Group 7 - GM 2.2L 4-Cyl Engine Gate 3

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The purpose of this gate is to document and effectively communicate our group's post-dissection analysis. Our dissection of the car engine enabled us to engage in an in-depth analysis of each major individual component and their respective subsystems, allowing the design and manufacturing decisions to be observed from an engineering standpoint with respect to overall functionality and the four factors.


To return to Group 7's main page click here: Group 7 Main Page
To go back to gate 1 click here:  :Gate 1: Project Planning
To go back to gate 2 click here:  :Gate 2: Product Dissection
To move on to gate 4 click here:  :Gate 4: Product Reassembly

Contents

Project Management: Coordination Review

Our group works very well together. By this time, we have managed to work out all of our previous issues, which mostly consisted of finding the time to have the entire group meet to discuss the project and assignments. The only other slight issue that the group has encountered is our collaboration with group 18. We do not have the best lines of communication, but we have had no real conflict with the other group.

Product Archaeology: Product Evaluation

I- Component Summary

The component summary aims not only to document each component, but its functionality and its effect on the functionality of the engine as a whole, along with the manufacturing processes and decisions made in the creation of each component, reasons for particular design characteristics, and analyzing the complexity of each component.

Several commonalities were found in many of the parts of the engine. They all operate in an enclosed, heated environment, and the design of the parts were based on efficiency and functionality rather than aesthetics because the engine as a whole is internal. Die casting and injection molding appear to be the main manufacturing methods for a majority of the parts, which based on the size and the amount of times parts were replicated for assembly, seems to be sensible.

Our summary will document the components in the order they were dissected. Our groups' top to bottom dissection method allowed for the parts to be dissected in such a fashion that the groupings of components in the step by step process were related to each other in functionality.

Component complexity can be analyzed in terms of what their specific function is with relation to the complexity of their assembly, and the complexity of the component's interaction on other subsystems within the engine and with regards to the engine as a whole. Individual component complexity can be analyzed in terms of its individual function, its form, and the manufacturing methods required to create the part. This scale is broken down into the table below:

GM 2.2L 4-Cylinder Engine: Individual Component Complexity Scale
Level Functional Complexity Form Complexity Manufacturing Complexity
1 Very basic function, easily comprehensible by common user Simple geometry, basic shapes, few distinguishing features One or two easy manufacturing methods required to make part, such as molding and drilling
2 Moderately complex function, related to other functions within subsystem Several additional features, geometry more closely related to specific function Several manufacturing methods or one difficult method such as an additive process, or several forming processes
3 Related to all functions within subsystem, several individual functions Very specific part geometry with many distinguishing features Part is expensive to manufacture and/or requires many processes



Complexity can be analyzed with respect to its interactions as well. A scale for this is defined below:

GM 2.2L 4-Cylinder Engine: Component Interaction Complexity Scale
Level Definition
1 Little to no interaction with other parts, may act simply as fastener but still be important
2 Directly interacts with one or two other parts, indirect interaction with rest of subsystem
3 Direct interaction with entire subsystem, highly important to entire engine

Below is our component summary:

1. Intake Manifold
Intake assembly.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 5-7 lbs (11-17kg) (
        Material Composition: Aluminum, rubber, plastic, silicon
        Dimensions: (37x28x27)cm

    ii. Component Function

        The intake manifold evenly distributes the combustion mixture to each cylinder in such a manner that retains maximum efficiency in the mix, and is highly pertinent to the optimization of the piston-cylinder system. The primary flows are energy and material.

    iii. Component Form

        The overall shape is a hemisphere with 2 distinguishable pipes on either side, totaling 4 for the 4 cylinders, with visible y-axis symmetry. This symmetry and pipe curvature optimizes even distribution of the combustion mixture and overall space. The materials incorporated allow for ease of manufacturing in that they are common materials and are inexpensive.
        Global Considerations: Material commonality and symmetry permits ease of global production and sale.
        Economic Considerations:: Maximum efficiency governed by insulating materials. Materials chosen are durable
        Societal Considerations: The part design is easily identifiable.
        Environmental Considerations:: Durable material lengthens life cycle, eliminating waste. Efficiency of energy flow limits damaging exhaust.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        Several processes were used for different sub-components:
              Center piece injection molded, evidenced by duller polymer and notable part lines throughout the inner part of the base in the side view. Holes drilled w/brass inserts threaded on the inside.
              Injection molded base, evidenced by polymer and rough surface finish.
              Extruded plastic tubes, likely impact extrusion; metal surface finish is smoother and tubes are very durable compared to an injected or die cast part. Part size indicates the tubes were not molded

        Global Considerations: Materials are available worldwide, part is lightweight and easy to ship
        Economic Considerations: Since part is lightweight shipping costs are low; parts and manufacturing methods are inexpensive relative to amount of parts produced.
        Societal Considerations: Due to commonality of parts it is easy for a user to get it repaired.

        Environmental Considerations:
        Using easily available materials for manufacturing lowers environmental impact

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2 : One primary function
        Form Complexity: 2: Several shapes, curved tubing.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2: Extrusion required for tubing.
        Interaction Complexity: 2: Direct material interaction with cylinders

2. Throttle Body
Throttl body.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 2-3 lbs (5-8kg)
        Material Composition: Aluminum/steel, brass, rubber/polymers
        Dimensions: (14x10x6)cm

    ii. Component Function

        Acts as part of air intake system to control amount of air flowing into the engine. The amount of pressure on the accelerator pedal determines the magnitude of the electrical signal sent to the linkages inside the throttle body. The linkages move the throttle plate to permit airflow.

    iii. Component Form

        The main throttle plate is spherical and the main aluminum body of the component appears symmetrical on both sides, likely for ease of manufacturing. The curved rubber portion on the left assists as a timing mechanism for airflow control. The color matches the material used to create the part. The throttle body as a whole contains many smaller internal parts that would require disassembly to fully describe. </br> Global Considerations: The material used is widely known and is globally available for production.
        Economic Considerations: The symmetrical design and condensing of parts in the throttle body permit it to fit among the engine, thus requiring less parts.
        Societal Considerations: The part is easily identifiable.
        Environmental Considerations: By incorporating available materials that create lower environmental impact.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        Die-casting is evidenced by visible part lines and shaping separations throughout the aluminum body along with the rough surface finish; circumstances of mass manufacturing and overall part size of throttle body also indicate die casting. Injection molding used for rubber components on side. Various bolts and nuts likely forged. Orange cap injection molded and painted orange to make the throttle body visible inside the engine.
        Global Considerations: Die-casting and injection molding are easily replicable methods that can be applied worldwide
        Economic Considerations: The manufacturing methods for this part are economically efficient for large volume production.
        Societal Considerations: The orange cap makes it easily identifiable for a user.
        Environmental Considerations: Produced efficiently to reduce environmental impact.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2: Function is easily describable, linked directly to human signal, regulatory function.
        Form Complexity: 3: On the outside the form is simple but there are many internal sub-components.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2: Molding process is fairly simple for large-scale, each smaller individual component easy to make. Throttle body is small
        Interaction Complexity: 2: Direct interaction with air intake system, indirectly regulates combustion process by regulating air/fuel ratio in combustion mixture.

3. Fuel Rail Assembly
Fassembly 7.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 5 lbs/12kg
        Material Composition: Carbon-based rubber(fluoroelastomer), aluminum, standard rubber, brass
        Dimensions:

    ii. Component Function

        Transports the fuel directly into air stream. Consists of the fuel rail which serves as support for rubber tubing, which injects fuel. Pressurizes fuel for optimum injection.

    iii. Component Form

        Cylindrical tubing permits optimum fuel flow. One cylindrical injector per cylinder.
        Global Considerations: Standard material throughout; resources are available for reproduction worldwide
        Economic Considerations: The cylindrical design permits optimum flow efficiency, thus reducing possibility of repair costs.
        Societal Considerations: No dangerous outer components; safe to remove and disassemble.
        Environmental Considerations: Efficiency of design lowers waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The plastic material of the connectors indicates injection molding. Aluminum tubing has a consistent cross-sectional area, durability, and is bent, which indicates extrusion and shaping. Several holes drilled; low-thickness stamped fittings.
        Global Considerations: Availability of materials allows for worldwide manufacturing.
        Economic Considerations: Since materials are widely available it's simpler to use.
        Societal Considerations: The surface finish on each sub-component is relatively smooth, making the part safe to handle
        Environmental Considerations: Minimal environmental impact factored into large scale production.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2: Easily comprehensible, only a few sub-functions.
        Form Complexity: 2: Aside from bending in tubes the geometry is simple.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 3: Multiple processes needed; different for every sub-component in assembly.
        Interaction Complexity: 3: Direct interaction with throttle body and intake manifold. Without fuel injection combustion can't take place.

4. Oil Filter
Oilfilter.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

    Approx. weight: 0.5-1 lbs (1.1-2.2kg)
    Material Composition: Rubber, aluminum, foam
    Dimensions:
</ul>

ii. Component Function

      The filtration material removes contaminants from the oil that could damage other components of the engine. Removing contaminants also ensures optimum oil usage.

iii. Component Form

      Simple symmetrical cylindrical shape allows for oil to flow through filtration material easily.
      Global Considerations: Materials easy to find for worldwide production.
      Economic Considerations: Designed for maximum filtration at minimal cost
      Societal Considerations: The part is small and very lightweight; since it's so cheap a user can easily replace it.
      Environmental Considerations: The part itself is manufactured to ensure oil is maximally usable.

iv. Manufacturing Processes

      Injected plastic o-ring and center, evidenced by visible injection points and seam lines. The metal base and exterior of the part were rolled/stamped, evidenced by the fact that it's very thin.
      Global Considerations: Very simple manufacturing methods make it easy to replicate.
      Economic Considerations: Part itself is very cheap and easily replaceable.
      Societal Considerations: Part is easily identifiable and replaceable by user; safe to handle.
      Environmental Considerations: Thin metal and plastic can be recycled and reused.

v. Component Complexity

      Functional Complexity: 1: Very simple filtration function.
      Form Complexity: 1: Cylindrical and symmetrical, one-two internal parts.
      Manufacturing Complexity: 1: Simple methods, virtually no sub-components
      Interaction Complexity: 1: Oil simply passes through filter, part itself has no pertinent energy/flow conversions.

