Product Analysis - Gate 3

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Contents

Purpose

Gate three’s purpose is to provide post-dissection analysis. Throughout this section, Group 16 will use the separate components and subsystems of the Barbie Kawasaki in order to examine and find very detailed information on the function of the battery powered vehicle.

Coordination Review

The teamwork within the group has continued to progress very well. The only unresolved conflict worth mentioning is tension about feedback received in grading. As time gets tighter towards the end of the semester, we have found that while the grades received on earlier sections were not acceptable, everyone has less time to work. To resolve the issue as a group, we are motivating and pushing each other to complete our work up to par and in a timely manner. For example, the wiki manager has been pushing hard to have everyone complete their parts in a timely manner to leave enough time to make the wiki look presentable. This plan has worked very well and this should be seen in the results of this gate of the project. The conflict that has been resolved in this time period is the one of individual time management. Naturally, each group member has slightly different schedules which stress different weeks more than others. We resolved this by reserving the harder, more time consuming tasks for the person with the most time in that week. For example, while Lawrence, Matt, Alex, and Cory has a major test week, Jason found himself with a fairly easy week and offered to pick up some extra tasks to lighten the load.

Component summary

The following table is a summary of the primary components of the Barbie KFX Kawasaki documenting the function, material used to make the part, manufacturing methods and the number of times the part is used.

Note: Fasteners such as the hex nuts, screws, and washers are not included in this summary as they are general in their function which is to hold parts together and washers distribute loads and are made from steel usually.


General Component summary
Part Part Photo Part Number Function Materials used Manufacturing methods Number of times used
Body
Body G16.JPG
B9272-Q501-01 To cover and hide the battery; to provide the shape of an ATV Plastic Injection Molding 1
Chassis
Chassis G16.JPG
P5066-9993 To enclose and protect wires/motor; to provide structural support; to provide shape of ATV Plastic Injection molding 2
Seat
Seat G16.JPG
B9272-Q503-01-1 To cover battery; provide support for child Plastic Injection Molding 1
Steering Column
Steering column G16.JPG
J8472-4439 Transmits human energy into rotational energy which is then transmitted to the wheels to change direction of motion Steel Forming and Shaping; the steel is bent to desired shape 1
Front Clip
Front CLip G16.JPG
N/A To make the product look like an ATV Plastic Injection Molding 1
Brush Guard
Brush guard.JPG
H4437-2259 Protects the front of the product and makes the product look like an ATV Plastic Injection Molding 1
Front Wheels
Front Wheel G16.JPG
B9272-801-01 Changes the direction of the vehicle by rotational energy input from the user Plastic Injection Molding 2
Rear Wheels
Rear wheel G16.JPG
B9272-802-01 Provides forward/backwards movement from rotation energy from the gearbox onto the wheels Plastic Injection Molding 2
Foot Rest(left and right)
Foot rest (rightside) G16.JPG
B9272-Q506-01 Provide support for the child's foot and houses the accelerator in the left foot rest. Plastic Injection Molding 2
Steering Linkage
Linkage G16.jpg
H0440-Q518-01-1 Transmits rotational energy from the steering column to the front wheels Plastic and steel Injection molding for the plastic, extrusion, forming and shaping on the steel 1
Wheel cover
Wheel cover G16.JPG
B9272-802-01 Covers the front and rear wheels and prevents debris from getting caught in the axles Plastic Injection Molding 4
Spring cover
Spring cover G16.JPG
N/A Mimics the appearance of real springs Plastic Injection Molding 2
Front axles
Front axle G16.JPG
P5066-4519 connects the front wheels to the steering linkage and allows them to rotate. Steel Extrusion and turning. 2
Rear Axle
Rear axle G16.JPG
J8472-4509 Supports the rear wheels, wheel bushings, and wheel drivers and provides and axis of rotation for the wheels and wheel driver Steel Extrusion and turning 1
Foot rest support rod
Foot rest support rods G16.JPG
N/A Provides an addition connection to the chassis to the foot rests and provides support for the foot rests. Steel Extrusion 2
Gearbox cover
Gear box cove G16r.JPG
231903 Prevents the gearbox from moving around too much and holds it against the chassis. Plastic Injection molding 2
Driver
Driver G16.JPG
74460-2249 Transmits rotational energy from the gearbox to the rear wheel. Plastic Injection molding 2
Hub cap
Axle hub cap.JPG
J4393-Q526-01 Covers the hex nuts holding the wheels on the axles Plastic Injection Molding 4
Forward/Reverse switch cover
Switch covering G16.JPG
B9272-Q514-01 Provides placement and support for the switch itself Plastic Injection Moldings 1
Gear assembly
IMAG0051.jpg
00968-2912 Transmits rotational energy throughout the gearbox Plastic Injection Molding 4 gears(38,62, 72, 79 tooth left to right in photo)
Forward/Reverse switch
Foward reverse control G16.JPG
00801-0885 Allows the child to control the direction of translational motion(forwards/backwards) Plastic case
copper wires
steel connectors
Injection molding
Forming and shaping
1
Pedal
Foot pedal G16.JPG
N/A Allows the user to interact with the accelerator by pressing down on the pedal to activate the accelerator Plastic Injection molding 1
Accelerator
Accelerator unit G16.JPG
PB-12L03 When pressed why the user, it turns the battery on thus supplying electrical energy to the motor which then creates translational motion by turning the wheels Plastic case
Copper wires
metal connectors
Injection molding
Forming and shaping
1
Handle grips
Handle grips G16.JPG
P5066-2439 Provides a comfortable grip for the user when using the handlebars Rubber Injection molding 2
Steering column plate
Plate.JPG
J8472-510-01 Prevents the steering column from moving out of place by limiting its movements to only rotational and is attached to the underside of the vehicle Plastic Injection molding 1
Steering linkage cover
Steering linkage cover G16.JPG
J8472-2609 Covers the connection between the front axles and the steering linkage Plastic Injection molding 2
Steering column cap
Steering cap G16.JPG
00801-1620 Covers bottom end of the steering column under the vehicle. Provides a safeguard against accidental removal of the steering column should it become removed from the steering column plate. Plastic Injection molding 1
Wheel bushing
Wheel bushing G16.JPG
J8472-2379 Provides a surface of contact between the wheel driver and the rear wheels Plastic Injection molding 2
Steering linkage lower bushing
Lower-bushing G16.JPG
J8472-2649 Provide a surface of contact between the front axles and the steering linkage Plastic Injection molding 2
High speed switch cover
High speed control cover G16.JPG
58472-Q505-01-2 Houses the high speed switch Plastic Injection molding 2
High speed wire assembly
Turbo speed switch G16.JPG
P5066-9549 connects the high speed switch to the wire assembly and allows the user to achieve higher speeds by turning the right handlebar which has a component that presses the switch Copper wire
rubber insulation
Drawing
Inject molding around the copper wire
1
Power relay PC board
Electronic brake G16.JPG
74287-9729 relays electrical energy throughout the wire assembly from the 12V Battery Plastic board and chips
Injection molding
Welding for metal connectors
1
12V Battery Charger
KFXcharger.JPG
P6829 Transmits electrical energy from an wall outlet to be stored in the 12V Battery Copper wires
Plastic plug case
Metal prongs
Rubber insulation
Drawing
Injection molding
Forging
Injection molding around the copper wire
1
12V Battery
12volt battery.JPG
74777 Stores electrical energy to be transmitted to the motor, high speed switch and the accelerator Plastic casing
Lead acid battery
Injection Molding for the casing
battery is made with chemical compounds
1
Table 1.

