Group 27 - Lexmark Z82 All-in-One Printer
Don Pettengill 3D modeler
Don Pettengill is currently enrolled in the University at Buffalo to earn his Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering. He hopes to graduate and pursue a career in the development and manufacturing of medical devices. He is now working at an infusion pumps company called Sigma International, in which he creates fixtures and work instructions to be used on the manufacturing lines.
Andrew Cledgett Dissector and Chief of Editing
Andrew Cledgett is enrolled at the University at Buffalo as a Mechanical Engineer. After graduation, he hopes to be employed as a designer. He has no relevant work experience at this time. He hopes to be employed in an internship within this year or the next.
Daniel Iwankow Dissector and Presentation Director
Dan Iwankow is currently enrolled as an undergraduate at the University at Buffalo for Mechanical Engineering. He has attended Syracuse University prior to coming to UB. After graduation, he hopes to pursue a career in Anaheim, CA working for the Disney Corporation.
Gregory Rathe Technical Writer and Documentation
Gregory Rathe attended the State University of New York at Oneonta for a year. Afterward he transferred to the University at Buffalo to continue his education in Mechanical Engineering. In the summer Greg works for his father who sells HVAC equipment in Nassau County, Long Island. When he graduates, he would like to have a career as an engineer for Fisher Price.
David Nelson Wiki Developer and Presenter
David Nelson is a University at Buffalo student planning to earn his Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering. An active member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) he has worked on several projects for them as well as volunteer work for the club. Also this summer he hopes to receive an internship from the valve design firm CPI Controls. After graduation David would like to pursue a career in the HVAC field in a research and development department.
Jacob Biltekoff Leader and Technical Writer
Jacob Biltekoff currently attends the University at Buffalo and is studying to be a Mechanical Engineer. In his spare time he works on his car, designs, and builds useful tools and objects. Some of these things would include a bass enclosure, car lift, carts, catapults, and other fun projects. He has work experience in the construction industry through his summer jobs. Some of his experience is in roofing, concrete, drywall, wall construction, electric, plumbing, siding, among other things. When Jacob graduates he would like to get a job doing CAD or solid works.
Strengths and Weaknesses
|Group Members||Strengths||Weaknesses||Skills to Be Developed|
|Daniel Iwankow||Public Speaking, Meeting Deadlines||Technical Writing||Report Organization, CAD|
|David Nelson||Mechanical Knowledge, Hands on worker, Excellent Teacher||Time management||Technical writing, Staying on task|
|Don Pettengill||3D modeling||Staying on task||Being a team player|
|Gergory Rathe||Technical writing, 3D Modeling||Public speaking||Time management|
|Jacob Biltekoff||Hard worker, Technical Experience,||Public Speaking||3D modeling skills|
|Andrew Cledgett||Staying on task, writing skills||Technical experience, public relations||Communication|
In this gate the group wrote a work proposal which provides an overview of how to reverse engineer the printer. Our management proposal talks about how the group plans to manage its work.
Work that was done by the group on a week by week basis can be seen by clicking on the following link: Group 27,Printer,Schedule
The concept of printing has been around since 1440 when Johannes Gutenberg made the printing press. Since then printing has become less manual and more technological. This Lexmark model was released for sale in October of 2000. Below is an assessment of the developmental profile of this product.
During the time of its release, some significant global and economic concerns impacted the sale of this item. These concerns include: the launch of Sony's Playstation2, and the Y2K scare, and a peak in the NASDAQ stock market index.
Although the launch of a video game console might not seem like a global concern the way politics and natural disasters do, this product created a lot of hype world wide. To this date it is the most successful gaming console created, having sold over 140 million units. Realistically this product alone probably did not directly have a significant impact on the Lexmark Z-82 all-in-one printer, but it might have subtly. With the launch of a new piece of a video game comes two very important things that people are sure to print. One of these things are operating manuals, and the other is cheat codes. With the addition of these things to print, a house-hold might realize it is about time to upgrade to a newer and better printer.
Another global concern which terrified the world was the Y2K scare. Entering 2000, everybody was convinced that the world would collapse due to logical errors within computers changing from the year xx99 to xx00. Leading up to this event, it can easily be presumed that aside from counter-Y2K software, not much computer based products were purchased. When Y2K came and passed, and there were few problems that occurred people inevitably regained their trust in technology and began purchasing again. One of these products available for purchase in October of 2000 was the Lexmark Z-82 all-in-one printer, a very attractive item.
An important economic concern that happened in 2000 was the NASDAQ stock market index peaked at 5048.62 signaling the beginning of the end of the dot-com boom. Stock market peaks signify good economic times. Given more money in the pockets of Americans, they undoubtedly did some extra spending on products they typically did not necessarily need. For instance, why purchase just a printer, when you could spend a little more and get a printer/scanner/copier.
This product was intended to be sold wherever there was a computer or some type of photocopying or faxing job that needed to be done. It was sold in electronics stores for use by offices and personal home use. The Lexmark Z-82 multi-function device has the option of color printing which at the time of production was not yet standard, making it even more attractive to consumers requiring color printing and copying. The thing that makes this product desirable is the multi-functionality, so although a consumer might not necessarily need all it offers, they will typically purchase it for the off-hand chance they eventually do.
When developing the product, the designers wanted the consumers to have the feeling that life would be simpler. Every day technology is advancing, and more and more devices can be added to a computer. With the Lexmark Z-82 all-in-one printer/scanner/copier, the users workspace becomes less cluttered, creating a less stressed environment.
This product has three main uses. The uses include copying, scanning, and faxing. This product can print black and white copies, and color copies. It can print on standard 8.5” x 11” paper, legal size paper, envelopes, and many other dimensions. The consumer could either scan photographs or documents to either keep a digital copy on their computer, or make more prints of the scanned document. Faxing was done through SmarThru to transmit scanned documents. The product was intended for homes and small businesses.
This product uses alternating current through a power cord that is plugged into the wall. It uses 110-240 Volts which is what an average wall outlet outputs. The energy is imported into the system through the wall outlet which passes through the cord to the back of the printer. From there the electricity flows through a surge protector, then to a circuit board that has an interface which the user works with. From there the circuit board sends electricity to the number of motors that produce the end product. The scan head is a combination of mirrors, lens, filter, and CCD array which collect the information being scanned. It is run using the electrical energy transformed into mechanical energy. Also, human energy is required to operate the product. Human energy is used for loading paper and ink, as well as for connecting wires and operating the system (button selections). Different types of energy are transformed and modified through the circuit board. Electricity is fed to different motors which transform the electrical energy into electromagnetic energy and then into rotational (a form of kinetic energy).
The Lexmark Z-82 all-in-one printer/scanner/copier has about ten components. Each of these components are designed to be easily understood and operated, not requiring a specialist for operation or most problems that could occur. The internal motherboards themselves are complex, in that a typical consumer could not build or understand what the wires and connections do. The scanner head itself is not very complicated in understanding its motion, but the actual scanning process would take an expert to explain. Operating the user interface is very simple, and any uncertainties should be able to be figured out with use of the operating manual. All of these commands are displayed on the copiers LCD display which goes step by step to make it easy for the user. If new ink is needed, the copier opens up without the need for tools and has a place on the left where the two cartridges can be replaced. The component interactions are all either electronic or mechanical. Most of the product is run by voltages through the motherboard which tell the scanner head how and when to operate, and how to guide the printing mechanisms.