</ul>

5. Coolant Tube
Coolant tube1.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 1-3 lbs (2.2-7kg)
        Material Composition: Steel, some rubber/plastic
        Dimensions: 58-60cm length, 5mm diameter

    ii. Component Function

        The coolant tube conducts fluid that cools the engine block to prevent overheating

    iii. Component Form

        Long cylindrical tubing, several attachments to hook up to other smaller tubes to carry out function.
        Global Considerations: Tubing made for efficient fluid flow; small diameter enables fit into tight spaces inside engine.
        Economic Considerations: Steel is a long-lasting material
        Societal Considerations: Part is easily identifiable
        Environmental Considerations: Durability of steel ensures long life though material is recyclable.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        Steel tubes produced via extrusion, evidenced by constant cross-sectional area and welded together. Fittings at ends are injection-molded evidenced by plastic and visible seams.
        Global Considerations: Steel is a globally available resource; makes global reproduction possible.
        Economic Considerations: Simple production process, one major material needed.
        Societal Considerations: Extrusion leads to smooth surface finish on tubes, safe to handle.
        Environmental Considerations: Manufacturing process has low impact on environment.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1: Simple function, carries one fluid
        Form Complexity: 1: One basic cylindrical tube shape
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2: Multiple processes needed to complete product.
        Interaction Complexity: 1: Attached to several smaller tubes that help collect coolant

6.Engine Ignition Coil
Ignitioncoil 7.jpg

    i. Basic Specs
        Approx. weight:8-10 lb
        Material Composition:Plastic, some form of metal
        Dimensions:(11.5x10x8)cm

    ii. Component Function

        The function of the ignition coil is to increase the voltage by acting as a transformer. The coil has a 100 to 1 ration between its secondary and its primary windings. This means that the output voltage will be about 100 times greater than the input voltage. In other words, it takes relatively weak battery power and turns that power into a spark that is powerful enough to ignite fuel vapor.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of this component is box like. It consists of two cylinder type shapes (the coils) and there were 4 output locations, three had wires attached. Something notable that stood out about the component was that if you were to split it down the center, both halves would have been the same. Also, the ignition coil was mounted upon a metal plate. The shape of the component could be related to the function. Each of the cylinders held a coil. We were not able to open the outer housing for the coils, so no information on the internal structure is known. The housing that encased the ignition coil was made of plastic. There is not real property of the plastic that helps the component function. It only acts as protection for the internal system. The surface finish of the plastic was smooth. The metal plate also had a smoother finish. The surface finish, I assume does not come from a functional need, but more from the process that was used to manufacture the part. As for the metal plate, it was most likely smoothed to avoid any damage to the ignition coil from possible friction if the plate were to come loose.
        Global Considerations: The materials used for the housing and the base plate are mostly likely available in many locations, or they would be inexpensive to ship.
        Economic Considerations: An economic factor that could have influenced the decision to have two coils because it allows each coil to be smaller, thus saving space. Also, plastic may have been chosen for the housing because it is lighter and cheaper than metal.
        Societal Considerations: The housing for the actual coils acts as a safety feature. There is a lot of voltage running through the coils and if the car were to be running while someone was working on the engine, the plastic would protect them from injury because it is non-conductive.
        Environmental Considerations: This step in the process of the engine does not generate any waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        For the housing of the ignition coil, it can be assumed that injection molding was the chosen method of manufacturing. The evidence to support injection molding is that there were noticeable seams that would be left from the mold, also it was a very specific shape, and there were rounded edges, which are easier to remove from a mold. The base plate was most likely manufactured through die casting. It did not have the smoothest surface, and it was clearly visible that some of the edges had been grinded to smooth them out, and seams from the mold were also visible. The material choice most likely did impact the decision as to which process to use. The different materials need different methods to be manufactured, and the materials used would be most easily made into the necessary shape through these processes. The shape did not really impact the selected method. You could achieve the same shape though other methods, for example, forming and shaping for the base plate. It is possible however that the alternate methods of manufacturing would be more costly, or time consuming.
        Global Considerations: These processes are ones that can be performed in a variety of locations across the world so long as the proper machinery is available
        Economic Considerations: As previously mentioned, the selected methods of manufacturing were most likely cheaper and less time consuming than other possible methods, thus saving money and allowing the overall product cost less.
        Societal Considerations: The processes that are used do not have an impact on society as a whole.
        Environmental Considerations: The processes used are efficient and do not yield a lot of waste materials.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2, the component has one main function, but it is important to achieve the desired results of the entire engine.
        Form Complexity: 2, the outside looks fairly simple, however it is the inside that has complexity.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2, the outer casing is fairly simple to manufacture, however the inside needs more detail to ensure proper function.
        Interaction Complexity: 1, has a single input and four outputs, all of which transfer enhanced energy to the rest of the engine.

7. Exhaust Manifold
Eman.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight:15-18 lb
        Material Composition:Iron
        Dimensions:(35x12x6)cm

    ii. Component Function

        The exhaust manifold is a pipe that conducts the exhaust gases that come from the combustion chambers to the exhaust pipe. This component contains an exhaust port for each port that is on the cylinder head and there is a flat surface on the manifold that fits against a matching surface on the exhaust area in the cylinder head. The passage that exhaust follows from each port in the manifold join into a common single passage before they reach the manifold flange where it then continues to the exhaust pipe.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of this component is two tubes that merge into one another. On one side of the tube is open. The two pipes that merge are the inputs and the single tube is the output that leads to the exhaust pipe. This component was made from iron. This was evident in that the part was very rusted. The decision to use metal was for the reason is so that the very high temperatures of the gases that will be flowing through the manifold will not warp or melt.
        Global Considerations: The materials used are available all over the world.
        Economic Considerations: It allows the engine to act more efficiently by removing waste products.
        Societal Considerations: The pipe contains the gases that could cause damage to other parts of the engine
        Environmental Considerations: This component allows gases to be safely transported from the engine and through the catalytic converter so to reduce the harmful effects of the gases.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The manufacturing method that was used to make this part was die casting. The evidence that could be seen to support this is that there were parting lines on the component. Also, the surface finish of the part points to die casting. The choice of material did influence the decision to use die casting. Iron is a good material to use for molding rather than shaping. The specific shape of the part also points to die casting because it would be in a manufacturer’s best interest to have a mold for this part because of its shape and the necessity of it.
        Global Considerations: The mold can be shipped or made anywhere, so the component can be manufactured anywhere.
        Economic Considerations: By using a mold multiple of each part can be made without having a very large initial cost.
        Societal Considerations: It is a safe process that can ensure that the component will function properly.
        Environmental Considerations: This is an efficient method of manufacturing that can reduce negative environmental effects.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1, has a single purpose to transport waste products.
        Form Complexity: 1, simple shape of 2 tubes merging into 1.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 1, can be made by die casting with a mold.
        Interaction Complexity: 2, takes waste products from the cylinders and moves them on to the exhaust pipe so that the waste can be removed from the vehicle.

8. Water Pump
Water pump pic.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight:2-4 lb
        Material Composition:Coated metal and other types of metal
        Dimensions:(16.5x7x13)cm

    ii. Component Function

        The water pump’s intention is to circulate water throughout the engine and the radiator in order to keep them from overheating.

    iii. Component Form

        The shape of this component is an angled tube with a pump at the end. Nothing about the component is horizontal or vertical. Everything is at an angle. By having the angle allows the water to flow easier through the pump. This component is made from 2 different types of materials. One is a coated iron and the other could not be determined, but it was also metal. The metal is a good choice of material for the water pump because the water that returns to the pump from the engine could be hot and plastic could melt.
        Global Considerations: The availability of materials in different locations and the availability of labor in those locations.
        Economic Considerations: Some economic factors are the cost of the materials and the cost to assemble all of the parts in order to make the entire pump.
        Societal Considerations: There are no immediate societal concerns that come into play with the component other than the safety regulations that need to follow when obtaining materials.
        Environmental Considerations: An environmental concern is how the materials are to be obtained and how much waste product there may be at the end of the process.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The type of manufacturing used to make this component would be die casting and also forming. On the silver tube, there were parting lines. The black part of the component appears to be too thin to have been die casted, it is possible that it was formed rather than die casted. The material choice would impact the manufacturing method used because the metal used and the shape are more easily made through die casting or forming, depending on the part being made. Also, there must have been an assembly process also because the pump itself had to be made and installed into the black part of the component.
        Global Considerations: Forming can happen almost anywhere in the world, given the proper tools, that allows this component to be made in many locations. Also, there is an availability of materials in many locations.
        Economic Considerations: Economic concerns include the cost of molds, the cost of materials and the cost of assembly of the two pieces. Also there are economic concerns if one part needs to be shipped to a different location so assembly and distribution may occur.
        Societal Considerations: No societal concerns impact the manufacturing decision. They do however impact safety regulations that are needed to make sure workers are uninjured and machines are not damaged.
        Environmental Considerations: Both processes are very efficient and result in little waste products.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2, this component is a simple pump, but it needs to be able to pump enough fits to prevent overheating of the engine.
        Form Complexity: 2, the form is moderately complex. The inlet and outlet are fairly simple. The pump is the more complex portion of the component
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2, there are a few separate parts that need to be made, as well as the assembly of those parts.
        Interaction Complexity: 2, this component has a fairly complex system to power. The pump moves coolant and water all throughout the engine to keep it cool, so there must be close interactions with the rest of the engine.

9. Purge Solenoid
Vacuum sensor g7.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. Weight:1.5 lb
        Material Composition:Plastic polymer and coated metal
        Dimensions:(11.5x5x10.5)cm

    ii. Component Function

        The function of the purge solenoid is to contain the gas fumes from venting into the atmosphere. It releases the gases in small amounts so as not to put large amounts of harmful gases into the air at any one time.

    iii. Component Form

        This part consists of two pieces. A cylinder and a mount. The mount looks like a rectangle with a circle on the end with a hole in the circle. The cylinder has two additional cylinders coming off of it, the input and output. The input and outputs are on opposite sides of the solenoid. That shape could be influenced by the function of the component. The gases go in one side, and come out of the other. The solenoid has an outer casing that is made of plastic. It could not be determined what materials were used on the inside. The mount is made from a type of coated metal. The plastic was most likely selected to act as a protective casing, and also it is probably less reactive than metal would be when interacting with the gases.
        Global Considerations: This is a standard component in many cars around the world. Its shape is most likely fit to a set of standards so it can be used globally.
        Economic Considerations: An economic concern is in the cost of the materials that are needed and the number of parts that go into the component. The more complex a component in form, the more expensive it is to make.
        Societal Considerations: People in today’s society are becoming much more concerned about the air that they breathe. The toxins that are released by this component are harmful to humans, but because of the purge solenoid, they are released in small enough amounts for the toxins to dissipate I the air, thus leaving it safe for humans to breathe.
        Environmental Considerations: Harmful gases are very bad for the environment, so this component was designed very much with the environment in mind so that those harmful toxins are not all rejected into the air at once, but are instead regulated.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        In order to manufacture the solenoid, injection molding was used. Plastics usually go through this process in order to be made into the necessary specific shape. Parting lines could be seen on the cylinder and most of the edges were rounded. The material definitely impacted the manufacturing decision. In order to get the best results, injection molding is a good option for plastics and other polymers.
        Global Considerations: The polymer used to make the outer casing can be found in many location across the globe, or it is easily shipped.
        Economic Considerations: There are concerns with the cost of the materials and the cost of labor and the costs of assembly to be concerned about.
        Societal Considerations: The processes used to make these components are safe.
        Environmental Considerations: The processes used to manufacture a purge solenoid are efficient and do not produce a lot of waste that could harm the environment.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 3, this component has to be able to contain harmful gases as well as be able to release them in a controlled manner.
        Form Complexity: 2, the out casing is not too complex. It is hard to judge the complexity of the inside of the solenoid because it was not able to be opened.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2, there are at least 2 parts that need to be made to complete the component, so that adds complexity to the manufacturing. Each individual part however does not seem to be too complex.
        Interaction Complexity: 1, this component does not have very many interaction with the other parts of the engine. It just takes the waste gases to release them.