Product Analysis

The following 5 components are further discussed in depth in regards to their geometry, material make, manufacutring methods, global, societal, economic, and environmental factors.

Complexity Scale
1-The manufacturing process used to develop the part is a simple process and/or the part is a single simple geometric design and the material used is easily produced. The function it performs is a simple process.
2-The design of the component involves a few geometric shapes and/or may take 3 to 5 steps during the manufacturing process. The part performs more than one function and may be part of a chain of functions that combine together to perform one main function(i.e the motor spins the gears which spin the wheels causing motion)
3-The design of the part has complex geometries(i.e multiple shapes enclosed inside of the part, several parabolic curves and so forth)and/or requires several manufacturing processes to create. It contains additional parts that require other methods of creating and skill sets other than machining and mechanical engineering. The function is part of several chains of functions that all combine to perform one function. The part also requires several different materials to create the individual parts that make up the component itself.

Reasoning Behind The Scale
The greater the process of the function and the length and amount of steps during the manufacturing process of the component, the more complex it is. For example, a metal axle (its purpose is to simply support the wheels and the axle) is made by extruding metal into a rod shape and is very simple as opposed to the circuit boards in a advanced graphing calculators that are capable of solving integrals and matrices and running complex algorithms. Also the circuit boards require injection molding to create the board itself, but the microchips need to be programmed and wired properly to work injunction with the other microchips. Material makeup of the component impacts complexity in terms of how the material is made, how much base material it needs, and whether it requires several other materials to make the component.

Interaction Complexity
1-The component transmits is single energy flow to other components that it is connected to and requires little to no external interactions from other parts.
2-The component transmits a energy flow and coverts it into a different type of energy.