The clearly visible materials include mainly plastic, metal, rubber, and a strong plexiglass. The body of the scanner is made of plastic along with the buttons. Also the gearing that is seen beneath the scanner glass is plastic. There are a few other places under the scanner glass that use metal for gearing. There is rubber around the wiring, there are a few rubber gear belts, and rubber stoppers are at the bottom of the printer to keep it from sliding. Some materials that would be in the printer but are not visible are more plastic, rubber, metal, and circuit boards. It is assumed that the circuit board's conducting layer is made of copper foil. The insulation is made of glass fiber material mixed with an epoxy. The circuitry is made of copper as well.
User Interaction Profile:
The user interfaces with the product either through their computer that is plugged in through the parallel cord, or using the buttons and the LCD display when using the scanner or faxing something. The interfaces are intuitive if you have basic knowledge of computers meaning usage of an up to date computer for a number of months or you have used a copier in the past. If the user has either one of these qualities then the product should be easy to use after a half dozen interactions, but if not then the copier would be difficult to use and the user would need to have someone assist them when using it or they would need to spend the time looking over the user manual and experiment with the different functions. Regular maintenance is not required unless you make a lot of copies. The ink cartridges and the paper reservoir would be the main places that require regular maintenance. The maintenance required to change the ink cartridges is relatively easy. You just need to lift up the maintenance panel and open the support panel to hold open the scanner top. Then the ink cartridges will be in plain view and you will be able to slide the old cartridges in, replacing them with fresh ones. In case the paper gets jammed during printing or copying remove the back panel and the paper is right there. Just pull out the jammed paper and put the panel back on. After these maintenance procedures the printer will be up and running again. These all made very easy with the user manual since it goes step by step with the use of pictures.
Product Alternatives Profile:
There are many product alternatives to the Lexmark Z82 All-In-One printer. Some products include the all-in-one features and others do each job individually. The highest ranked all-in-one printer in 2010 is the Canon Pixma MX860. The Pixma is unique in that is has 5 ink cartridges that allow it to produce high quality print-offs. Another feature of the MX860 is that is has not only the ability to print, scan and copy but, also to fax. The advantages of having 5 ink cartridges is you can print more clear, and ultimately better resolution pictures. This however can be a costly feature down the road when having to replace ink cartridges. The fact that the Pixma can fax makes it ideal for an office setting as it also has an automatic document feeder to optimize print speed. Also this product has the ability to take photos directly from a SD card as well as a connection for a digital camera and is operated by a LCD screen. Compared to the Lexmark Z82 the Canon printer is far more advanced in the quality and user friendly interfaces is provides to consumers. The Lexmark cannot fax, print nearly as fast or with the same quality as this counterpart. The beauty of all this arises in price. To purchase a brand new Pixma it will cost $149 compared to the $199 the Lexmark cost when it was first introduced. Due to the advancements in technology it is possible to produce a better quality printer with more function for a cheaper price.
Another version of the printer made by Lexmark is the Prevail Pro705. This printer has 4 different inkjet cartridges that provide plenty of resolution to print-offs. The special features of this Lexmark compared to the Z82 in that it can print between 30-33 pages every minute. This is compared to around 8 per min for the Z82. Also the color LCD screen and Wi-Fi ability make it a much more promising machine. The advantages of these features are that it is more user friendly with the LCD screen directly on the printer and the ability to print to a completely different room in a home or small office. Wi-Fi does have its disadvantages though as well as the LCD screen. To transfer data to the printer the fastest way to do it would be with a direct connection through a cord. While using the LCD screen there is no type of photo shop available to touch up pictures. The Lexmark Z82 does not have these features as well. Again the price of the Prevail Pro705 is more than half that of the Z82 due to technological increases sitting at $96.
Overall the Lexmark Z82 is liked by the public and does all of the necessary functions that consumers would want in an all-in-one. The advantages easily outweigh the disadvantages and most of all the product is easy to use and cost efficient. Cost wise the all-in-one’s are much less than buying the individual machines and can save the buyer in some cases up to 100 dollars
-Technical Writing and Documentation: Jacob Biltekoff, Gregory Rathe
- The technical writing and documentation roles consist of conveying the work, research and information into a clear and concise manner to be displayed onto the wikipedia document. Each group member responsible for this task must be sure to use correct technical writing format. Documentation is also responsible for taking proper documentation during dissection and assembly procedures.
-Leader: Jacob Biltekoff
- The role of the leader is to manage the group in a professional manner. Also to make sure meeting dates and time have been set. The leader is responsible for making sure each part of the project is done sufficiently. They should also make sure the group stays on task during group meetings.
-Chief Dissectors/Assemblers: Andrew Cledgett, Daniel Iwankow
- The chief dissector and assemblers are responsible for taking apart and reassembling the product. Responsibilities involve properly disassembly and collabortation with the documenter to ensure an able reassembly. This position is responsible for conveying to the group problems that went wrong during dissection and assembly, as well as extra components or tools used that were not initially known.
-Presenters- Daniel Iwankow, David Nelson
- The presenters are responsible for creating documents (powerpoint, handouts, posters) that will aid in the presentation of the entire reverse engineering process for this product. In turn the actual presentation will be given by these individuals.
-3-D Model Developer: Don Pettengill
- The 3-D model developer is responsible for taking precise measurements of each component. This will allow the group member to create virtual models of each part of the product and put it into a digital assembly and disassembly. The components will be created using the computer program SolidWorks.
-Wiki developer: David Nelson, Andrew Cledgett
- The wiki developers are responsible for the proper formatting of all documentation and technical writing of this product into a Wikipedia webpage. These group members are responsible for final revisions of anything that will display the project. Taking into account professionalism and proper placement into the Wikipedia page are essential responsibilities for these group members.
-Who is expected at each meeting: Everyone is expected to be at each meeting. Smaller meetings may be established by the group members to work on specific parts of the project. To make a decision the leader as well as three other group members must be present to make final decisions.
-What happens at each meeting: Determined by the leader at previous meeting and specific email for the meeting. Depending on what part of the project is being worked on the leader will designate responsibilities for each member according to the specific details of that meeting. At the end of each meeting group members present what they have contributed to the project during the meeting time. Also discuss what needs to be done before the next meeting.
-Meeting places: Either second or third floor of Capen library, or sixth floor Furnace in the lab.
-When are the meetings: Meetings are Monday, Wednesday, and Friday usually from 5pm-6pm depending on how much or how little work is done. Other meeting times or place will be later determined depending on how much work needs to be done.
-Why is the group meeting: The group is meeting to contribute what had been worked on in between group meetings. Also to seek help from group members to elaborate on work that has been done, seeking criticism as well as positive feedback. Clarification of what needs to be done before the project due dates.
Communication is done in the meetings and following that meeting will be a message through UBmail that will say what happened at the meeting, when the next meeting is, and what is due at the next meeting. Work on the report will be done at home if it can be done at home. Then the work is brought to the next meetings to make sure it passes inspection through everyone else. Work that cannot be done at home is done at the meeting and worked on until the group gets to a point set by the leader.
If a problem arises, the partner will be notified and given until the next meeting to get the work done along with the work that should be done for that meeting. If the work is not done then the professor will be notified and the partner will have to follow the consequences. Consequences will be reduction of your grade for that gate. If the problem persist then reduction of your grade for the entire project will be considered by the entire group.