10. Engine Head Cover
Engine cover head.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight:8-10 lb
        Material Composition:some type of metal
        Dimensions:(45x14.5x11)cm

    ii. Component Function

        The engine head cover goes over the cylinders on the top of the engine. It protects the cylinders and the components below. Also, it can help to reduce some noise from the engine.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the engine head cover is rectangular. It is shaped so that it would fit on top of the engine. The bottom has complex shapes so that the fit can be exact and so a good seal can be made. It is made out of metal, although which metal could not be determined. There is also rubber that sits in a groove on the bottom. That is so the over can be tightly attached to the top of the engine.
        Global Considerations: The materials chosen are available worldwide.
        Economic Considerations: The cost of materials is always a concern and with this component, the specificity needed on the bottom side would also be a cause for economic concern when it comes to manufacturing.
        Societal Considerations: This component helps to protect the engine and it can also protect a human who is working under the hood of a car if the engine is running.
        Environmental Considerations: This component produces no waste products, and it will also very likely last as long as the engine does.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        To make the engine head cover, die casting and some subtractive properties were used. Die casting was evident through parting lines that were left on the top side of the engine. However it could also be seen that some subtractive processes were used to obtain the precision of the bottom side of the cover. The material choice did impact this decision. The material needed to be strong, so metal was a natural choice. In order to achieve the shape necessary, a mold would be best so as to achieve the best results and so that many could be made.
        Global Considerations: For this component, all regulations had to be met and also the processes used to make the parts can be used in many locations.
        Economic Considerations: The detail of the bottom of the component can be a cause for concern because it could require special processes to be needed.
        Societal Considerations: All of the processes are safe for both workers and machines, and the part will be safe to use.
        Environmental Considerations: This component was manufactured to last. The life of the component will span the life of the engine. Also the processes used to make it are efficient.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1, the function of the part is as protection and to act as a covering. It does not do too much.
        Form Complexity: 2 the top half is very simple, but the bottom had to be manufactured in order to exactly fit.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2, the process would have been standard, but the mold used and the possible extra work that would have been needed increase the complexity of manufacturing.
        Interaction Complexity: 1, this component is a covering and it does not interact with the engine other than to protect it.

11: Belt Wheel
BeltWh33l.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 3lb/7kg
        Material Composition: Coated metal, likely steel
        Dimensions: 2.5cm wide, 16.5cm diameter

    ii. Component Function

        The Belt wheel holds the belt that is used to power the cars accessories such as the water pump, air conditioner, etc. It works by receiving torque from the crankshaft and, from having the belt tight, transmits the power to the cars other systems. The primary flows are energy and mass.

    iii. Component Form

        The component is shaped as a circle with holes evenly spaced around it. The circle has depth to it with a lip on either side which would help hold the belt in place. The part has symmetry to it and its materials allow it to be sturdy enough to withstand tension and also allow it to be manufactured easily and affordably.
        Global Considerations: This material was chosen because of its availability. The part can be made worldwide.
        Economic Considerations: The material chosen is able to provide a sturdy part and can be output efficiently which allows it to be mass produced.
        Societal Considerations: The material creates a sturdy part which keeps the engine running correctly and adds to the safety of the engine.
        Environmental Considerations: By choosing this material, the part should last for the lifecycle of the engine, eliminated waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        This part appears to have been die casted as evidence from the smooth surface, size of the part and riser marks. The use of metal made die casting an easy choice because a mold can be reused and it is also economical for high volume parts.
        Global Considerations: The part can be die cast around the world because the mold is interchangeable. An interchangeable mold means that laborers play a small role in the actual formation of the part
        Economic Considerations: Die casting the part makes it able to be manufactured anywhere which then gives the company the freedom manufacture it where there is affordable labor, materials, energy, etc.
        Societal Considerations: By die casting the part it is made very sturdy and therefore makes the part safe.
        Environmental Considerations: Die casting the part amounts in little waste because it will be sturdy so replacement is unlikely and the mold can be reused. These two combined results in little waste.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1: Holds and rotates with belt.
        Form Complexity: 1: Simple circular shape with a width to it.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 1: Die casting is a simple process given the parts size and detail.
        Interaction Complexity: 1: The part interacts mainly with the belt and the crankshaft.

12. Rocker Arm/Pushrod
(A cad drawing/assembly of this is viewable later in the gate)

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: Combined 1.25lbs
        Material Composition: Metal, more than likely steel. The rocker arm has a slight texture to it.
        Dimensions: Rocker Arm – 7cm high, 7cm long, 3.5cm wide
        Push Rod – 1cm diameter, 19cm long

    ii. Component Function

        The rocker arm and push rod are the parts that transfers circular motion into linear motion. The primary flow is energy.

    iii. Component Form

        The rocker arm very loosely looks like two rectangles put together to from a T-shape. It almost looks like a hammer. The one piece must be able to swing back and forth as well as raise up and down. The push rod is cylindrical. The push rod is also symmetrical. The materials used for this part were used in primary due to their strength and durability.
        Global Considerations: This material was chosen because of its availability. The parts can be made worldwide.
        Economic Considerations: The material chosen is able to provide a sturdy part. By creating a sturdy part fewer will have to be made due to them breaking.
        Societal Considerations: The material creates a sturdy part which keeps the engine running correctly and adds to the safety of the engine.
        Environmental Considerations: By choosing this material, the part should last for the lifecycle of the engine, eliminated waste. Also, it allows for the engine to efficiently transmit energy, keeping it running at its best.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The rocker arm seems to be made mainly from die casting. This is evident from the good part detail and fine surface finish. The push rod was more than likely obtained through forming and shaping. Extrusion would allow the parts to come out uniform in size and shape. After extrusion, subtractive processes such as grinding were used to give it the surface finish it has.
        Global Considerations: The parts were chosen to be manufactured as state in part to the fact that die casting can be done easily anywhere. When deciding to extrude the push rod engineers had to consider the fact that units are different where the part may be manufactured. Whereas die casting has a mold that is uniform, engineers had to ensure that when extruding, the die was set correctly.
        Economic Considerations: Die casting and extrusion the part makes it able to be manufactured anywhere which then gives the company the freedom manufacture it where there is affordable labor, materials, energy, etc. Also, while die casting has a high initial cost, it is still economical for high volume.
        Societal Considerations: The parts were manufactured to be sturdy. By making these parts to last the life cycle of the engine, they are safe and will ensure that the engine remains so
        Environmental Considerations: The manufacturing the parts as stated, they will be sturdy so replacement is unlikely. These two combined results in little waste. Also, being that both are made from metal, they can be recycled at the end of the products life.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2: Mainly transfer rotational motion into linear motion.
        Form Complexity: 2: The rocker arm has a complex shape consisting of several sub-components to the part. The push rod is a simple form.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2: A combination of die casting and forming and shaping make the process more tedious then other parts.
        Interaction Complexity: 2: Works with several other engine components to perform its task.

13: Mounting Bracket
Mbracket.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 0.5-1lbs (1-2.5kg)
        Material Composition: Metal, likely steel
        Dimensions: 47cm long, 12.5cm high. 1.5cm wide

    ii. Component Function

        The mounting bracket is the part of the engine that holds other components of the engine. The primary flow is mass.

    iii. Component Form

        The mounting bracket is hexagonal in shape having six sides. There are drilled holes at various points of the part. The parts surface finish varies from smooth to textured. The materials used for this part were used in primary due to their strength and durability.
        Global Considerations: This material was chosen because of its availability. The parts can be made worldwide.
        Economic Considerations: The material chosen is able to provide a sturdy part. By creating a sturdy part fewer will have to be made due to them breaking.
        Societal Considerations: The material creates a sturdy part which keeps the engine running correctly and adds to the safety of the engine.
        Environmental Considerations: By choosing this material, the part should last for the lifecycle of the engine, eliminated waste. Also, the part is light due to its material which makes the engine lighter and more efficient.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The mounting bracket appears to have been die cast. This is due to the part detail and size of the part. The holes on the part appear as though they have been drilled out.
        Global Considerations: When deciding to manufacture the mounting bracket engineers had to be sure that they staying within regulations. Neither die casting nor drilling have a lot of emission given off from their respective processes which means they should meet regulations.
        Economic Considerations: Die casting and drilling the part makes it able to be manufactured anywhere which then gives the company the freedom manufacture it where there is affordable labor, materials, energy, etc. Also, because die casting does not require a lot of hands on labor, the cost of training will be lowered.
        Societal Considerations: By manufacturing the part as described, the part will turn out strong and high in quality. The high quality part will result in a safer part.
        Environmental Considerations: Die casting and drilling gives off, as previously stated, few emissions which means less pollution and waste. The parts are also manufactured to last the life of the engine which means less waste.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1: Performs one main function. Holds other components of the engine.
        Form Complexity: 2: Outline is not too complex but the part has many different supports built in.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 1: The part is mainly die cast. Some drilling may have been used.
        Interaction Complexity: 1: Component works with many other systems of the engine but in a simple way by holding them.

