpose of Location-
  • Adjacent to all related sub-systems
  • Not on outer shell of machine, which protects the easily-damaged linkages
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located in an unprotected location

Electric Start (ES)

Location-
  • Behind Power Center (PC)
  • Gears interlock with fly wheel (E-FW)
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • E-Gears interlock with fly wheel gear
  • PC-Receives signal to initiate startup from the power center
Purpose of Location-
  • Allows for direct-connection to engine fly wheel gear
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located too close to magnets of the electric generator due to the fact that it contains its own magnets and electric coil

Carburetor (CA)

Location-
  • Mounted to Overhead Valve (OHV)
  • Connected to Gas Tank (GT) via fuel line
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • OHV-Provides the required gasoline-air mixture to Overhead Valve which then sends it into engine to combust
  • AF-Receives clean air from Air Filter
  • GT- Receives fuel from Gas Tank
Purpose of Location-
  • Butts directly up against OHV, eliminating the need for fuel mixture line
  • Underneath Gas Tank, allowing natural fuel-flow, eliminating need for fuel pump
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located near any subsystem that creates excessive heat due to its processing and handling of combustion materials

Overhead Valve (OHV)

Location-
  • On top of engine combustion chamber
  • Directly connected to Carburetor
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • E-Supplies engine with combustion materials
  • E-Receives post-combustion materials from engine
  • M- Directs waste from engine into muffler
Purpose of Location-
  • Allows for an adequate amount of cool air to remove waste heat
  • Valve system controlled by engine
Restrictions
  • Must have adequate supply of cool air

Frame (F)

Location-
  • Outermost component on all sides of machine
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • Surrounds ALL subsystems
Purpose of Location-
  • Provides a protective support structure for subsystems
  • Ergonomics- Easily accessibly handles facilitate transportation
  • Elevates machine a few inches off of ground
  • Dampens vibrations caused during combustion

Electric Generator (EG)

Location-
  • Internal section of machine
  • Connected directly to crank shaft of engine
  • Behind PC, under GT
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • E- Receives rotational energy from Engine
  • PC-Provides usable electric energy to Power Center
  • F- Mounted directly to dampers of Frame (F-DEG)
Purpose of Location-
  • Allows for minimal length of electric wires to connect to PC
  • EG-Shaft connects directly to E-Crank Shaft
Restrictions
  • Cannot be attached to any subsystem that is heat-sensitive due to heat production during electric current generation

Engine (E)

Location-
  • Internal section of machine
  • Connected directly to shaft of generator (EG-S)
Required adjacent subsystems-
  • EG-Engine Crank Shaft (E-CS) provides Electric Generator shaft (EG-S) with rotational energy
  • F- Vibrations dampened by frame dampeners (F-DE)
  • OHV- Receives combustion materials from OHV and directs waste into OHV
  • ES/PS- Engine started by electric start of pull start
Purpose of Location-
  • Located centrally due to its importance to the system
  • Directly connected to EG-S, providing an efficient transfer of rotational energy
Restrictions
  • Cannot be located near any subsystem that is heat-sensitive


Parts List