When our team disassembles our product some tools we plan to need include a phillips and a flat head screwdriver, different drivers for the screwdriver like a star or a triangle tip for certain parts, a few prying tools for clips that need to be moved out of the way, and possibly a wire cutter or some type of shear if a part is preventing us from continuing our disassembly. For disassembling the printer we are first going to take off the scanner top by removing one of the screws holding it onto the main unit and two brackets, then the top plate which is held on by four screws, then the wire cover, the side panels, the mother board, and then the middle cover plate which will show the other inner parts to the printer which will be taken off one by one. For the disassembly process including dissection, notes, labeling, and pictures, we estimate roughly five hours for the entire process. Taking off the individual parts should not take more than a total of an hour and a half. What will take the most amount of time for our group will be the documentation of labeling, pictures, and notes. These steps will be done constantly during the disassembly of our printer.
For reassembly, the tools we will need include a phillips and flat head screw driver, the necessary drivers that were used for disassembly, the prying tools to get brackets back into place, and electrical tape for cut wires if the cutting of wires was necessary to continue the dissection process. We will need to put the motherboards and motors back in place, then the middle cover will go on, following another mother board, then the side plates, wire cover, top plate, and scanner top all with the necessary fasteners that were originally used. The assembly should take roughly an hour since we know how certain parts go in and out, and our notes will be very detailed to prevent making mistakes like putting the wrong part or wrong fasteners in the wrong spot.
In this gate we wrote a cause for corrective action which was the groups assessment of their work and management plans. Alse we did a step by step dissection of the printer. This gate also breaks down the connection of subsystems to better understand the printer.
Assessment of Work and Management Plans
Overall, the work and management proposal predictions were excessive. The work proposal particularly was overly pessimistic. The only tools used were a class two Phillips-head screwdriver to remove screws and a flat-head screwdriver to pry apart some pieces. No wire cutter or other similar tool was needed to cut wires as all wires were easily removed. Hopefully, only the Phillips-head screwdriver will be needed for assembly, as the parts that needed prying should just slide back into place.
The dissection of the printer, without any documentation, took approximately forty-five minutes. The documentation, which includes pictures, notes, and labeling, added approximately an hour and a half to the dissection time. These times were much smaller than originally anticipated in the work proposal. One reason for this is the complexity of the printer was overestimated. The printer’s design allows for an easy disassembly. Screws were easy to reach, and parts that snap together were easy to pry apart without breaking any tabs. Assembly of the printer should also be relatively easy, and hopefully take less than the originally proposed hour.
The management proposal definitively predicted all of its aspects. Meeting times and locations were effectively communicated through e-mail and/or in person at the previous meeting. All assignments and tasks were efficiently assigned and communicated so the entire group was aware of what needed to be accomplished and by what time. Internal discipline was not needed as all the group members completed assignments and effectively made other members aware of when they could not attend group meetings.
The work and management proposals both proved to be overly pessimistic, which allowed for an easy disassembly and documentation.
- This section was meant to give a brief overlook as to what the All-in-one printer looks like before any disassembly has been started. It is meant as a reference page to make other pictures throughout the site easier to understand by referring to the printers main outer view.
Picture Number View of Picture Picture 1 Top View 2 Front View 3 Front/Top View 4 Scanner Top Open 5 Maintenance Position Ink Cartridge
For the dissection of the Lexmark Z82 all-in-one printer, this page will go through a step by step disassembly process. If a larger view of the picture is wanted, click on the picture and it will take you to another page where the picture is enlarged. In some cases labeling was not used because it took too much away from picture, but what happened was explained in the extra documentation. For tools, unless specified, a class two phillips head screw driver was used (counter clockwise to take out), and a class two flat head screw driver was used for prying and pushing clips out of the way. There were little to no challenges faced due to parts coming off easier than expected, and only needing a portion of the tools stated in our initial analysis. This part was not meant to be taken apart other than opening up the maintenance panel to change ink from time to time, and the paper reservoir being opened and closed to refill paper. We believe this because the purpose of this device is to print information from the computer and to take information in paper form and either duplicate it or put in onto the computer. All these tasks can be accomplished without going deep into the printers main components like its wiring and motherboards. These devices were only meant to be touched or worked on if any in depth maintenance or repair was to occur other than routine changing of the ink. Another reason we say this is because there is no need for screws or clips to be removed or pushed out of the way for this product to function. If any problems occurred, a specialist should take this apart and not anyone else. Lastly, below is a scale to rate how difficult it was to remove each part along with the approximate effort needed to do the task. The scale ranges from 1 to 6 with 1 being a very simple step which requires little time (a few minutes) and no hard work to accomplish, and 6 being a step which was very difficult to complete and required the most time (up to five minutes) to finish without completely destroying the part or parts that are trying to be separated or opened.
|Scale number||Difficulty to attach part||Approximate time needed|
|1||Part just put in place||Less than 10 seconds|
|2||Attachment ports visible (up to four ports)||20 seconds or less|
|3||Attachment ports visible but (more than four ports)||60 seconds or less|
|4||Attachment ports visible with one non-visible port||2 minutes|
|5||Attachment ports visible with two or more non-visible ports||2 to 4 minutes|
|6||Lots of force required to get part in place||Up to 5 minutes|
|Procedure Number||Part Name/Part Taken Off||Part Placement||Extra Documentation||Difficulty scale rating||Picture|
|1||Rear of unit before back plate is taken off||Back of Unit||To take this part off two screws had to be taken off on the top left and right using a phillips head class two screwdriver. Also two clips had to be moved out of the way using a flat head screwdriver.||1|
|2||Rear of unit after back plate is taken off||Back of unit||This is after the two screws have been taken out and two clips have been moved out of the way||4|
|3||Rear of unit with the second back panel moved down||Back of unit||This was done by holding down the two clips on either side and pulling down on the panel||3|
|4||Before the inner plate and maintenance plate were removed||Middle layer of unit||This is before removing inner plate number one||1|
|5||After the inner plate was removed||Middle layer of unit||In this picture the inner plate number one is removed by unscrewing three phillips head screws||2|
|6||Maintenance panel lifted up to expose color and black ink||Under maintenance panel||Maintenance panel was lifted up to expose color and black ink||1|
|7||Maintenance panel removal||Maintenance layer||To remove this part the panel was just pinched at the base and pulled out||1|
|8||Main motherboard before being taken out||Underneath motherboard||To remove this four phillips head screws were removed from each corner of the motherboard||2|
|9||Motherboard||Underneath the inner panel||To remove this, a flat head screwdriver was needed to pry out one of the wires connecting the motherboard to the button input/LCD display||3|
|10||Back of LCD screen and button input||Front of the unit||After the wire connecting it to the motherboard was removed, two phillips head screws connecting it to the middle cover had to be taken out so the part could be removed||3|
|11||Right panel taken off||Right side of the unit||To take this part off two phillips screws were taken off at the base of the unit and then part came off after a little force||5|
|12||Left panel taken off||Left side of unit||To take this part off two phillips screws were taken off at the base of the unit and then part came off after a little force||5|
|13||Main middle cover||Underneath the inner panel||To take this part off 4 screws were taken out to get to some of the other motherboards and other parts that are in the unit. Some of the parts include the power input motherboard, the motherboard that tells the printer how to function, the printing unit, along with other motors and gears||2|