14: Mounting Plate
Mplate.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 15-20 lbs (35-45kg)
        Material Composition: 39cm long, 23.5cm tall, 1.5cm deep with circle attached having a diameter of 8cm and a width of 3cm.
        Dimensions:

    ii. Component Function

        The mounting plate of the engine is the part that allows other functions to be attached to the engine. The primary flow is mass.

    iii. Component Form

        The mounting plate is shaped almost like a truss. It has a square like shape that is cut out in the middle with holes drilled at various points around the part. There is a wheel attached to the middle of the top. The parts surface finish was rough. The materials used for this part were used in primary due to their strength and durability.
        Global Considerations: This material was chosen because of its availability. The parts can be made worldwide and then shipped to where they are needed.
        Economic Considerations: The material chosen is able to provide a sturdy part. By shaping it the way it has been loads are able to be distributed evenly and therefore can the part is less likely to break.
        Societal Considerations: The material creates a sturdy part which keeps the engine running correctly and adds to the safety of the engine.
        Environmental Considerations: This material will allow for it to be recycled at the end of the products lifecycle. Also, because it is built with durability in mind, the part should not need replacing which eliminates waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The mounting plate appears to have been die cast. This is due to the surface finish of the part. The holes on the part appear as though they have been drilled out and turned in order to create the threads.
        Global Considerations: When deciding to manufacture the mounting plate engineers had to be sure that it could be done wherever the company decided to. They intern had to make sure that it could be manufactured with ease across the world, and die casting and drilling allow for that.
        Economic Considerations: Die casting and drilling the part makes it able to be manufactured anywhere which then gives the company the freedom manufacture it where there is affordable labor, materials, energy, etc. By having this freedom, the assembly will become cheaper and therefore lower the overall cost of the part.
        Societal Considerations: The safety of this manufactured part is very important. Die casting impacts part quality positively because it allows for good detail. Overall the quality of this part helps to make the engine safer.
        Environmental Considerations: Die casting and drilling gives off few emissions which means less pollution and waste. The part is also manufactured to last the life of the engine which means less waste and it can be recycled when the engine is no longer used.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1: Mainly provides one function to the engine.
        Form Complexity: 2: Shaped in a way as to handle stresses most effectively.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2: The part was die cast in addition to other more complex methods such as turning and drilling.
        Interaction Complexity: 1: The part acts with many other functions of the engine but not in complex ways.

15: Engine Block
Eblock.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 50-75lb
        Material Composition: Metal, most likely steel
        Dimensions: 43cm long, 23.5cm wide, 30 cm tall. The four cylinders that are cut out are 8cm in diameter and 13.5cm deep.

    ii. Component Function

        The engine block is the base to all other parts of the engine. It houses just about all other components of the engine. The primary flows are mass and energy.

    iii. Component Form

        The engine block is basically a rough rectangular prism that is carved out at certain points. The surface finish of the engine block is rough. There are four cylinders that have been carved out towards the base that are very smooth.
        Global Considerations: This material was chosen because of its availability and commonality worldwide. It can be used in any type of weather condition and still function properly.
        Economic Considerations: The material chosen is able to provide a sturdy part at a reasonable cost. The engine block is something that cannot break because it is the housing for the rest of the components and using steel makes it sturdy while keeping costs relatively low
        Societal Considerations: The sturdiness of the material allows for durability which adds to the safety of the part.
        Environmental Considerations: As previously stated, the durability of the part means that replacement will not be necessary. Also, the material allows for the part to be recycled at the end of the engines life cycle.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The engine block appears to have been made by a variety of the manufacturing processes. These include die casting, drilling and grinding. The die casting is apparent due to the part size and shape, detail and surface finish. Drilling was used at various points on the engine block to create holes. Grinding is most apparent in the cylinders where the surface finish is very smooth.
        Global Considerations: A factor that engineers considered was the dimensional efficiency of die casting. Because die casting allows for parts to be dimensionally efficient they can be created wherever and all should have the same dimensionality.
        Economic Considerations: Die casting and drilling the part makes it able to be manufactured anywhere which then gives the company the freedom manufacture it where there is affordable labor, materials, energy, etc. By grinding the part the cylinder will be smooth and run more efficiently thus saving on maintenance and repair costs later.
        Societal Considerations: Grinding out the cylinders allows it to have a very smooth surface finish and makes the engine block safer. Die casting the engine block also makes the part safer by adding to its durability.
        Environmental Considerations: The surface finish of the cylinders due to grinding allows the engine to run as efficiently as possible. The methods chosen do not give off a lot of pollution and the waste due to these processes will be limited and recyclable.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 3: The engine blocks main function is to house all other components of the engine.
        Form Complexity: 3: The part contains many different shapes and surface finishes.
        Manufacturing Complexity: 3: The part is die cast in addition to more complex processes such as drilling holes and grinding to achieve a smooth surface finish in places such as the cylinders.
        Interaction Complexity: 3: The engine block interacts with basically every other component and that components respective function.

16. Oil Pan
Opan.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 10 lb
        Material Composition: Steel/Aluminium
        Dimensions: 44.5x22.4x19.0 cm

    ii. Component Function

        The Oil Pan is used to contain the oil before and after it has gone through the engine. The Oil Pan also works as the bottom of the engine holding all the pieces inside.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the Oil Pan is a rectangular shell. The top is open so other components can fit inside of the oil pan. The oil pan has axis symmetry aside from the cutout on the side of the outer surface. It is also three dimensional which is important in the containing of the oil. The length of the oil pan is 44.5cm and the width is 22.4cm. There are two heights of the oil pan. The shortest height is 8.0 cm and the tallest is 19 cm. The oil pan is made of coated steel. The steel was chosen because it is a strong material that could hold up through the functions of the engine.The reason for the steel being smooth coated black is to give the engine a uniform look. This is the only aesthetic properties of this part. There is no need for aesthetics of this part because it is underneath the hood of the car so it is not visible unless you are doing work on the car.
        Global Considerations: Steel is worldwide so the part can be manufactured globally.
        Economic Considerations: Steel is inexpensive to use and there should be little wastes.
        Societal Considerations: The oil pan works as a protective shell for the engine. This keeps the users safe from moving parts.
        Environmental Considerations: Steel is a strong material so the oil pan will not have to be replaced. This means that it has a good part life.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        There were multiple manufacturing processes that were used in the making of the oil pan. Specifically die casting, welding, and drilling were used. Die casting was used to make the outer shell and the insert of the oil pan. This is visible because of the intricacy of the outer shell and the insert "shelf" of the oil pan. Welding was used to attach the shelf to the outer shell which is noticeable because of the seam. Lastly drilling was used to make holes for the bolts to attach the oil pan to the rest of the engine. The shape did impact the manufacturing process because the shelf would have made it difficult to make the oil pan from just die casting alone.
        Global Considerations: The part can be made globally because these processes are international.
        Economic Considerations: This process reduced the amount of labor and time needed to make the part. If investment casting was used, then a new mold would have to be made each time this part was made.
        Societal Considerations: The piece must be safe for the users.
        Environmental Considerations: By using the processes stated above, the part should not need to be replaced.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1-Very basic function
        Form Complexity: 1-Basic shape with few features
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2-Several manufacturing methods
        Interaction Complexity: 1- Interacts with few other parts

17. Oil Pump
Opump.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight:5 lb
        Material Composition:Steel/ Aluminium
        Dimensions:27.0x11.5x16.5 cm

    ii. Component Function

        The main function of the oil pump is to pump the oil from the oil pan and into the engine. It also filters the oil so no metal gets into the engine. The oil pump also pressurizes the oil that is sent through the engine.

    iii. Component Form

        The basic shape of the oil pump is a rectangular piece with cylindrical extensions. The oil pump has no axis symmetry and it is three dimensional. The oil pump is also mostly smooth. The shape of the oil pump is coupled to the function. The oil pump would not work if it did not have this particular shape. The oil pump is made from steel/ aluminum. This is because plastic or any kind of nonmetal would not be strong enough of for these functions. There is no aesthetic features to this product because it is inside the engine casing so it is not visible. The component is a silver color. The reason for this is that it is the color of the metal used to make the part.
        Global Considerations: Steel is found worldwide.
        Economic Considerations: Steel is an inexpensive material.
        Societal Considerations: Steel makes the parts strong and safer for the user.
        Environmental Considerations:There is not a shortage of steel.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The manufacturing processes used to make the oil pump are rolling, die casting, and drilling, Rolling was used to make the cylindrical parts. Die casting was used to make the main parts of the oil pump. Drilling was used to make the holes for the bolts to assemble the oil pump.
        Global Considerations: The parts are capable of being distributed around the world.
        Economic Considerations: Little labor is needed for these processes which reduces costs.
        Societal Considerations: The processes are safe.
        Environmental Considerations: There is little waste with these processes. Remains can be reused.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2-Moderatly complex
        Form Complexity: 3-Very specific to function
        Manufacturing Complexity: 2-Several manufacturing processes
        Interaction Complexity: 3-Interacts with entire system

18. Oil Temperature Sensor
Opumpsensor.jpg

    i. Basic Specs
        Serial no: 110401333101
        Approx. weight: 2 lb
        Material Composition:Steel/Plastic
        Dimensions:13.5x3.5x3.5 cm

    ii. Component Function

        The main function of the oil temperature sensor is to sense the temperature of the oil and to make sure it is not too hot or cold.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape is a cylinder. The part has axis symmetry except for the attachment at the top. The part is three dimensional and the shape is coupled to the function. The component is made from steel and plastic. There is a plastic o-ring around the middle. Manufacturing decisions did impact the choice of the material used. The material chosen had to be able to stand specific heats. There are no aesthetic features to the part because it is not on the outside of the engine. This part is a silver and black color. This is due to the steel and the plastic used.
        Global Considerations: Steel is found worldwide.
        Economic Considerations: The cost of production are reduced.
        Societal Considerations: You want the part to have a high melting point so the part does not melt and the oil gets too hot or cold.
        Environmental Considerations: There is a mass quantity of steel.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        Maunfacturing processes of the oil temperature sensor is die casting. This process gives great precision which is needed for this part.
        Global Considerations: Die casting is used globally.
        Economic Considerations: Die casting is inexpensive.
        Societal Considerations:It is safe to make and sturdy.
        Environmental Considerations:There are little wastes.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2-Moderatly complex
        Form Complexity: 2-Closely related to function
        Manufacturing Complexity:1-One manufacturing process
        Interaction Complexity: 3-Interacts with entire system