Products

19 T Pinion Motor

Figure 1.

Part Number: 00968-9015 1060517 3k1241c9

Weight: Roughly 1&1/2 pounds

Functions: To convert electrical energy supplied from the 12V Battery to mechanical energy which is used to turn the gears inside the gearbox which then turns the driver and the driver applies torque on the wheels to create forward/backward motion.

Flows: Electrical energy flows into the motor from the 12V Battery and mechanical energy is produced from the motor onto the Gear box.

Environment: The motor resides inside the chassis of the Barbie KFX Kawasaki, so the motor functions in an ideal environment where the vehicle would not become submerged underwater. The motor can function in cold environments where the lowest temperatures range from 40 ° F to 50 ° F. However during the winter season, the motor may decrease in functionality.

Geometry: The motor is of a 3D cylindrical shape with a diameter of 2&1/2 in and a length of 3&1/2 in.

Function in relation to Geometry: The motor creates mechanical energy by charged coils of wire inside it with electrical energy which creates a magnetic field that causes the magnet inside to rotate thus creating torque on the axle attached to the magnet. This is why the motor is cylindrical, to allow coils of wire to fit inside properly and to allow rotational motion of the magnetic bar.

Material makeup:
The casing of the motor is made from medium grade carbon steel, the wires are made from copper and rubber insulation like most common wires and the magnet is made from soft Iron.

Manufacturing factors: Carbon steel needs to be used for the casing and the gear because the motor itself needs to be durable in the event that it experiences unintended external forces. Bear in mind that the motor is manufactured by a different company, not the company making the ATV toy vehicles. The motor is manufactured with several different uses for it in mind so it needs to be durable in all cases to prevent failure. However since the motor resides inside the chassis of the Barbie KFX Kawasaki, it is likely that the motor will not experience damaging forces. Soft Iron and copper wires with rubber insulation are used as they are key components to how the electromagnet inside the motor functions.
Global Factors: Steel, copper wires and Iron magnets are commonly manufactured by several companies around the world and very easy to come by so availability of these materials should not present an issue.
Societal Factors: The motor can not be made of any particularly toxic material to children. However since the motor is inside the chassis, it is likely the child will not be able to access the motor and bring potential harm to children. Steel, copper and Iron are not excessively toxic unless ingested in large amounts, however the probability of a child getting access to the motor inside the Barbie KFX Kawasaki is very unlikely as the child lacks the knowledge to take it apart.
Economic Factors: Steel is not very expensive to produce and is mass produced on a large scale thanks to Bessemer process and basic oxygen steelmaking. Copper wires are sold in General hardware stores are usually cheap and easy to obtain. Iron magnets are inexpensive as they are simple to make.
Environmental Factors: The byproducts of producing steel were likely considered and steel does not create harmful chemical waste, however a large amount of heat is produced during the process. This however is easily solved by careful disposal of the excess heat into a proper heat sink. As for copper and iron, they are mined and sold to various companies. The companies who use iron and copper to manufacture their products are probably not thinking about about the effects of mining on the environment nor are the companies who use the products made from copper and iron.

Manufacturing Methods: The sheet casing is made by forming and shaping the cylindrical shape. The circular shape of the gear is initially made by sawing steel rod into small cylinder sections and the teeth are made by milling. The copper wires are made by extrusion.

Global Factors: Iron and copper are rather common resources and since steel is made from iron, steel is readily available. Even though these resources are readily available, the shape of the part limits what manufacturing methods are used. Because of the shape of the motor, forging and extrusion are used to make the case and sawing and milling is used to create the gear.
Societal Factors:
Economic Factors: The most reasonable way to create the casing is by rolling it to create its cylindrical shape and then use compressive forces to secure the shape. To saw/turn/mill the shape would take too long,waste too much sheet metal which would create unnecessary production costs. To create the gear, sawing its basic shape from a rod and cutting its teeth by milling is the fastest and most efficient way to create the gear and cost efficient. Wires are commonly made by drawing them and so has proved to the be most cost efficient.
Environmental Factors: Environmental concerns that the companies making the motors might take in mind are the byproducts of manufacturing the steel cases for the motors and the gear. Creating steel and forming it into its cylindrical shape would produce a large amount of waste heat which must be properly disposed of to avoid thermal pollution. Waste heat is easy to dispose of however as the heat can be vented into the air as long is it is not near heavily inhabited natural habitats. Milling and sawing the gears creates scrap metal which is usually melted down and recycled.