|14||Underneath the inner panel||Underneath the main middle cover, on the left||This is a side view of when the main middle cover was taken off to expose some of the other motherboards and motors. Being pointed to is where the ink cartridges go to be changed out for a maintenance.||1|
|15||Underneath the inner panel||Underneath the main middle cover, in the middle||This is another view of the ink cartriges. The one on the left is the color ink and the one that would be on the right would be the black ink. The black cartrige has been removed to see how the unit takes ink from the cartriges.||1|
|16||Ground and attachment point for the main printing unit||Front left underneath the main middle cover||To remove this, one screw was taken out to remove the wire and potentially take out the printing unit||2|
|17||Main printing unit||Back left||This removed one of the motors from being fixed to frame of the unit. To do this one screw was taken out and one more step to taking out the main printing unit was made||2|
|18||Printing unit||Front middle under the inner panel||This is a view of the bottom of the main printing unit. To remove this part, two more screws on the back left were taken out along with a group of wires that was removed with one clip using a flat head screwdriver||2|
|19||Printing unit||Front middle under the inner panel||This is the same unit but seen from the rear of the unit||1|
|20||Power input motherboard||Rear of the unit behind printing unit||To take this part out four screws needed to be taken out of the base of the motherboard. Each of these screws were taken out with a class one screwdriver||2|
|21||Power input motherboard||Back right of the motherboard||This is a picture of the class one screwdriver removing one of the four class one screws on the power input motherboard||2|
|22||Power cord input||Rear of the unit and on the back right of the power input||To remove this piece, two screws on each side of the piece were taken out||4|
|23||Power motherboard||Front view once removed||To remove this part after the four class one screws, and two class two screws were taken out, two clips were moved out of the way for it to come out of its place.||5|
|24||Computer input motherboard||Rear view of the back left motherboard||To begin removing this motherboard four class one screws had to be removed from each of the four corners of the motherboard||2|
|25||Computer input motherboard||Back left of the unit||To take this part off, two screws had to be removed from either side of the parallel input on the rear of the unit||2|
|26||Motherboard cases||Rear of the unit||To take these off two screws had to be removed from each piece and then pushed backwards the remove it from the clips that held it in place||5|
|27||Motherboard case holder||Rear of the unit under the motherboard cases||This is what it looked like after the case holders were removed. This piece was taken off by removing one screw which allowed us to see down to our last structural piece||2|
|28||Hardcopy paper dispenser tray||Front bottom of the unit||To remove this part the back of the tray had to be pinched to allow it to come loose||3|
|29||Underneath the paper hopper||Base of the unit||This is what was seen once the paper hopper was removed||1|
|30||Back panel #2||Rear of the unit on the bottom middle||To remove this item the base of it had to be pinched and then it was easily removed||1|
|31||Back panel #2||Rear of the unit on the bottom middle||An additional photo of the panel but a top view||1|
|32||Behind the paper hopper||Rear of the unit behind the second back panel||This is what was behind the second back panel when it was removed||1|
|34||Main printing motor that moved the ink cartridges back and forth to the specific point on the paper||Front view on the right of the printing unit||This is a picture of the motor right before it was taken off||1|
|35||Main printing motor that moved the ink cartridges back and forth to the specific point on the paper||Back right of the printing unit||This picture is to see where the motor was attached but on the rear of the unit||1|
|36||Main printing motor that moved the ink cartridges back and forth to the specific point on the paper||Side view of the motor||This shows a picture of the motor after the two phillips screws were taken out from the front that was holding it on.||2|
|37||Paper motor||Left side of the printing unit||This motor drove seven gears that moved the paper through the paper hopper to the tray||1|
|38||Ink holder||Front right of the printing unit||This is a picture of the ink holder that was removed. It came out by pushing two clips out of the way using a flat head screwdriver||3|
|39||Rod clip||Left side of the printing unit||There were two clips, on each side of printing unit. To remove the clip it had to be pushed down and pulled out without the use of tools||3|
|40||Rod that the ink cartridge cart slides on||Center of printing unit (lengthwise)||Once the two pins on each side were taken out, it slid out by pulling it as shown in the picture||5|
|41||Main printing unit||Bottom of the unit||This is a bottom view to show what is left on the printing unit||1|
|42||Ink cart||Rear view of the ink cart||To take this off a screw was taken out and the bent clip on the left was pulled back||5|
|43||Ink cart||Rear view of the ink cart||This is what the back of the printing unit looked like after the ink cart was removed||1|
|44||Printing unit||Rear view of the printing unit||This is a larger view of the back of the printing unit. At this point of our dissection, no more parts could be taken off of the printing unit without breaking parts due to clips not being able to be moved||1|
|45||Printing unit||Front view of the printing unit||Once again this is the point of the dissection where no other parts could be taken off without breaking parts off||1|
|46||Paper area for scanning||Top view of the scanning unit||This is a view of where mainly everything is before any pieces were removed||1|
|47||Top tray that covers the scanning unit during scanning||Top view of the top tray||To remove this piece two clips were pinched using no tools and the tray was pulled off||5|
|48||Scanning unit||Top of the scanning unit||This is a picture of the top view of the of the scanning unit before anything was taken off||1|
|49||Top plastic cover||Top of the scanning unit||To take this part off two clips on each side had to be removed (a total of eight clips) using a flat head screwdriver||5|
|50||Glass cover||Top of scanning unit||To take this part off a piece of tape had to be taken off of each corner||3|
|51||Glass cover||Top of glass cover||This is the glass after it was removed from the scanning unit||1|
|52||Scanning unit wire cover||Top middle of scanning unit||To remove this one clip had to be pushed in using a flat head screw driver||3|
|53||Under the scanning unit wire cover||Top middle of the scanning unit||This is what was under the wire cover after it was removed||1|
|54||Gear cover||Middle right of the scanning unit||This piece was held on with an adhesive which came off extremely easily after being pulled on without the need for tools||3|
|55||Gears that moved the scanner head back and fourth||Under the gear cover on the scanning unit||To remove this part three screws were taken out using a phillips head screwdriver||2|
|56||Gears that moved the scanner head back and fourth||Under the gear cover on the scanning unit||This shows which screws were removed to allow the gear unit to come out||1|
|57||Gearing unit||Underneath the gear unit||This is the indent where the gearing unit was held||1|
|58||Scanner belt pulley||Middle left of the scanner unit||This is a pre-disassembly picture of the scanner belt pulley||1|
|59||Scanner belt pulley||Middle left of the scanning unit||To take this part out two screws were taken out and what is shown is the indent where the belt pulley was held||2|
|60||Scanner unit||Top view of the unit||This is a picture of the scanning unit after everything was removed||1|
|61||Scanner head||Top view of the scanner head||This shows the unit and the bulb that reads the document that is to be scanned||1|
|62||Scanner head||Top view of the scanner trey||This is a picture of what the scanner head was held in after it was removed without the need of tools||1|
|63||Scanner head||Bottom view of the scanner head||This is the bottom of the scanner head after it was removed from the trey. No further dissection of the scanner head could be disassembled without breaking parts||1|
The parts identified below are the outer shell to the printer. They are what protected and encased all the inner components and systems as well as interconnected the basic electrical parts that were a piece of the shell such as the main control panel.
|2||Main Middle Cover|
|3||Support Panel to Change Out Ink|
|4||Back Face Plate on the Rear of the Unit|
|5||Right Face Plate|
|6||Inner Plate in the Maitenance Position|
|7||Back Panel for Maitenance|
|8||Left Face Plate|
|10||Wire Cover that Covers the Information Transfered from the Scanner to the Main Circuit Board)|
|11||Main Information Transfering Wire (Parallel Cord to Main Circuit Board)|
The Lexmark All-In-One can be broken up into various subsystems. These subsystems include scanning, printing, and copying, and the various steps needed to complete these tasks.