19.Crank Shaft Clamp
Cclamps.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight:3 lb
        Material Composition:
        Dimensions: 8.0x2.6x3.5 cm

    ii. Component Function

        The main function of the crank shaft clamp is to hold the crank shaft in place.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape is an arc. The purpose for this is that two clamps go around the crank shaft and are bolted together. The two arcs create a circle around the crank shaft. This part is three dimensional and has axis symmetry. The crank shaft clamps are smooth and made from steel. The purpose of using steel is that the clamps must be made from a durable material. There is no aesthetics to the clamps because they are inside the engine and are not visible to the users. The part is silver of the metal. It has a smooth surface finish.
        Global Considerations: Steel can be found worldwide.
        Economic Considerations: Steel is inexpensive.
        Societal Considerations:The clamps make the crank shaft safer for the user.
        Environmental Considerations: The crank shaft clamps are inside the casing of the engine so weather does not effect them. This decreases the need to replace them.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The crank shaft clamps were made by die casting and drilling. Drilling was used to make holes for the bolts to connect two clamps together. The die casting was used to make the general shape. This shape is somewhat intricate so die casting was used to get high precision.
        Global Considerations: These processes are used globally so the clamps can be made world wide.
        Economic Considerations: Little labor goes into die casting and drilling.
        Societal Considerations:The crank shaft clamps make the crank shaft safe.
        Environmental Considerations: The clamps are a strong part so they don't need to be fixed often.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 1-Very basic function
        Form Complexity: 2-Closely related to function
        Manufacturing Complexity: 1-Simple to manufacture
        Interaction Complexity: 1-little interaction

20. Push Rod Guides

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight:0.5 lb
        Material Composition:Steel
        Dimensions:19.0x0.9x0.9 cm

    ii. Component Function

        The main function of the push rod guides is to operate the valves inside the engine. This helps to make the engine run.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the push rod guides is a cylinder with spheres at both ends. This part has axis symmetry and is primarily three dimensional. The push rod guides are smooth and are hollow throughout. This is specifically designed for the function of the push rod guides. By being hollow, it saves materials. The push rod guides are made from steel. If the push rod guides were made from a weaker material, they could be come deformed or break from the pressure being applied to them. There is no aesthetic feature to the push rod guides. It is the silver color of the steel used to make them. The smooth surface of the rods is functional.
        Global Considerations: The material used to make the push rod guides can be found globally.
        Economic Considerations: The cost is inexpensive compared to other options.
        Societal Considerations: The steel of the push rod guides is strong so it will not deform and cause a malfunction in the engine causing more safety for the users.
        Environmental Considerations: The push rod guides are made from durable material so they would have a long part life. This means they would not have to be replaced often which saves our resources.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The manufacturing process used to make the push rod guides is die casting and drilling. Die casting would be used to make the general shape. Drilling would be used to make the hole that goes all the way through the part.
        Global Considerations: This part is simple to make so it could be manufactured around the world.
        Economic Considerations: Little labor would go into making the push rod guides.
        Societal Considerations: These processes are inexpensive because the moldings can be reused.
        Environmental Considerations: These manufacturing processes create little waste which is great for our environment.

    v. Component Complexity

        Functional Complexity: 2-Moderate function
        Form Complexity: 1-Basic shape
        Manufacturing Complexity: 1-One manufacturing process
        Interaction Complexity: 2-Interacts with two parts

21. Push Rod Seats Pichere.jpg

    i. Basic Specs
        Serial no:
        Approx. weight: 1/6 lb each
        Material Composition: high tempered steel and chrome
        Dimensions: 5cm length, 2cm diameter

    ii. Component Function

        The main function of the push rods and push rod seats is to open the intake valve or exhauste valve in each cylinder to allow fuel to flow in or exhaust and waste to flow out of the engine. The function of the push rod seats is to hold the push rod in place and transfer energy to the push rod and move it upward. The push rod seats are the connections between the camshaft and push rod. The rotational energy from the camshaft is transferred to the push rod seats which push the push rod upward to rotate the rocker arm and open the valves. This is the only function the push rod seats perform. The camshaft touches the roller on one end of the push rod seat and the push rod sits in a small cup or hole on the other end. The flows involved with the push rod seats include a small amount of energy flow into the component from the rotating camshaft and out of the component into the push rod to move it upward. A signal is also involved in the flow of the component, as the camshaft lobes are shaped to allow for a time interval between opening and closing of the valves. The roller ball of the push rod seats rides on these lobes, and they move according to the rotation of the camshaft. The push rod seats are in the same environment as the camshaft, in the center of the engine.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the push rod seats is cylindrical. The parts are axial-symmetric and 3-dimensional. They are each about 5 centimeters long and 2 centimeters in diameter. The components cylindrical shape allows it to withstand the axial shear force it is subjected to from the camshaft and push rod. Each push rod seat weighs about 1/6 of a pound. The components are made from high tempered steel and chrome. These materials allow the part to perform its function without any deformations and without corrosion. The hard, non-corrosive material is needed so the component lasts a for a longer amount of time and is still able to perform its intended function.

    Global Considerations: Global considerations involved when choosing the type of material could include availability of the material and the its durability. The material can withstand strong forces and pressure and it also resists weather and corrosion which allows the part to last longer without repair.
    Economic Considerations: Economic considerations included the cost of materials which was relatively cheap. It also included how the component was manufactured. The push rod seats in our engine were manufactured as a single piece for simplicity and to save in the cost of manufacturing. Their are also two piece and three piece manufactured push rod seats which cost more to manufacture and assemble.
    Societal Considerations: There are no real societal considerations when choosing the materials and manufacturing this component.

    Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations would include how the material was obtained, how much pollution or waste is produced when manufacturing the product and how the materials of the product will affect the environment after the component is disposed of.
</ul>

iv. Manufacturing Processes

      The most probable manufacturing method used to make this component is turning. The shape and axial-symmetry of the component support this along with its fine surface finish. It is also a very small component, which could point towards a different process such as die casting since it might be more cost effective than turning such small parts. The choice of material would only affect the type of manufacturing if die casting was used, because then only certain types of metals could be used. The high tempered steel and chrome used can be easily die cast or turned. The cylindrical shape of the part most likely impacted the choice of process and its shape provides evidence for turning.
      Global Considerations: Global considerations for manufacturing of this component could include availability of labor and availability of certain materials.
      Economic Considerations: Economic considerations in the manufacturing would include cost of manufacturing process, cost of labor, and cost of waste processing.
      Societal Considerations: Societal considerations in manufacturing could include public opinion on the companies amount of waste produces from a certain process.
      Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations from manufacturing include the amount of waste and pollution produced during manufacturing and where the waste and pollution is deposited during and after manufacturing processes.

v. Component Complexity

      Each push rod seat is fairly simple. The part consists of a metal cylinder with a small roller welded on the bottom and a small hole on top to place the push rod. Its function is directly related to its complexity in that its function is fairly simple so its complexity is low. The component just acts a connector and it supports the push rod so it has no need for a high complexity. More complex also means more difficult to manufacture and it would cost more to manufacture. Finally, its form and shape are very simple. The part is just a basic cylinder. This fact also contributes to its low complexity. Its interactions are also very simple since it acts as a two force member transferring energy from the camshaft to the push rod.

</ul>

22. Pistons/Piston Clamps
Pclamps pistons.jpg

    i. Basic Specs
        Serial no:
        Approx. weight: Pistons- about 1/2 lb each Piston Clamps- 25g each
        Material Composition: aluminum alloy containing aluminum and silicon
        Dimensions: Piston-3 in long, 3-4 in diameter Piston clamps-about 1 in radius

    ii. Component Function

        The piston is used to transfer the energy from the expanding gas in the cylinder to the connecting rod which finally transfers the energy to the crankshaft to run the automobile. The pistons are the driving force of the engine and they are located where most of the energy in the engine is transferred from the energy of the fuel to the engine itself. The piston is also used to compress the mixture in the chamber and turn it into vapor. The motion of the piston is finally used to expel the burnt gases out of the engine as exhaust. The pistons are constantly moving up and down within the cylinders to perform these actions. The flows associated with the pistons are energy flow from the expansion of gas in the cylinder, an energy flow to the gas as the piston compresses the mixture turning it into vapor, energy flow from the rotating crankshaft to push the piston back up, signal flow from the crankshaft to the connecting rod to the piston and from the piston back through to the crankshaft as the piston moves up and down. A mass flow is also involved as the piston expels the burnt fuel and waste from the cylinder. The piston functions within the cylinder. As the engine heats up, the aluminum alloy of the piston expands slightly so that it fits tightly within the cylinder. The pistons clamps main function is to connect the connecting rod to the crankshaft which basically keep the piston connected to the system. The clamps do not perform any other function other then holding the pistons in place and connecting the connecting rod to the crankshaft. No flows are associated with the piston clamps unless you consider the clamps as an intermediate in the energy flow from the connecting rod to the crankshaft and vice versa. The clamps are connected around the crankshaft and thus operate in direct contact with the crankshaft and connecting rod.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the piston is disk like and slightly cylindrical. It consists of a metal disk on top of a short hollow cylinder that has no bottom disk. Instead the bottom is connect to the connecting rod. The pistons are axial-symmetric and they are symmetric about any line going through the center of the top disk. The pistons are in the form of short hollow cylinders and they are primarily 3-dimensional. The components are approximately 3 inches tall and have a diameter of about 3 to 4 inches. The shape of the component is essential for it to perform its function. The piston has to fit perfectly within the cylinder such that no gas or mixture seeps through the edges while the piston is moving. If this were to happen, some of the energy from the expanding gas would be lost because some gas could leak our of the cylinder. A cylindrical shape allows for the best possible movement within the chamber and the least possibility of escaping gases. If the piston were a square or triangle shape, there would be more "cracks" for gases to escape through. The pistons weigh roughly 1/2 lb each and they are made from an aluminum and silicon alloy. Manufacturing decisions did not effect the material selection as much as the function of the component did. The material of the pistons had to be able to withstand very high temperatures, up to 300 degrees Celsius, without expanding so much that they could not move within the cylinders. The piston must have a relatively loose fit when it is cold, otherwise it will expand too much at high temperatures within the cylinder. Aluminum is also very light, making it easier for the piston to move at higher speeds so more energy can be transferred over time. The only manufacturing decision that impacted material selection is the use of aluminum because it is very cheap and readily available. The piston clamps are also made from the same aluminum and silicon alloy. </br> Global Considerations: Global considerations for material selection include how easy the materials are to machine in certain climates or areas, availability of materials and how easy it is to obtain the needed materials.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for material selection include cost of materials, cost of obtaining the materials, cost of processing and cost of waste disposal of materials.
        Societal Considerations: There are no immediate societal considerations directly related to material selection for this component other than possibly lowering the total cost of the vehicle by using cheaper materials.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for material selection include how the material is obtained, how it is processed and how wastes and pollution are disposed of. These also include how the materials affect the environment during use and after they are disposed of. This implies choosing the most biodegradable material possible or one that will not harm the environment when disposed of as waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The pistons and piston clamps were most likely manufactured using die casting. This is supported by the consistent shape needed for the pistons and the precise dimensions required so that they fit the cylinder. Die casting is also supported because of the metal alloy the pistons are made of and they have riser marks left on the bottom side of the piston. Material selection did play a role in deciding the manufacturing process because this type of metal is most workable as a fluid and the consistency needed for the pistons would be best achieved with a mold. Again, shape had an impact in choosing die casting as the manufacturing process because each piston needed to be precisely shaped and sized so they could properly fit whatever cylinder they were paired with.
        Global Considerations: Global considerations for manufacturing include the location in which the product is being manufactured, the availability of labor, availability of materials in that area and also climate and overall atmospheric pressure at the location could be considered depending on the manufacturing process.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for manufacturing include initial cost of mold, cost of materials, cost of labor and machining and cost of assembly and shipping.
        Societal Considerations: Societal considerations for manufacturing could include public opinion of the company, cost of materials and how it effects consumer cost, and public opinion of company's waste and emissions.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for manufacturing include how the materials were obtained, the amount of pollution due to manufacturing processes, the processing of wastes and the use of other materials in the manufacturing process that might be harmful to the environment after disposal.