Aesthetics: The motor serves no antithetical purpose and is colored metallic gray because that is general property of metallic materials and there was no need to change its color. The surface finish is a result of the forging and stamping process and is for a shiny appearance, possibly to make the motor more pleasing to the eye when being marketed.
Complexity: 3
Interaction Complexity:2(Converts electrical energy into rotational energy)



#7 19T GearBox

Figure 2. Gearbox

Figure 3. Gearbox taken apart

Part Number: 00968-2912
Weight: 2 pounds

Function: The gearbox creates rotational force about a driver attached to the rear wheels which spins due the torque applied to the driver which thus creating foward/backwards movement.
Flows: The gearbox transmits rotational energy from the motor to the driver.
Environment: The gearbox can function in a wide variety environments, rain, windy, hot, cold, e.t.c... as long as the product itself does not become submerged entirely in water.
Geometry: The shape of the gearbox somewhat resembles a ellipsoid and its dimensions are roughly 8x5x4 in (LxWxH).
Function in relation to geometry: The shape of the gearbox allows the gears inside it to rotate properly without the casing of the gearbox obstructing the gears thus allowing it to spin the driver.
Material Makeup: the gears are made a plastic material made from acetal or known as polyoxymethylene plastic and the gearbox is likely made from polybutylene terepthalate plastic.

Manufacturing Factors: Plastic was chosen as the material to make the gearbox case and the gears because plastic is cheaper and weights less compared to metal and easy to mold. Plastic gears are resistant to chemicals and erosion and have greater consistency and tend to have smooth operations. Acetal is specifically used here for its dimensional stability and lubricity.
Global Factors: Plastic is relatively easy to make in modern industry. The companies that make gearboxes are likely manufacturing stand alone gears and other similar products made from several different materials such as steel or plastic. So it is likely that the companies buy the plastic from another company that makes the type of plastic needed and the factor here is matter of finding a company that can meet the demands of those using the plastic to manufacture other materials. However plastic is made from petroleum which is uncommon itself which may present problems when trying to acquire the raw material to create plastic polymers
Societal Factors: When making these gearboxes, the companies need to stay within safety regulations obviously. The acetal used to make the gears and gearbox can not contain too many impurities or substances that make it toxic. The lubrication needs to stay within regulations so that it does not become too toxic in very small quantities(i.e tiny smudges) or to touch.
Economic Factors: Making gears and gearboxes from Acetal plastic is cheaper than using metal, also because it is easier to mold, this makes manufacturing parts from Acetal plastic cheaper as well. So using Acetal plastic not only offers lower production costs but is cheaper to purchase the bulk material. Although the rarity of the raw petroleum may drive up the price of plastic, because plastic weighs less than metal, it costs less per pound.
Environmental Factors: Gearboxes are intended not to be simply thrown out in the trash but rather brought to an organization that will properly dispose of them. So the companies are likely relying on the said organization to dispose the gearboxes without harming the environment. There is also the issue of the byproducts of manufacturing acetal and the gearboxes themselves. Acetal is a thermoplastic; which is made by heating a polymer so that it becomes a liquid and freezes when cool sufficiently, and the creation of thermoplastics usually only yields thermal waste. Synthesizing acetal however yields water, hydrogen with impurities and left over acid catalysts used to make it. These materials are easily disposed of by delivering the chemicals to a place that has proper materials to dipose of chemicals properly without harming the environment. Thus environmental factors here is a matter of simply following regulations. However drilling for petroleum may cause adverse effects on the environment(see BP Oil spill) and petroleum itself is harmful to the environment. but the companies making the gearboxes and gears are probably not thinking about this and thus may not influence the decision to use plastic very much.

Manufacturing Methods: The gearbox case and gears are made by molding as plastics are easy to mold and cost efficient to do so.
Evidence: Plastic is easy to mold and to mill/saw/grind the gears and gearbox would prove time consuming, expensive and produce excess plastic that may not be reusable in its current state.

Global Factors: The availability of plastic material to use for manufacturing the gearbox and gears is very high so having enough material for manufacturing is probably not an issue seeing as plastic is widely used.
Societal Factors: Most people don't care how the plastic on the gearbox is made, as long as the plastic is safe for the kids using the Barbie KFX Kawasaki. In general some don't even know how it is done.
Economic Factors: Manufacturing costs played a large role in deciding to mold the gears and gearbox. The parts can be made by milling/sawing but it would take very long and produce necessary amounts of excess plastic which might not be reusable which end up creating necessary costs. Molding the gears and the casing would prove more efficient in time, necessity and costs.
Environmental Factors: What matters here is what are byproducts of molding Acetal plastic into a gear and a gearbox. The molding of a set of gears and a gearbox do not create any excess chemical waste that is harmful to the environment so it was safe to go with molding acetal in the shapes needed.