Scanning involves reading information off of a hard copy and inputting it into a computer. In order to do this, three main steps must be followed.
- 1. Information input through scanner head
- 2. Output information to computer
- 3. Soft copy output on computer
Copying steps are nearly the same steps as scanning, only the output is sent as another hard copy, not a soft copy.
- 1. Input information through the scanner head
- 2. Input information from the control panel (i.e. number of copies, color, etc.)
- 3. Information sent to printer
- 4. Printer outputs hard copy
Printing is essentially the reverse as scanning. The information is retrieved from the computer and made into a hard copy.
- 1. Input information from the computer or scanner head
- 2. Output information in form of hard copy.
The 3 subsystems are placed in different locations throughout the printer in order to make the printer more compact and visually appealing to the customer, therefore they need a way in which to communicate with each other. Printers go hand in hand with computers because they take the computers information and change it into another form such as printing an electronic document into paper or physical form. The printer we are analyzing also has a scanner with it which does the reverse and takes paper or physical information and turns it into electronic information on the computer. For each subsystem to communicate with each other they would need to be connected by wires. These wires may have different shapes and lengths depending on where they are being used. They also need a way to be physically connect into the subsystems main component, such as a wire from the computer itself needing to be connected to the printers main motherboard in order to communicate with the computer. These connections would be clips or plugs at either end of the wire and would physically be inserted into a connection hole on the components needing to be connected. Each of the subsystems are connected to the other 2 in one way or another, but all need the wires with the inserts at both ends in order to be connected. These wires allow for the subsystems to communicate via signals through the wires to accomplish the task requested such as printing. Creating signals requires some form of energy, in this case electrical energy, for the printer to carry out its tasks. This energy is mainly supplied from the power cord which gives power to the entire printer. Each subsystem is also physically connected to the base or main body of the overall printer to make things more organized and easy to find and understand, as well as keep things somewhat compact. These connections were made mostly by screws and small bolts in order to keep all the components stable and restrained to perform at their best without shaking while parts are moving and causing some error.
Being mainly an electronic device, the subsystems within the printer are connected mainly electronically and very little mechanically except within the printing subsystem and a little in the scanning subsystems themselves. Within the subsystems themselves, more connections are made to very little, yet important components which leads us to the main circuit board which is a part that is connected to all subsystems and allows the computer to communicate with all the subsystems. In order for the electrical signals given from the computer to travel to different points throughout the circuit board, different parts of the board need to be connected by wires, usually copper or some other form of metal which has high conductivity and allows the signals to travel through quickly. Some of these wires are connected to the board by clips, however there are some that are connected by small connections made with solder. This solder is usually eutectic alloy ( a combination of tin and lead) for electronic devices and also allows for the flow of the electrical signals to pass through it.
As of this time, wiring is the only way to connect the subsystems, but in the future, wireless capabilities, such as Bluetooth, may be used. This would be both economically and environmentally beneficial in its design by decreasing material use and cutting cost for the materials to make the printer. Even though cutting materials will save money, performance will also be cut as wires allow for faster connectivity. In this case, most of the concerns would be economical and environmental concerns and few societal and global concerns. Some economic concerns that would be affected by how the subsystems are interconnected would be the different prices of the materials used at the time and whether or not it would be more beneficial to go with a different material. In some cases it may be better for the company to sacrifice some communication speed for a cheaper material for the wires or vice versa depending on the importance of the speed and the price they wish to sell the printer in order to maximize sales and therefore increase their profits. Some environmental concerns also include what materials are being used. Some materials may be recycled and easily removed from parts of the printer when it no longer works and others, if they found their way into the environment through being thrown away in a landfill or dump, may be toxic to plant and animal life over time or may be in short supply and could prevent further destruction of the environment if it could be reused rather than recreated or found. There are some global and societal concerns that also go along with the printer, but these concerns would be tied into an economic or environmental concern which would also impact the customer.
Performance plays a big role for the customer. Many will not have much experience in the electronic field and are looking for the fastest printer that will do all the tasks they require while causing the least damage financially to them. As stated before this can be addressed through the materials used, the price, the materials cost, and the amount of money the customer is willing to pay for the device. If the customer is looking for a printer to last long term and easily maintenance chances are they would rather a printer with more clip connections for easy replacement if broken rather than mostly soldered connections which when broke would cause the customer to buy a brand new printer. These small changes could impact the performance by increasing the time it takes for the printer to complete a task or vice versa depending on what route was chosen by the customer. In the end, the performance the customer receives from the printer usually comes from the price they are willing to pay for it. The more they are willing to pay, the better the materials or technology put into the printer and therefore the better the performance out of the printer.
The subsystems of this printer are arranged within the shell in the best manner possible in order to cut down on material usage and therefore saving the manufacturer money by lowering production costs. Not only are they arranged to lower cost, but they are also arranged to create a more visually appealing product for the customer. Although it's just a printer, no one would want an ugly box or strange looking object sitting on their desk for the world to see. Each subsystem has its own placement both physically and in electronic order. An example of electronic order would be that printing cannot come before scanning. A form of input is needed in order to print a hard copy, be it the scanner or directly from a computer.
The three subsystems named above are loosely connected to each other. For instance, the scanning subsystem can be followed by the printing subsystem, but it is not necessary. On the other hand, in order to complete the copying subsystem, the printing subsystem must be run. These subsystems are connected either as a convenience (i.e. the All-In-One contains all the subsystems) or in order to complete another routine. They are physically connected by wires passing information by way of electronic signals. As of this time, wiring is the only way to connect the subsystems, but in the future, wireless capabilities, such as Bluetooth, may be used. This would be both economically and environmentally beneficial in its design by decreasing material use and cutting cost for the materials to make the printer. Even though cutting materials will save money, performance will also be cut as wires allow for faster connectivity. Each subsystem has its own placement. Printing cannot come before scanning. Some sort of input is needed in order to print a hard copy, be it the scanner or directly from a computer.
The purpose of this gate is to complete a detailed analysis of the different components of the disassembled Lexmark Z-82 printer. For this gate there is to be a coordination review that explains how the team is working together. From there a summary of all the components of the printer will be provided. An image of each component along with the components function, materials, manufacturing process and amount of use will also be included in the technical report. An analysis of seven parts is done that involves looking at the components function, form, manufacturing methods, and complexity in great detail. Next, a solid model will be provided containing thirteen separate components and another of each component going together in sequence. SolidWorks was used to create the solid models. An engineering analysis process will show a detailed description of one key component and shown how it can be used for the testing stages of the design process. There will also be four design revisions of a variety of components for this product. The changes will be in conjunction with addressing global, societal, economic, and environmental concerns and improving performance, serviceability and cost among other factors.