    v. Component Complexity

        The pistons are not too complex as far as shape is concerned. They are a basic shortened and hollow cylinder shape. The piston clamps are simple half circle shapes that are 2-dimensional figures bent into half circles. Form for both of these components actually makes them appear relatively simple. The function of the cylinder makes the component seem very complex, but the manufacturing methods also give the part a low complexity. Simple die casting can produce many pistons at once, making them appear as easy to produce. The complex function of the piston is what gives it all of its complexity as a component. The piston is used to perform so many different and critical functions within the engine that it becomes more complex within the system. The pistons interactions include energy and signal interactions with gas and mixtures, the connecting rod, the crankshaft and mass interactions with gas waste and exhaust. Its interactions within the engine are so intricate that they give the component complexity. It is one of the only parts within the engine that directly interacts with chemical and thermal energy within the working fluid. This makes its interactions more complex that any other component within the engine, since it interacts with multiple physical pieces within the system along with direct contact with the working fluid of the system. The piston, other than the working fluid, is the heart of the cycle that is taking place within the engine.

23. Crankshaft
Crank thatshaft.jpg

    i. Basic Specs

        Approx. weight: 25 lb
        Material Composition: carbon-steel alloys, iron
        Dimensions: about 2 ft in length, 10 in in diameter or width

    ii. Component Function

        The main function of the crankshaft is to transfer the rotational energy contained inside of it to the flywheel and the clutch. It does this by receiving energy from the transitionally moving pistons which cause it to rotate. The flywheel is connected to the end of the crankshaft which also rotates due to this energy. The overall function of the crankshaft is to transfer the energy from the pistons to the drive train and ultimately the wheels on an automobile. In the system of an engine, the crankshaft is the backbone. The crankshaft does work to perform multiple functions including turning the flywheel and clutch and transferring some energy back to the pistons so they can compress the mixture and turn it into exhaust and vapor to be expelled. The flows associated with the crankshaft are energy and signal flow from the connecting rods of the pistons to the crankshaft and energy flow and signal flow from the crankshaft to the flywheel and some energy flow back to the pistons. The crankshaft is right in the middle of the engine and it operates within a very high temperature environment.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the crankshaft is almost a cylindrical linear shape. Its linear shape almost looks partly zig-zag shaped because of other components coming off of it and the way it is oriented. Some of its properties include symmetry about central x and y-axes. It is sort of axial symmetric, but because of the way its segments are oriented, it cannot be considered fully axial-symmetric. The crankshaft is primarily a 3-dimensional component. It is approximately 2 feet in length and about 10 inches in diameter (if you consider its outer limits as the bounds of the sides of a cylinder). The component's shape is determined largely by its function. Because it has to receive energy from the pistons in such a way that at least 2 out of 4 pistons are moving at once, the segments of the crankshaft have to oriented in a zig-zag pattern or in the shape of an "M". It also has to rotate and turn the flywheel, so it is generally a linear or cylindrical shape for that reason. The crankshaft weighs roughly 25 pounds. It's made from a medium carbon-steel alloy composed mostly of iron. Some crankshafts are also made out of other alloys consisting of titanium or vanadium. The manufacturing process used greatly impacts the materials chosen to be used. If a lighter component is desired, then certain metals and alloys must be used and some can only be worked using the high temperatures and precision of forging. Other materials that have good flow properties would be die cast to make the crankshaft. The specific material properties required for the crankshaft are good hardness and durability, high tensile strength, good resistance to corrosion along with other strengths to resist shear forces and torque applied during use. </br> Global Considerations: Global considerations for material selection include how easy the materials are to machine in certain climates or areas, availability of materials and how easy it is to obtain the needed materials.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for material selection include cost of materials, cost of obtaining the materials, cost of processing and cost of waste disposal of materials.
        Societal Considerations: There are no immediate societal considerations directly related to material selection for this component other than possibly lowering the total cost of the vehicle by using cheaper materials. Also, some things need to be considered in material selection if a customer wants to order a custom crankshaft, they might want to choose their materials.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for material selection include how the material is obtained, how it is processed and how wastes and pollution are disposed of. These also include how the materials affect the environment during use and after they are disposed of. This implies choosing the most biodegradable material possible or one that will not harm the environment when disposed of as waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        Crankshafts can be manufactured by forging or by die casting. They can also be machined as a final process by turning, grinding, drilling and other machining processes. The evidence supporting die casting is that they are made of very strong carbon-steel alloys and they have a relatively simple shape that can be cast in order to save time and money. Evidence that forging can also be used is given by the very high melting point of some metals used and the precision that needs to go into each crankshaft is too important to mass produce them using casting. The shape of the crankshaft allows it to be forged fairly easily. Because of its shape, die casting could be more difficult because removing from the mold without tapering and damaging the component would be very difficult. The cylindrical shape supports the possibility of final turning or grinding, and the small holes within the shaft give evidence of drilling. Forging is also more likely because lighter metals can be worked more eaily with forging. This allows for the final weight of the crankshaft to be light and as durable as a cast crankshaft.
        Global Considerations: Global considerations for manufacturing include the location in which the product is being manufactured, the availability of labor, availability of materials in that area and also climate and overall atmospheric pressure at the location could be considered depending on the manufacturing process.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for manufacturing include initial cost of mold, cost of materials, cost of labor and machining and cost of assembly and shipping.
        Societal Considerations: Societal considerations for manufacturing could include public opinion of the company, cost of materials and how it effects consumer cost, and public opinion of company's waste and emissions. These could also effect the process used because some "hard-core" racing customers want to buy the lightest type of crankshaft, and some lighter metals can only be manufactured into a crankshaft with certain processes.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for manufacturing include how the materials were obtained, the amount of pollution due to manufacturing processes, the processing of wastes and the use of other materials in the manufacturing process that might be harmful to the environment after disposal.

    v. Component Complexity

        The crankshaft is fairly complex, mostly because its shape is slightly skewed. In general, its shape looks fairly simple, and its form is simple, but its not too simple to manufacture. Its manufacturing methods can make it either very complex of fairly simple. If it is cast, the manufacturing is pretty quick and easy. If forging is used, more care is taken when making the component, and therefore it has to go through multiple machining processes in order to be finished, so this would give it a higher complexity. Its function is also relatively easy to understand. The pistons turn the crankshaft, and the crankshaft turns the flywheel. The only complexity involved in its function is exactly how the pistons move it and the timing of multiple pistons so the crankshaft turns at a constant rate. The interacts are simple because it is directly connected to the pistons via the connected rod and clamps and the flywheel is directly connected at one end. There are no obscure or complicated connections that transfer energy within the crankshaft. More complex signals may be involved, but these are not considered in the crankshaft's overall interaction complexity.

24. Valve and Valve Spring

    i. Basic Specs
        Serial no:
        Approx. weight: Valve- 1/2 lb Spring- 1/4 lb
        Material Composition: Valve-chrome-nickel alloys Spring-many types of metals, mainly carbon-steel alloys
        Dimensions: Valve- 8 in long, 60 mm head diameter (intake valve head diameter is larger than exhaust valve)

    ii. Component Function

        The function of the engine valves is to regulate and control the flow of the working fluid and the waste within the engine. The valves open and close to release mass into or out of the engine in the form of fuel or waste. The intake valves let air into the cylinders while the exhaust valves let waste out of the cylinders to be disposed of. These are the only functions of the valves in the engine. They either let fluids into the cylinders or let fluids out of the cylinders. The flows associated with the valves include energy flow from the spring to close the valve, and mass flow flowing through the path of the valve since letting mass in and out is its specified function. The valve is located at the top of the cylinders. Each cylinder has an intake valve and an exhaust valve. They operate under extreme heat and therefore need to made out of a material that has a very high melting point. The function of the valve spring is to provide resistance when the valve is opened and to use its stored potential energy to close the valve. The flows involved in the spring are energy flows into and out of the spring to and from the valve it is connected to.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the valve is linear, or cylindrical with a very small diameter. It has a circle, or valve head, on the end of it that is inside of the engine cylinders. It is axis-symmetric and it has a circular head at one end that is significantly bigger than the valve shaft. The shaft is small and can almost be considered 1-dimensional, but is primarily 3-dimensional. The valve head by itself is almost 2-dimensional, but because it tapers it is ultimately 3-dimensional. The valve shaft is about 8 inches long and the valve head is about 60 millimeters in diameter. The spring itself is about 3 inches long. The shape is directly related to its function. The valve head is used to close the pipe in which mass flows in and out. When the valve is opened, mass needs to be able to flow through the pipe, so the valve shaft needs to be thin in order to allow the maximum amount of mass flow through the pipe. The valve weighs about 1/2 lb and the spring weighs about 1/4 lb. The valve is made from a chrome-nickel alloy and the spring is made from a carbon-steel alloy. Engine valves can be made from many different metals, they just need to be able to withstand very high temperatures. Engine valves can go through many different types of manufacturing and machining processes. The materials used can determine whether forging, CNC machining or other processes are used to make engine valves. The mains material property needed for engine valves is the ability to withstand very high temperatures. </br> Global Considerations: Global considerations for material selection include how easy the materials are to machine in certain climates or areas, availability of materials and how easy it is to obtain the needed materials.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for material selection include cost of materials, cost of obtaining the materials, cost of processing and cost of waste disposal of materials.
        Societal Considerations: There are no immediate societal considerations directly related to material selection for this component other than possibly lowering the total cost of the vehicle by using cheaper materials. Also, some things need to be considered in material selection if a customer wants to order a custom crankshaft, they might want to choose their materials.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for material selection include how the material is obtained, how it is processed and how wastes and pollution are disposed of. These also include how the materials affect the environment during use and after they are disposed of. This implies choosing the most biodegradable material possible or one that will not harm the environment when disposed of as waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The main manufacturing methods used to make the engine valves were forging and some final machining processes such as grinding for fine details. The absence of any kind of riser marks or part lines indicate that it must have been shaped, and forging is the most practical shaping process for this part. It has a very fine surface finish and a precision to its shape, which indicates that it was finished with grinding or other machining processes. Material choice did impact which process to use because some metal alloys are better when forged and others can be cast better or even shaped by some CNC machining. It all depends on which metal alloys are chose for the valve. Shape also impacted the process selection. Because of its small, thin shape, die casting would have been difficult. Casting could result in broken pieces and valves cannot afford to have part lines because they need to cover the opening of a pipe perfectly.
        Global Considerations: Global considerations for manufacturing include the location in which the product is being manufactured, the availability of labor, availability of materials in that area and also climate and overall atmospheric pressure at the location could be considered depending on the manufacturing process.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for manufacturing include initial cost of mold, cost of materials, cost of labor and machining and cost of assembly and shipping.
        Societal Considerations: Societal considerations for manufacturing could include public opinion of the company, cost of materials and how it effects consumer cost, and public opinion of company's waste and emissions.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for manufacturing include how the materials were obtained, the amount of pollution due to manufacturing processes, the processing of wastes and the use of other materials in the manufacturing process that might be harmful to the environment after disposal.