Aesthetics: The gearbox has no aesthetic purpose and is colored block most likely because that what the polymer used to make the gearbox becomes. Its surface finish is a result of the molding process and has no functional or aesthetic purpose. The gears have no aesthetic purpose either and it is colored white likely as a result from the formation of the polymer Acetal.
Complexity:2
Interaction Complexity:1(Transmits rotational energy from the motor to the driver)


Wheel Driver

Figure 4.

Part Number: 74460-2249
Weight: roughly quarter of a pound.
Function: The wheel driver serves to spin the rear wheels and create forward/backwards motion by being spun by the gearbox.
Flows: The driver transmits rotational energy from the gearbox and inputs that energy into the rear wheels which creates torque about the wheels thus causing translational motion
Environment: There is not specific environment the driver only functions in. It can function while the conditions of the environment are cold, hot or wet. The only environmental factor that could affect the functionality of the driver is if a sticky substance were to build up between the driver and the axle.
Geometry: The general shape of the driver is that of a cylinder attached to a flat base with large diameter than the cylinder itself. The diameter of the base is about 3&3/4 in, the top is about 2&1/2 in diameter and the height is about 2&3/4 in.
Function in relation to Geometry: The driver being circular in shape allows it to transmit rotational energy to the wheels properly and rotate freely.
Material Makeup: The wheel driver is made of a plastic and it is likely that the plastic is made from Acetal.

Manufacturing factors: Acetal was probably chosen to make the wheel driver because Acetal has high resistance to impact, high strength and serves as a good replacement for metal because it weights less.
Global Factors: Acetal is commonly made by companies such as DuPoint and Celanese. The global factor affecting the decision to use Acetal is the availability of the base materials used to make the polymer and how they are obtained. Seeing as the materials for Acetal are easy to extract and create(molecular formula (CH20)n) and sulfuric acid is used during synthesis) acetal is good choice for materiel. Again petroleum is a rare material and is used to make plastic and the amount of petroleum available can affect how much plastic is available.
Societal Factors: People who buying the Barbie KFX Kawasaki want to know that the materiel it is made of is safe for their children. Acetal is not particularly toxic and is generally safe to use. using PBT as the materiel for the wheel driver is a safe choice provided the material falls under safety regulations.
Economic Factors: It is likely that wheel drivers are mass produced for companies that manufacture power wheels, so the material needs to be cost efficient. Acetal weights less than metal and costs less to manufacture the polymer. So choosing acetal is the makeup for the wheel driver is cost efficient and will save money as opposed to making metal wheel drivers.
Environmental Factors: Acetal is not particularly hazardous to the environment provided it is disposed of properly. Modern conventions dictate and encourage customers to properly dispose of materials such as metal by placing them in the proper recycling bins or bring them to a local organization that properly disposes of it.

Manufacturing Methods: The wheel driver is made by injection molding as plastic is easy to mold faster than milling/sawing the complex shape of the wheel driver. Extrusion and drawing are not possible because the part is not entirely hollow.

Global Factors: The Global factors do influence the decision of using molding to create the part.It only affects the type of material chosen. Since plastic is easy to come by and is made by several companies, the choice of manufacturing method is dependent on what is necessary and costs of production.
Societal Factors: Societal factors influencing the decision to use molding is the safety factor of the method selected. Chances are the general public may not care how the part is made as long as workers are not put in danger or that a good deal may not know how it is done. Molding is done by automated machines so all that is needed from workers is daily maintenance of the machines. So societal factors did not have much to do with deciding what method to use.
Economic Factors: Because plastic is easy to mold, it is cheaper to use injection molding to make the wheel driver rather than go through multiple processes of milling and turning to make the part which would take too long and is expensive.
Environmental Factors: Plastic is usually recyclable and the process of injection molding does not yield harmful chemicals and does not produce enough heat to impact the environment so because the process of injection molding does not affect the environment in an extreme way, environmental factors likely did not prove an issue. Once again the companies are probably not thinking too much about the effects of drilling for petroleum used to make the plastic.

Aesthetics: The wheel driver has no aesthetic purpose and its coloring has not purpose either. Its black color is likely a result of the formation of the polymer and there is no need to recolor it. It has a smooth surface finish probably as a result of injection molding and smooth surfaces are a general characteristic of plastic.
Complexity:1
Interaction Complexity:1(Transmits rotational energy from the gearbox to the rear wheels)


Steering Column

Figure 5.