Cause for Corrective Action
As of right now, the project is going well as the group is learning the steps to making technical reports. As a group we have decided we need to invest more time into the finalization of each gate, the final project, and presentation as a whole. Although the group is working well together we are not happy with the grades of our first two gates. Specifically, the group needs to understand what exactly is needed to go above and beyond expectations. Meeting times and places have not been a problem for the most part. Any miscommunication about meeting times has been rendered by calling and text messaging the group members. This is a better method than the original e-mail route. Though the group might show up as a whole, it is often difficult to get the members to concentrate on the gate. It seems that some members do not find this project to be of a high priority. Unfortunately, it is difficult to explain to a group member that even when they do perform a task, that mediocre is not good enough. In order to get past this obstacle, more direct discussions will be had with those members, and finally getting in touch with the professor will be done.
Based on the grading scheme, we have made the changes necessary to the first two gates in preparation for the final gate submission. These changes include providing captions for photos for easier understanding and location of parts, correcting grammatical errors, and completion of questions which had previously gone incomplete or usanswered. The group has looked at each of the problems of the first two gates and sufficiently added enough information to answer what is being asked, however further review will be impeccable to the final submission. The section on subsystems was a bit vague and not entirely complete during its first submission, but has been greatly improved on answering the question and supporting the points we are trying to make.
- Note: All injection molding has a draft angle along the edges. Drafting angles are to provide proper ejection of the part from the mold and are typically one to three degrees.
|Part Name||Number of Times Used||Function||Materials Used||Manufacturing Process Used||Extra Information||Model or Part Number||Picture|
|Back Face Plate||1||Exterior Panel||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has holes in the back to release heat||JB72-00618A|
|Wire Cover #1||1||Cover the major wires that go to the scanning device||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has clips on each corner to pop out||None available|
|Back panel #1||1||Cover on the back of the unit that assists travel of paper||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has clips on each side to lock into the base of printer||JB72-00492A|
|Screw #1||56||Hold metal brackets to other metal brackets||Stainless Steel||Turned on a lathe that moves in conjunction with a cutter to give threads their pitch||Philips head screw. Roughly 3/8 inches long, with 12 threads.||None available|
|Screw #2||12||Hold circuit boards and other plastic panels to each other||Plain Steel||Turned on a lathe that moves in conjunction with a cutter to give threads their pitch||Philips head screw. Roughly 7/16 inches long, with 13 threads.||None available|
|Screw #3||8||Hold motor mounts in place||Plain Steel||Turned on a lathe that moves in conjunction with a cutter to give threads their pitch||Philips head screw. Roughly 3/8 inches long, with 12 threads.||None available|
|Left Side Panel||1||Exterior wall||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has ergonomic qualities||JB72-00619A|
|Right Side Panel||1||Exterior wall||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Has ergonomic qualities||JB72-00620A|
|Inner Plate #1||1||Maintenance panel||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Top left corner allows for ink cartridges to be changed out||JB72-00621A|
|Roller Housing||1||Assists paper from paper tray to printing unit||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Has taps on the side to hold into place||JB72-00492A|
|Paper Tray||1||Paper reservoir||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Adjusts to size of paper including envelope, legal, etc.||JB72-00483A|
|Printer Base||1||Holds the paper tray, Main connection for most exterior walls and subassemblies||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Multiple gears attached along with multiple tapped holes for subassemblies to be attached||JB72-00489A|
|Paper Tray Roller||1||Separates one piece of paper from the rest of the paper||Polyurethane and rubber||All the parts are injection molded||The roller has rubber on it to grip the paper and separate it from the other piece of paper||No model number available|
|Ink Cart Shaft||1||Provides smooth straight level surface for cart to slide on||8-18 stainless steel||Extruded and then machined (lathed)||Notches on each side are for the clips and chamfer on both sides to smooth the edges||No model number available|
|Ink Cart Shaft Clips||2||Locks the shaft in place||8-18 stainless steel||Extruded and then machined||The diameter of the clip fits snug between the shafts cuts on each side||No model number available|
|Ink Cartridge Cart||1||Transport ink cartridges to specific place on the paper||Polypropylene||Injection molding||Has special inserts that make it so you can only put one type of cartridge into the slot (color or black ink). Also has brass rings that go around the shaft to minimize friction.||ABS-GF20|
|Samsung User Interface||1||Control panel for the user to input information||Fiberglass and copper held together with epoxy||The board was first rolled to the correct thickness. Then a thin layer of copper was applied to the top (green coat). Then the piece is stamped to the correct dimensions. Machines put capacitors and other chips in place.||The motherboard has buttons attached for the user to interact with the unit. It also has a LCD board that displays information to the user.||JB41-00041A|
|Exterior Display Panel||1||Has the heads up display and button cut-outs||Polyurethane||Injection molding and then labeling for all the buttons||Has a spot for paper clips and labels for all the buttons||JB72-00634A|
|Ink Cart Motor||1||Moves the ink cartridge back and forth to certain parts of the paper||Aluminum, polyurethane, copper, alnico, galvanized steel, and a magnet (either aluminum, nickel, or cobalt)||Injection molding, stamping for the metal, extrusion for all the copper and other metal, and then machining to curve, lathe, and finish all other parts||Has two screw holes that go into the motor at the gear end so it can be attached to the metal printing shell||656693B0812|
|Paper Feeding/Output Motor||1||Rotates the shaft that has rubber rollers on it to transfer the paper from the paper hopper to the printing unit and then out of the unit for a hardcopy||Aluminum, polyurethane, copper, alnico, galvanized steel, and a magnet (either aluminum, nickel, or cobalt)||Injection molding, stamping for the metal, extrusion for all the copper and other metal, and then machining to curve, lathe, and finish all other parts||Has two screw holes on the sides (on the outside of the motor) at the gear end so it can be attached to the metal printing shell||M42SP-6NPK|
|Top Plate||1||Covers the scanner panel||Polyurethane, polypropylene|| Casing: Injection molding
Foam: Hot liquid polyurethane sprayed with a CO2 then heated by lamps where bubbles expand and burst, leaving behind spongy porous material (foam) Plastic Sheet: Molten polypropylene is squeezed through a narrow slit where it falls onto rollers and is cooled
|Keeps the assembly light tight||JB72-00865A|
|Bottom Scanning Unit Housing||1||Houses the scanner bulb and motor unit||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Serves as a center point for all the scanning unit parts||None available|
|Top Scanning Unit Housing||1||Holds glass in place and gives paper a buffer and focal point when paper is put in the scanner||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Serves as a top for the scanning unit||No model number available|
|Gear Cover||1||Covers the gears||Polyurethane||Stamping||This small flexible plate simply serves to cover the gears but allow for easy access||None available|
|Scanning Bar||1||Guides scanner head||Steel||Extrusion and lathed||Steel used because it is strong and cheap||None available|
|Glass Plate||1||Create a level, transparent, surface so that the image sensor mechanism can receive the information||Sand, soda ash, dolomite, limestone, salt cake||Heated to 1500C then poured into a tin bath where it takes its form and begins to solidify. Then moves into a kiln where it is cooled gradually so that it may anneal||Best if kept clean so the scanner bulb obtains an unobstructed view of the information||None available|
|Plastic Tabs||2||Helps to secure the bulb assembly and press it to the glass without scratching the glass||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||Tabs have slots molded into them to keep the bulb in place||None available|
|Springs||2||Pushes up bulb assembly so it is flush against glass plate||Stainless Steel||Extruded and machined||The small springs have low spring constants making them very elastic||None available|