    v. Component Complexity

        The valves themselves are not very complex at all. The valve and spring combination makes the system slightly more complex, but it is still very comprehensible. Valve function does not really make the component any more complex. The valve opens and lets mass in or out and it closes to slop mass flow. The overall function is simple. Its form is a basic geometry and makes the part no more complex. Its manufacturing process actually makes it more complex. It is one engine component that takes multiple process in order to make. Not only is shaped at first, it can machined multiple times before it's complete. The manufacturing process for engine valves is the only factor that could raise the overall complexity of the component.

25. Piston Rings

    i. Basic Specs
        Serial no:
        Approx. weight: about 5-10 g each
        Material Composition: steel and iron alloys
        Dimensions: about 1.5-2 in radius (half circle parts)

    ii. Component Function

        The main function of the piston rings is to seal of the chamber of the cylinder so no gases can escape. The pistons rings hold multiple functions. They also are crucial for heat transfer between the pistons and the inside of the cylinders and they regulate the oil consumption of the engine. The oil control rings perform the latter function. They are there to keep oil out of the combustion chamber. The other piston rings are known as the compression rings. The compression rings keep air and fuel inside the combustion chamber. The flows associated with these components is energy flow out to the inner cylinder walls. No mass flow is involved because the components are designed to keep mass from crossing the boundary. If the piston rings are defined as the system, no mass flows across the boundary of the system, so no mass flow is involved. The piston rings function inside the cylinder on the outside of the top edge of the cylinder. The rings have to function in an extremely high temperature environment and be able to withstand the heat without deforming or becoming weak.

    iii. Component Form

        The general shape of the rings is a half ring or half circle. At room temperature the rings are not exactly circular. This is to account for the slight expansion of the material in cylinder. When the rings expand, they became circular and conform to the piston and inner cylinder wall perfectly in order to block the tiny gaps and fully compress the gas in the combustion chamber. It does not have any real significant geometric properties other than it is symmetry about a vertical axis through its center and that, when in use, its geometry actually changes from an elliptical shape to a perfect circle. It is primarily a 2-dimension flat thin surface that is curved and has a radius of about 2 inches and a width of 5-10 millimeters. Its shape is directly proportional to its function in that its shape is designed by what it does. The ring needs to fit in the small space between the piston and the cylinder in order to maximize compression and make mass flow in and out of the cylinder equal to zero. For the ring to fill space, it can only be one shape, and that is the exact shape of the small space. One piston ring roughly weighs about 5-10 grams. The rings are made of very strong, heat treated cast iron alloy or a chromium-steel alloy. Both of these materials have very high tensile strength and a high elastic modulus. The function of the component, not the manufacturing process, impacted which type of material was selected for the rings. The piston rings need to be able to expand slightly at extremely high temperature to conform to the piston-cylinder system and it must be incredibly durable and it must resist corrosion in order for the component to function properly. </br> Global Considerations: Global considerations for material selection include how easy the materials are to machine in certain climates or areas, availability of materials and how easy it is to obtain the needed materials.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for material selection include cost of materials, cost of obtaining the materials, cost of processing and cost of waste disposal of materials.
        Societal Considerations: There are no immediate societal considerations directly related to material selection for this component other than possibly lowering the total cost of the vehicle by using cheaper materials. However, since the function of the piston ring is so important, and the part is relatively small so amount of material is not a problem, price is most likely not considered when choosing which material to use for the rings. The choice of material is almost solely dependent on function.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for material selection include how the material is obtained, how it is processed and how wastes and pollution are disposed of. These also include how the materials affect the environment during use and after they are disposed of. This implies choosing the most biodegradable material possible or one that will not harm the environment when disposed of as waste.

    iv. Manufacturing Processes

        The manufacturing process used to make the piston rings was either a form of forging and machining or a very intricate type of die casting. The die casting method would be preferred because the rings are so small they could easily be made in bulk while keeping consistency, which would be more difficult if the parts were forged. The precision needed in creating perfect piston rings also supports the use of a specific type of die casting. The die casting used includes putting the ring material in a mold, but then binding with a pre-made piston that is placed in a master mold where a shaping piece is place around the edge of the piston where the piston ring usually sits. The ring is then molded on top of this, and the shaping piece forms what is known as an expansion zone between the piston and the piston ring. This small space allows for the piston ring to expand from the high temperatures and contact both the piston and the cylinder while the engine is running. This allows for the maximum coverage of the tiny gap by the piston rings. Material choice would have an effect on which manufacturing process was chosen, because depending on the alloy, some can be easily melted to liquid metal for molds while others are forged much easier. It all depends on the material and the desired ring quality and dimensions. Shape definitely impacted the manufacturing process choice because the part is so small and its shape needs to be perfect for it to perform its function properly. By using the special die casting process, a piston ring can be cast while matched up with a corresponding piston so that its size and shape are perfect for both the piston and the cylinder.
        Global Considerations: Global considerations for manufacturing include the location in which the product is being manufactured, the availability of labor, availability of materials in that area and also climate and overall atmospheric pressure at the location could be considered depending on the manufacturing process.
        Economic Considerations: Economic considerations for manufacturing include initial cost of mold, cost of materials, cost of labor and machining and cost of assembly and shipping. In the case of the piston rings though, economic factors are not weighted as much against the best possible manufacturing process to produce the best possible product so it can function the way it is required.
        Societal Considerations: Societal considerations for manufacturing could include public opinion of the company, cost of materials and how it effects consumer cost, and public opinion of company's waste and emissions.
        Environmental Considerations: Environmental considerations for manufacturing include how the materials were obtained, the amount of pollution due to manufacturing processes, the processing of wastes and the use of other materials in the manufacturing process that might be harmful to the environment after disposal.

    v. Component Complexity

        The overall complexity of this component is actually fairly high. The component looks relatively simple, but the amount of precision and accuracy that has to go into the manufacturing and choosing of materials makes this component extremely complex. Functional Complexity: The Functional Complexity rating of the piston rings is a 3. It has a fairly complex function and it is related to other functions within the engine. Its function is to increase gas compression and to keep mass in and out of the cylinders. This function is related to the function of the piston and the cylinder, and ultimately, it is related to the system as a whole. If mass escapes from the cylinder, the maximum amount of compression and expansion cannot take place, and this would cause the engine as a system to lose some overall efficiency. The function of the piston rings is related to the overall efficiency of the entire engine, so it makes the function of the piston rings very complex.
        Form Complexity: This is a very tough category to rate the piston rings in. At first glance, the geometry looks very simple and the part looks like it has almost no distinguishing features other than it's shaped like a half circle. This is actually not true. The distinguishing features of the piston rings are so small and precise that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. The small change in distance over the radius from the original radius, known as the expansion zone, is an incredibly complex part feature. Because of its overall look of simplicity, but its underlying geometric complexity, the piston rings get a 2 for Form Complexity. It has a few features that cannot easily be seen and its geometry is directly related to its function.
        Manufacturing Complexity: The Manufacturing Complexity of the piston rings gets a 2. It is not incredibly expensive to make and because the parts are small, many can be made very quickly. The specific die cast process which is used is what makes the manufacturing more complex. The die casting with the master mold and the corresponding piston make this die casting process more specific than others. The process has to be carried out perfectly in order to get a functional piston ring that fits a specific piston-cylinder system.
        Interaction Complexity: The Interaction Complexity for the piston rings gets a 3. The piston ring's overall function determines this rating. Although the rings do not interact directly with other subsystems, they do affect all of the other subsystems. As stated before, the effectiveness of the piston rings is related to the entire engine's efficiency. If the piston rings do not fit properly or there are gaps, mass will be lost out of the cylinder or exhaust could get into the cylinder which could potentially destroy the entire system. The piston rings are higly important to the entire system.

II- Product Analysis

This product analysis will further elaborate on parts 1 through 3 that were summarized from our disassembly of the engine. These components are the intake manifold, the throttle body, and the fuel rail assembly. These parts were chosen because they work directly to deliver the combustion mixture to the engine. Following the analysis of these parts is a brief overall product analysis.