Note: Analysis of the Steering column does not include the plastic cover.
Part Number: J8472-4439
Weight: roughly half a pound.
Function: The steering column allows the user to change the direction of motion of the Barbie KFX Kawasaki by allowing the user to create torque about the handle bars which creates rotational energy about the steering linkage which then rotates the wheels.
Flows: The user inputs human energy to the handle bars which transmit that energy into rotational energy to the steering linkage which transmits that energy to the front wheels to allow change of direction.
Environment: The Barbie KFX Kawasaki operates outdoors so the steering column would function in the outdoors as well. It can function in cold, hold or wet conditions.
Geometry: The steering column resembles a T shape with the handlebars being the top of the top and the column being the perpendicular axis connected to the handlebar. The steering column is approximately 24 in long and 21 in wide.
Function in relation to Geometry: The T-shape of the steering column allows the user to create rotational energy about the handlebars which cause the bar connected perpendicularly to the handlebar to rotate and turn the steering linkage.
Material Makeup: The steering column is made of medium grade carbon steel.

Manufacturing Factors: Steel is durable and rigid which allows the steering column to turn with minimal deflection. Because it is just a child operating the Barbie KFX Kawsawki, it will not experience very heavy loads so its strength does not need to be exceptional.
Global Factors: Steel is an inexpensive mass produced material thanks to the Bessemer process and basic oxygen steelmaking and is one of the most common materials made with at least 1.3 billion tons produced per year. So steel is very easy to acquire thus making the global factor of using steel not an issue.
Societal Factors Steel is a major component in large amount of modern day objects such as cars, buildings, machines and so forth. Steel is considered to be an everyday thing so it is something the general populace is used to seeing. Steel widely trusted to be safe and reliable. Steel is usually alloyed with Iron which is only dangerous in very large quantities but usually not a concern because the steel would to be ingested which goes without saying should not be done to begin with.However steel is sometimes alloyed with elements such as tungsten and chromium which are toxic but is only done so for certain applications and certainly not for a childs toy. So societal factors do not have much of an influence on choosing steel.
Economic Factors The revelation of the Bessemer process and basic oxygen steelmaking,has manufacturing steel very cost efficent so cost of production of steel is generally not an issue when deciding to whether to use it or not.
Environmental Factors: Steel is highly recyclable and its manufacturing process has little to no effect on the environment. So environmental issues probably did not present an issue when choosing steel.

Manufacturing Method: The steering column was created by first extruding steel ingots in rods of the appropriate length, then the handle bar is then extruded to make it a hollow and further extruded on the right handlebar where the handle grip for the accelerator goes. Then the handle bar is bent by compressive forces to acquire its shape. The steel rod that is the bottom portion of the steering column is bent by compressive forces to acquire the L shape at the bottom end of the steel rod. Evidence of this process is the smooth surface of the steering column and the handlebar is hollow and has a smaller radius at the right bar. Afterward both parts are welding together.

Global Factors: Global factors did not really affect the decision to do extrusion because steel is very common and losing some steel in a process is more of a economic issue because the part will need to be redone.
Societal Factors: The parents who are buying the Barbie KFX Kawasaki either have little knowledge of the process of making the steering column or they do not care. Their only care is the price of the product and whether the product is safe for their child and extrusion generally does not create sharp edges when extruding rods. It is also generally known that steel is not made with harmful chemicals like lead, So societal factors had little to no influence on the decision to use extrusion.
Economics Factors Extrusion is a relatively cheap process and coupled with the low cost of steel, extrusion was seen as a very profitable manufacturing method and cost efficient.
Environmental Factors: Environmental factors did not influence the choice to use extrusion because extrusion creates no chemical or thermal waste and scrap steel is high recyclable. Welding is also known to not adversely affect the environment.

Aesthetics: The steering column has no aesthetic purpose and is colored a shade of metallic gray which is what steel is usually colored and there is no need to change it. Steel is usually smooth and the steering column has a smooth finish as a result of the extrusion process as well.
Complexity:2
Interaction Complexity:2(Transmits human energy and converts it into rotational energy transmitted to the steering linkage)


Front Axles

Figure 6.

Part Number: P5066-4519
Weight: about a quarter pound each(2 axles).
Function: The front axles hold front wheels in place and turn the front wheels to allow change in direction. The front axles to not assist in multiple functions.
Flows: The front axles receive rotational energy from the steering linkage and transmits that energy to the front wheels.
Environment: The front axles function in an outside environment and are capable of functioning in hold, cold and wet conditions.
Geometry: The front axles are L shaped with the longer side at 5&3/4 in and the shorter end at 3&1/2 in.
Function in relation to geometry: The L shape of the front axles allows turning of the wheels because the steering linkage rotates one end the axle which causes the other end of the axle which is perpendicular to the other end being rotated by the steering linkage to turn the wheels to change the direction of motion.
Material Makeup: The front axles are made from medium grade carbon steel.