|Bulb Assembly||1||Retrieves information|| Casing: Polyurethane
Circuit Board: Copper, Substrate
|Copper is bonded over the substrate, then a temporary mask is placed over it in such a way that when it is doused in chemicals, the parts not covered are dissolved leaving the substrate layer showing on those areas||The bulb assembly travels the length of the scanning unit to gather the information|| PC-10-AA6-1897
|Belt||3||Transmits energy from the motor to the bulb assembly||Nitrile||Injection molding and machined||The scanner belt is a multi-toothed belt which wraps around the gears, the pulley, and hooks onto the bulb assembly||518ST55-3.0|
|Pulley Assembly||2||Puts tension on the scanner belt||Polyurethane, stainless steel, aluminum|| Pulley: Injection Molding
Spring: Extruded and machined
|A large shoulder piece is used to only allow a small spring in the pulley||None available|
|Gear Assembly||1||Provide motion to scanner assembly||Polyurethane for the gears. Aluminum, polyurethane, galvanized steel, copper, alnico, and aluminum, nickel, or cobalt for the magnet||Injection molding, die cast and machined||Gears used to adjust rotational speed||None available|
|Printer Gear Assembly||1||Provide motion to printer assembly||Polyurethane for the gears, and stainless steel for the rods and ecterior shell||Injection molding, die cast and machined for the gears. Rolled and then formed to the right dimensions||Gears used to adjust rotational speed and trasfer rotation to other parts of the component||None available|
|Ink Jet Plate||1||Holds printing unit||Aluminum||Machined||Plate was bent and punched in the machining process||518ST55-3.0|
|Wire Harness||1||Holds wires in place so they do not get tangled||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Without this piece, the product is more likely to fail||JV72-00058A|
|Metal Gears||12||Rotates and grab paper to dispense||Aluminum||Machined||Material is rolled to thickness then punched||None available|
|Rubber Pad||2||Prevents ink from drying out||Rubber||Stamping||As the ink cartridge cart moves back to the rest position, the pads move up to stop the ink cartridges and prevent premature drying||H32-3 H32-6|
|Metal Gear Spacer||1||Spaces the gears and supports them so they will not bend||Aluminum||Machined||The machining process has the material rolled down to thickness and stamped||None available|
|Paper Feed Shaft||2||Grabs each individual page and feeds it through the product||Rubber, stainless steel, and polyurethane||Injection molding for the rubber rollers and gear. Extrusion and machining for the shaft||Rubber is used to make sure that only one page is fed at a time||None available|
|Paper Out-Feed||1||Sends the page out of the product||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Works interconnected with the metal gears||None available|
|Springs||4||Hold paper clamps taught to the paper feeders||Stainless steel||Extruded and machined||Springs have high spring coefficients to keep them strong||None available|
|Plastic Clips||4||The clips make it such that only individual pages are fed through the system||Polyurethane||Injection molding||Four are used to cover the width of the page||None available|
|Metal Clips||4||The clips make it such that only individual pages are fed through the system||Aluminum||Rolled then machined||These four metal clips are attached to the plastic clips to provide more strength||None available|
|Rubber Pad Tray||1||Push the rubber pads up into the ink cartridges||Polyurethane||Injection Molding||This tray is pushed into place onto the ink cartridges so that the ink will not drip and damage the product||None available|
|Mother Boards||3||Transfer energy and operate mechinisms||Fibergalss, coper, epoxy, tin-lead mixture, nickel, aluminum, carbon, and ceramic||Rolling, etching, sodering, and tracing||The motherboards transfer electrical energy and information to different parts of the unit||None available|
Table A :This table shows the components of the Lexmark Z82 Printer and describes their function, materials, processes, model number and various other information
3D model of parts
Using Solid Works all of these models were drawn to .001 scale using a caliper. It was a group decision to use Solid Works because one of the members had previously used the software and the program is readily available. All of these parts were chosen because they were a major part attached to or had some contribution towards the printing function.
|Roller Cover||This is a picture of the base cover. The base covers main function is to assist the paper in the travel from the printing tray to the printing unit.|
|Belt||This belt has small teeth on the inside of the track. These teeth will match up with the gears that are on the axel of the motor. In return the motor will rotate the belt which will move the printer cartridge.|
|Shaft||The cartridge rod keeps the ink cartridge cart of track. This rod is made out of a very cheap 8-18 stainless steel. Very easy to manufacture and serves a very simple idea.|
|Ink Jet Plate||This metal bracket is one of the main components of the printer. All of the assemblies attach to this metal bracket in one way or another. Either through bolts, extrusion techniques or belts.|
|Screw #2||There are two of these in the assembly. This screw will attach the motor to the metal bracket. They are your basic Phillips head screws.|
|Printing Motor||This motor is a very simple motor. The job this motor has to do does not require too much energy, so the motor is not very powerful. This motor will turn electrical energy into kinetic energy in the form of rotational energy.|
|Paper Holder for Paper Tray||This slider will adjust the length of the paper. The closer that the slider is to the rolling rods, the smaller the printer paper will be.|
|Variable Width Changer for Paper Tray||This paper tray slider will adjust the width of the paper. The paper that is required to operate the printer depends on where the slider is located on the tray. All the way to the left will give you the largest possible size paper.|
|Paper Tray||This paper tray was designed to hold roughly 50 sheets of paper. With the sliders, the paper size can be adjusted to fit the required height and width of the paper.|
|Base of Printer||The bottom component to this printer is the key to the assembly. In one way or another, all of the pieces will attach to this bottom piece. Mostly the pieces will be attached by clips. However, some are attached by screws. This is where the printing unit is mounted, the base cover, and the paper tray are attached|
|Ink Cartridge Holder||This is the Printer cartridge holder. The color and black ink cartridges will lock into place from the top of the holder. Then when in use the holder will glide along the cartridge rod to apply the ink to the paper.|
|Rubber Cylinder||These rubber cylinders are made of a textured rubber. The textured rubber will help grip the paper while the paper is traveling from the paper tray to the printing unit.|
|Washer||This is a picture of the washer that the belt is located on. One of these washers is located on the axial for the motor. When the motor turns, the axial will turn the washer, in return will turn the belt.|
Table B: This table shows the individual components modeled using SolidWorks 3D.
3D model of assembly
These are aditional Solid Works pictures of how the parts fit together.
|This picture shows all thirteen components assembled together.|
|The paper tray slides in and out with ease. To lock the tray in place, there is a small locking mechanism on the bottom of the paper tray.|
|This picture shows the top of the paper tray. There are two sliding components that can move to change the height and width of the paper being used. The printer can print on paper anywhere from the regular 8.5 by 11 inch piece of paper, legal, and even envelopes.|
|The entire top mechanism of the printer can be lifted off. There is three small extrusions in three of the four corners of the “Metal Piece” that have a hole, and a small extrusion combination.|
|The rod that the “Cartridge Holder” slides on, is removed by simply pulling out a pin in one of the sides. Then pulling the rod out of the assembly.|
|The Printing Cartridge is lifted vertically away from the assembly. Also, with a small latch, the printing cartridges can slide out.|
|This picture illustrates how the washers (belt track) and the belt are removed from the assembly.|
|The two screws that are being taken out of the metal bracket are connected to the motor. The motor is then screwed to metal piece so that the axel of the motor protrudes to the belt.|
|This picture shows that after the motor screws are removed the motor can be taken out without a problem.|
|In this picture, the printer cover can pulled off. The way you do this is by pushing in the clips, and pulling out. The printer cover assists the paper from the tray to the printing unit.|
|This picture shows all of the thirteen components disassembled.|
Table C: This table shows a SolidWorks assembly sequence of the Lexmark Z82 Printer
Engineering Analysis: Ink Runner Rod
Problem Statement: What would be a suitable material to be used for the runner rod?