INTAKE MANIFOLD:
COMPONENT FUNCTION
Primary Functions:
The intake manifold’s primary function is to ensure that the combustion mixture necessary for the engine to run is evenly distributed amongst the four cylinders. This is evidenced by the four main tubes, attached to four holes at the base of the assembly which connects to the engine block, allowing for proper delivery to the piston-cylinder system that fuels the engine.
Associated Parts/Functions
The intake assembly works directly with the throttle body and the fuel rail assembly; their functions are discussed in their respective highlighted sections. The manifold operates in a heated environment.
Flows
Energy and mass flows occur through the intake manifold. The energy is the potential energy created by the combustion mixture, and the mass flow is the combustion mixture itself.
Operating Environment
This operates in a heated environment, as the fuel mixture is often very hot.
COMPONENT FORM
General Shape:
The component is composed of four tubes connected to a base and is axially symmetric about the y-axis; this symmetry and curvature allows for optimum, even mass flow to the cylinders. It is a primarily three-dimensional component and has measurements of about (37x28x27) cm. The tubes have no corners and are completely rounded which gives maximum fluid flow.
MANUFACTURING METHODS AND MATERIAL
The tubes are cast iron and extruded, evidenced by the durability of the material and the axial symmetry; this manufacturing decision was influenced by the necessary curvature of the tubes. The base where the manifold is connected to the engine block is injection molded plastic.
The iron used for the tubes was used because it can withstand high amounts of heat and pressure, which the combustion mixture would subject it to. The plastic used for the base which connects to the engine was used because it is easier to fasten on. The following details how the four factors impacted these decisions:
GLOBAL: The materials used are widely available resources throughout the world, which enables manufacturing companies worldwide the ability to produce them commercially.
SOCIETAL: If a user were ever to perform maintenance on the part themselves, they would be able to do so because the part is quite large and easily identifiable by its distinct shape.
ECONOMICAL: Since the materials used are widely available, the intake manifold is easy to replace. Also, since its function is to maximize efficiency of fuel distribution, it highly contributes to the engine’s overall fuel efficiency.
ENVIRONMENTAL: The materials used are intended to be durable and last the life cycle of the engine, if not longer. This minimizes the waste at the end of the component’s life cycle.
AESTHETIC PROPERTIES
Aside from the fact that it’s an easily identifiable component, aesthetics were not considered in the making of this component, as it is internal to the car and has a sole purpose directed towards functionality.
COMPONENT COMPLEXITY
The form is somewhat complex but the component as a whole is primarily one part. The part is also very large and thus easier to handle. The intake manifold performs one primary function in that it works as a delivery system. Based on our previously defined scale, the complexity of this component can be rated at about a 2.

THROTTLE BODY:
COMPONENT FUNCTION

Primary Functions

The throttle body is a part of the air intake system and governs the amount of air that flows into the engine through the intake manifold. It accepts an electrical signal with a magnitude dependent on the pressure directed from the user to the accelerator pedal. The magnitude of this signal governs the amount the linkages—which are attached to the throttle plate---are able to move, in order to move the throttle plate the necessary amount to permit the right amount of airflow.
Associated Parts/Functions
This works directly with the intake manifold and the fuel rail assembly. Whereas the fuel rail assembly provides the gasoline, the throttle body provides the air that creates the combustion mixture.
Flows
The throttle body accepts an electrical signal that allows mass flow (air) to go through.
Operating Environment
This operates in a heated environment, as its surrounding parts are very hot.


COMPONENT FORM
General Shape:
The primary part of the throttle body, the throttle plate, is a completely symmetrical sphere, which makes sense since its function is to allow air flow through. There are attachments on either side; the rubber black part on the left serves as a timing mechanism, and the right side hooks directly to the engine. It weighs around 2-3 pounds and is primarily three dimensional measuring about (14x10x6)cm.
MANUFACTURING METHODS AND MATERIAL
Judging by the size and shape of the material, this material was likely die-cast, as it is primarily made of aluminum; the part lines and visible shaping separations, along with rough surface finish, indicate that this is so. The brass piece on the right was likely turned or forged, and the rubber piece on the left was likely injection molded. The usage of aluminum was likely for durability, and to allow for hot air to flow through without affecting material shape.
The following outlines how the four factors affected these decisions:
GLOBAL: Common manufacturing methods and materials were used so the part could be manufactured worldwide.
SOCIETAL: The material and methods used were done to ensure durability of the part, so the user would be happy with the product.
ENVIRONMENTAL: This mechanism ensures that no airflow is wasted from the signal given by the accelerator
ECONOMIC: Since the part is small and is manufactured from common materials, it can be manufactured easily on a large scale.
AESTHETIC QUALITIES
Aside from being identifiable, the throttle body serves no aesthetic purpose as it is an internal component, like the rest of the engine. COMPONENT COMPLEXITY
Based on our previously defined scale, this component has a relatively high complexity overall. In and of itself, this component could be disassembled into at least ten smaller components, all of which are required for its functionality. The component’s function and function interactions are straightforward and basic, but require all of these subcomponents to be in working order for them to work. This interacts directly with the intake assembly and fuel rail assembly to ensure a proper fuel to air ratio. Based on our 1-3 scale, this component can be rated a 3.

FUEL INJECTOR ASSEMBLY
COMPONENT FUNCTION
Primary Function
The fuel injector system pressurizes fuel, then delivers the fuel directly via four separate, nozzle-like injectors into the intake manifold where the fuel mixes with the air to create the combustion mixture. This is also dependent on human signal from the accelerator pedal which regulates the amount of fuel allowed in.
Associated Functions
The fuel injector system works directly with the throttle body and intake assembly to create the combustion mixture. Flows
The flows associated are primarily mass flow of fuel, reliant upon an electronic energy signal from the accelerator pedal. Operating Environment
Due to surrounding components and the nature of combustion, this operates in an enclosed, heated environment. COMPONENT FORM The main body to which the injectors themselves are attached is cylindrical in shape, and the tubes that are attached are cylindrical as well. There are no corners; this allows for optimum fluid flow and prevents any potential blockage from built up oil. It weighs around 2-3 pounds and is primarily three dimensional. MANUFACTURING METHODS AND MATERIAL
The connectors that hook up to the manifold are made of a plastic, which likely indicates injection molding due to the size and part lines. The aluminum tubing in the main body is likely extruded and shaped, since it has a consistent cross-sectional area and is very durable. There are several holes drilled throughout the part. The following takes these into perspective with respect to the four factors:
GLOBAL: The materials are globally available and the manufacturing methods are common, so the part can be easily manufactured on a large scale. The part itself is not very large either.
SOCIETAL: The part is big enough to be easily removable and is safe to remove.
ECONOMICAL: The materials and methods used ensure the durability of the part so it is less likely to need repair. The methods of extrusion and injection molding are economical for large scale production.
ENVIRONMENTAL: Waste fuel is prevented by the use of the fuel injector.
AESTHETIC QUALITIES
Aside from being identifiable, the fuel rail assembly serves no aesthetic purpose as it is an internal component, like the rest of the engine. COMPONENT COMPLEXITY
The part has some simple sub-components but is overall not very complex. Its function is quite basic as well. Based on our previously defined scale, this component can be given a complexity rating of about a 2 out of 3.



As previously stated in the development profile, our G.M. 2.2-L 4-cylinder engine originally came about in 1982 during a time of economic recession, while also coming off a worldwide petroleum shortage that lasted throughout the 1970's. The motives of the time in the auto industry were to create vehicles that maximized the efficiency of oil usage and limited the cost of manufacturing in a new, more powerful engine.

Since a car engine requires many components to function it is essential to manufacture each component as efficiently as possible for large scale production. Aside from components that require tubing, the smaller components were generally die cast or injection molded, or a combination of both like in the throttle body. A majority of the parts were symmetrical, and part geometry relative to function could be applied to all cylindrical/spherical components that maximized fluid flow for combustion to occur. The efficiency of energy transfer in the engine was maximized by using this symmetry and curvature of pipes to minimize the energy wasted in the combustion process.

While the engine as a whole is very complex, each subsystem can be broken down into something very understandable. Engineers made this possible by making the primary parts easily identifiable and easy to remove. The engine itself is user-friendly, as each part is safe to touch and easy to disassemble in case issues came about. A majority of the components are made of very durable, available material that would rarely need to be replaced or are easily replaceable.

III- Solid-Modeled Assembly

Below are CAD drawings of the rockerarm/pushrod/pushrod guides assembly. Due to technical difficulties, we were unable to upload the physical CAD files of the drawings, but these drawings were completed by members of our group and were uploaded as snapshots.

Rocker Arm
Rockerarm cad g7.jpg
Push Rod/Push Rod Guide
Prod cad g7.jpg
<B>Assembly:

Assembly g7.jpg

IV- Engineering Analysis

One function that would require engineering analysis would be the deliverance of power to the vehicles peripheral devices. This would required the analysis of components such as the belt wheel and belt tensioner. Determining the power in the belt would be an analysis that is done during the design process to see if the engine can provide it with enough power for the other systems. The amount of power it can generate will determine if all the systems can simultaneously be powered or not.

Statement: How much power does the serpentine belt provide?
Diagram:

Diagram analysis g7.jpg


Assumptions: The only force acting the belt is tension and friction, and they are constant.
The velocity of the belt is constant.

Relevant Equations: P = (T1 – T2)*v
P is the power produced
T1 and T2 are the tensions in the belt.
v is the velocity of the belt
T1 can be related to T2 as follows: T1/T2 = exp(μβ)
μ is the coefficient of friction.
β is the angle of wrap.

Discussion: The belt is essentially driven by the crankshaft and therefore velocity of the belt is related to it. The tension in the belt will not remain constant and therefore the values found should be done so using a low estimate. By doing so, a low estimate of power output will be found. If this amount is enough to run the peripheral systems then the engine can continue in the design process. Once the engine has been built, another analysis should be done accounting for the tension changes in the belt to obtain an average power output.

V- Design Revisions

1. One design revision related to economic considerations for design include the removal of the push rod seats manufacturing and making the push rod seat and the push rod into one single part. This would remove the need for two separate manufacturing process or even more when the seats are made in two or three separate pieces themselves. This would also cut don on assembly costs of putting the seats together and connecting the seats to the push rod. If manufactured correctly, less materials could also be used to make the push rod/push rod seat combined component and the component could still perform its intended function. This change in cost would be enormously significant, but the reduction in cost would add up over time. Also, if the manufacturing process was used in such a way that less materials were used or less materials were wasted, this could touch on an environmental consideration when looking at material conservation.

2. Another design revision related to societal considerations is to change the valve train subsystem into an electrically controlled system or a piezoelectric system instead of having the valves timed by the spinning of the camshaft. This could result in more accurate time intervals for valves opening and closing and could directly affect fuel economy and amount of emissions. The better fuel economy and less emissions would appeal to a number of people in society and the vehicle or engine would sell better. The better fuel economy could also positively affect the environment and lead to an environmental design consideration.

3. A third design revision could be adding a number of titanium counterbalances to the crankshaft thus reducing the vibration caused by the rotating crankshaft and piston movement. This would provide better fuel economy and reduced vibrations would give for a smoother ride. Both of these are examples of societal design considerations because customers buying a vehicle care about fuel economy and how the ride feels. However, adding the counterbalances would improve the vehicle and also add materials, thus increasing its overall cost. This would go against the economic design considerations for the engine. Engineers could possibly reduce excess materials in another component or subsystem to accommodate the added counterbalances. Possible components that could be reduced in mass without affecting engine performance include some of the larger metal objects whose function is to transport signals or materials, not necessarily transfer energy. These components could include the exhaust manifold, engine head cover, coolant tube, mounting bracket, mounting plate and other large components that are not subjected to a significant amount of mechanical force.