Manufacturing Factors: Because the front axles support the front weight of the Barbie KFX Kawasaki and the front wheels, the axles need to be strong enough to support part of the weight of the Barbie KFX Kawasaki and be able to take impact forces should the vehicle collide with a rigid object Global Factors: Seeing as steel is a common material and widely mass produced, acquiring steel needed to make the front axle should not be an issue.
Societal Factors: Steel is a major component in large amount of modern day objects such as cars, buildings, machines and so forth. Steel is considered to be an everyday thing so it is something the general populace is used to seeing. Steel widely trusted to be safe and reliable. teel is usually alloyed with Iron which is only dangerous in very large quantities but usually not a concern because the steel would to be ingested which goes without saying should not be done to begin with.However steel is sometimes alloyed with elements such as tungsten and chromium which are toxic but is only done so for certain applications and certainly not for a childs toy. So societal factors do not have much of an influence on choosing steel.
Economic Factors The revelation of the Bessemer process and basic oxygen steelmaking, has made manufacturing steel very cost efficent, so the production costs of steel is generally not an issue when deciding to whether to use it or not.
Environmental Factors Steel is highly recyclable and its manufacturing process has little to no effect on the environment. So environmental issues probably did not present an issue when choosing steel. However the methods of mining for the materials that are used alloy steel may adversely impact the local habitats with the presence of vehicles and humans, but this is usually not thought of by companies using the steel.

Manufacturing Methods: The front axles are first extruded into a rod which is shown in its consistent cross-sectional profile. It is then sawed to appropriate lengths, evidence from the cut marks on the ends of the front axles. It is then bent by compressive forces to acquire its L shape which is shown by the 90° angle it makes and the bent corner.

Global Factors: Global factors did not really affect the decision to do extrusion, sawing and bending because steel is very common and losing some steel in a process is more of a economic issue because the part will need to be redone.
Societal Factors: The parents who are buying the Barbie KFX Kawasaki either have little knowledge of the process of making the steering column or they do not care. Their only care is the price of the product and whether the product is safe for their child. So societal factors had little to no influence on the decision to use extrusion, sawing and bending.
Environmental Factors: Extrusion and sawing are likely to create scrap steel but scrap steel is high recyclable and usually not just thrown out. Extrusion, sawing and bending do not produce waste chemicals so these manufacturing process have little effect on the environment thus making the environmental factors of these mechanical process not an issue.

Aesthetics: The front axles have no aesthetic purpose and the gray metallic color of the axle is just a property of steel. It has a smooth surface finish as result from extrusion and its surface finish has no functional or aesthetic purpose.
Complexity:1
Interaction Complexity:1(Transmits rotational energy from the steering linkage to the from wheels)

Solid Model Assembly

The gear box of the Barbie Kawasaki KFX was considered to be the most desirable assembly to be solid modeled as it is relatively complex, and key to the functioning of the vehicle. The gear box consists of a shell composed of two halves, and 4 gears as shown in the photos below.

These photos were exported from AutoCad Inventor Professional. This program was utilized as it is available for free as a service from UB, and the Solid Modeler had previous experience with the program.

Gears:

Figure 7.79 tooth gear
Figure 8.72 tooth Gear
Figure 9.62 tooth Gear
Figure 10.Driver Gear(38 teeth)

Gear Assembly

Figure 11.Gearbox case bottom
Figure 12.Gearbox case top
Figure 13.Gear assembly cross section
Figure 14.Gearbox assembly
Figure 15.Gearbox assembly with cover(see thru)

Engineering Analysis

Problem Statement:
In engineering, there is a general process in analyzing different parts and systems that optimizes communication of information and ideas. For this analysis, we will find the gear reduction of the gear set encased in the gearbox of the machine, a key component in the motion of the Barbie Kawasaki KFX. The gears are what translates the kinetic energy generated by the motor into kinetic energy that can be effectively used at the wheels.

Diagram of System:
The diagram below shows how each gear is connected to one another. Circles of the same color represent where the two gears are connected to one another.

Gearrepresentation.JPG

State the Assumptions:
Assumptions are what allow for the analysis process to be completed over and over again and, if followed correctly, to return the same results.The assumptions for this problem are mainly to neglect forces that would otherwise decrease the performance of the gears.

-No slippage on axle
-No slippage between gears
-Outside acting forces are disregarded(i.e collision of the Barbie KFX Kawsawki with an another object)


Governing Equations:
The governing equations of the analysis process are the driving force behind the rest of the problem. Essentially, these equations are what validate the process moving towards the goal, while using the components from previous steps of the analysis process. For this problem, the equations explain how every gear contributes to the total gear reduction.

Gear reduction = R/r

Where R is the number of teeth of the input gear and r is the number of teeth of the output gear.

Pinion gear: 19
Gear 1a: 79
Gear 1b: 25
Gear 2a: 72
Gear 2b: 19
Gear 3a: 62
Gear 3b: 12
Gear 4: 38

Gear reduction 1: gear1a/pinion gear
Gear reduction 2: gear2a/gear1b
Gear reduction 3: gear3a/gear2b
Gear reduction 4: gear4/gear3b
Total Gear reduction = gr1*gr2*gr3*gr4

The purpose of doing an analysis of gear reduction is to determine the necessary gear ratio to be used for the Barbie KFX Kawasaki during the design process of the product so that it operates efficient and so the the motor does not end up outputting too much energy making the vehicle go too fast and possibly endangering the child.

Design Revisions

These are our proposed design revisions to the Barbie KFX Kawasaki that we feel would improve the overall performance and safety of the product. This in no way undermines the product itself which we feel was well designed by Fisher-Price.

Rubber wheels
The use of rubber wheels would address several concerns, including societal and environmental concerns. The societal aspect of this improvement would be in creating better traction, increasing the coefficient of kinetic friction to about 0.7 on pavement. The better traction means that you are less likely to slide on wet surfaces, reducing accidents and protecting children, making it a societal concern. Also, rubber wheels would reduce the sound pollution produced by the crunching of the hard plastic on pavement and gravel, which falls under the societal concern realm. The use of rubber wheels would be beneficial environmentally because the wheels could be made from old recycled tires. Additionally, performance wise, the rubber wheels would allow for traversing of more surfaces more successfully.

Stronger Axles and Reinforcing Frame
While the axles are already made from steel, the most feasible material both in terms of strength and economically, a useful revision could be to use hardened steel and perhaps a thicker axel in order to increase the load bearing capacity of the Barbie Kawasaki. In addition to this upgrade, a reinforcing frame could be added to further increase maximum weight capacity and to provide protection in case of collision as well as the sturdiness and quality of the product as a whole. The frame would be a box frame connecting the front and back axis on both sides, and extending up under the seat where another box support is formed. The major concern that these revisions would address is the societal issue of obesity. The obesity rate in the United States is off the charts, and for every overweight child whose weight cannot be supported by the toy there are two angry parents complaining to the company. Simple upgrades like this would not only avoid problems, but would increase the quality of the product as a whole with relatively little production increase to the supplier.

Rear Axle
The need to thread both sides of the rear axle is unnecessary when manufacturing this product. Due to its orientation within the vehicle and the way it is assembled only one end of the axle needs to be threaded for a nut to be fastened to. The rear axle is a solid long (about 2.5 ft) steel rod that is currently threaded on both sides. One nut (that holds the right rear wheel on) is fastened so tight that it is almost impossible to remove with ordinary tools. We later found out that this nut does not need to be removed due to the fact that the axle slides out through the chassis when the opposing nut is removed. By eliminating the threads and the nut on one side of the axle and replacing it with a forged head (much like that on an ordinary bolt shown in Figure 18 below), the assembly process as well as the manufacturing process of producing the rear axle will be shortened by as much as a few seconds which adds up in the long run. This change will decrease the time of manufacturing the rear axle by one half due to the fact that only one side of axle needs to be threaded. The assembly process is also shorted due to the fact that only one side of the axle needs fastened nut. These time saving processes aid with the economic factor of manufacturing the product by reducing cost in producing the product which then can be passed into savings for the consumer. The image below is an example of how the changed rear axle would look like.

Figure 18.

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References

[1]"Barbie™ Kawasaki® KFX with Monster Traction™." Fisher-price.com 27 SEPT 2010 <http://www.fisher-price.com/us/powerwheels/product.aspx?pid=47340>
[2]"Power Wheels Parts Diagrams." mendingshed.com 13 OCT 2010 <http://powerwheels.mendingshed.com/P5066.pdf>
[3]"Plastic Gears" Gears-manufacturers.com 15 NOV 2010 <http://www.gears-manufacturers.com/plastic-gears.html>
[4]"What is PBT?" omnexus.com 15 NOV 2010 <http://www.omnexus.com/tc/pbt/index.aspx>
[5]"Understanding Gear Reduction" teamdavinci.com 15 NOV 2010 <http://www.teamdavinci.com/understanding_gear_reduction.htm>