- Rod must be 16.5 inches in length
- Rod diameter is 5/16 inches
- Fatigue on metals (ink runner moving back and forth) is negligble
- Shear stress=VQ/It
- Normal Stress=-My/I
Solution: The stresses in the bar would not be as high as they would be in the materials other possible uses like structural uses because the part is used to support the inkjet cartridges and carry them back and forth through the printer. The company is therefore more interested in the prices of the materials and how well they will hold up to these stresses in the long run.
Prices of Metals:
- Brass: 25-90 cents per pound
- Aluminum:15-45 cents per pound
- Iron: 1-4 cents per pound
- Stainless Steel: 15-35 cents per pound
Steel being the strongest of the materials with ferritic stainless steel having a yield strength of 290 MPa and a percent elongation of 25 which is workable with since we don't want any elongation if possible. AA1050A grade aluminum itself has strengths in shear around 60 MPa and in tension of 100 MPa. Cast iron has an ultimate strength of 170 MPa which would mean its yield strength would range from 70 to 120 MPa. The curvature of all these materials would be relatively small due to the little load being placed on it with angles of curvature ranging from 0 to .01 degrees respectively for the materials.
The material best suited for this purpose would most likely be either an aluminum alloy, iron alloy, or stainless steel. Most likely being an aluminum alloy, or iron alloy, which are commonly used metals for these purposes.
Aluminum alloys are cheaper than just aluminum and offer more strength for your money. It is also a relatively cheap metal to buy. Iron is also a very cheap metal and when a proper alloy is made, can complete the task at hand just as efficiently and the others. These metals will hold the weight of the ink cartridges without any deflections due to the little weight being applied, and over time will not warp and elastically deform. The two types of metals also will be able to stand up to the heat generated inside the printer and will not melt nor become more ductile, which will keep them in place and structurally sound. The environment inside the printer will not reach temperatures capable of causing the elongation of both metals to be great enough to case possible problems and therefore can be neglected with the two metals already chosen for the job. Overall these metals will offer the mechanical properties required as well as save the company money on manufacturing costs and therefore boost profits from the printers sales.
1) Gear Analysis
- Component Function
- The gears main function is to transfer energy from one location to another. This typically happens between one gear and another, or between a power source and a gear. Aside from energy transfer the gears do no have any secondary functions. The flow associated with the gears are basically just energy. The energy flow takes the energy that is output by the motor and transferring it along the gear assembly to the necessary component. The various sizes and locations of the gears adjust the rotational speed accordingly to output the necessary rotational speed at the final destination (ink cartridges, scanner bulb, paper feeder). The gears are in a semi-rough environment. Whenever a gear moves, it is in contact with another gear or power source, which causes wear and tear. However, the gears only move during specific operations. The gears in the scanner system only rotate when a paper is being scanned, and the gears in the printing assembly only move during the actual printing process.
- Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)
- The gears are in the shape of a circle or thin disk with two sets of teeth of different diameter. The different diameters allow for the change in rotational speed of the gear. Since they are circular, the gears have symmetry along most axes. The gears are primarily two-dimensional, with a thickness that is significantly smaller than the diameter. They range in size from a diameter of a quarter of an inch to a diameter of two inches. The weights of the gears range from 1 ounce to 8 ounces. The shape of the gear is essential to the function it performs. If the gear is any other shape, the ability to transfer energy would be severely hampered. By having two circular gears rotating next to each other, it allows the gears to be in constant contact; a necessity for energy transfer. The teeth on the gear are also very important, as they make the system more efficient. Without the teeth, the gears would be prone to slipping, making the system less efficient.
- All of the gears are made from polyurethane. Polyurethane is easily manufactured and can be used for a variety of purposes, which is possibly why the material was chosen to be used. The functionality of the gears depends very much on their rigidity and their strength. They need to be able to act rigidly upon each other to maximize energy transfer yet be strong enough to not fail after multiple use at high RPM'S. Polyurethane is a material that has both of these properties.
- The gears have no aesthetic purposes. They are completely enclosed in the printer and will not be seen unless the printer is taken apart. The gears are an off-white color. This is possibly due to the fact that the rest of the printer is light in color. The gears, though they have teeth, have a pretty smooth surface finish. This is likely due to the fact that the constant rubbing wears the parts down. Any surface finish is strictly for functional reasons.
- Manufacturing Methods
- The gears were made by injection molding. This is evident because it is a slightly complex polymer part with separation lines caused by extra material pouring out where the two mold halves meet. The choice of polyurethane and its simple shape design dictated this manufacturing process because injection molding is used for polymers of slight complexity. The ease of injection molding also makes it easy to mass produce the gears.
- Economically, the choice of injection molding yields greater profits due to ease and speed of manufacturing. The societal influence of choosing this manufacturing process comes again due to the fact that the parts will be cheap to make, therefore the final product can be sold at a cheaper price, which is more desirable to the public. Globally, injection molding is available in any industrialized area. Since injection molding reuses the same mold consistently, it creates less waste; making the manufacturing process less of an environmental concern.
2) Motor Analysis
- Component Function
- The motor associated with the printing unit is what is being analyzed. The motor provides power to move the ink cartridge cart back and forth along the stainless steel rod. This is the only function that this motor performs. The flows associated with the motor are material and energy. The motor rotates providing kinetic energy to the belt and pulley system that rotates and is attached to the ink cartridge cart providing horizontal motion along the paper. Material flow is electron current flowing through the motor. The motor works inside the printer, and is encased by a metal cylindrical housing for safety. It is a rather warm environment because the friction from colliding electrons. The motor is double wrapped with an extra cylindrical shell housing, to protect it and assure other parts from overheating.
- Component Form (Geometry, Material, and Appearance)
- The motor is in a cylindrical form. It is for the most part symmetrical, but some tabs and bumps leave it slightly asymmetrical. The component is three-dimensional with a length of 2.2 inches and a diameter of 1.5inches. The motor weighs just under a half a pound. The function of this motor is completely coupled to the shape. The motor rotates in a circular motion, with the shaft work turning the pulley, hence the need for it to be cylindrical. The motor is made from several different materials, including aluminum, polyurethane, copper, alinco, galvanized steel, and a magnet (aluminum, nickel, or cobalt). Some parts of the motor need specific properties to run. For instance, the copper is needed for its conductivity, and the aluminum/nickel/cobalt is need for it magnetic properties. Environmental influence can play a great deal especially when involving metals. All of the metals used are taken out of the environment and in certain cases the environment can be affected from their extrusion techniques. Mining can greatly affect the surrounding eco-system. Social affects can also play a specific role. Socially the workers using these materials need to make sure there are no health defects that can arise from being around such materials. Economically these materials are cheap enough to make sure a profit can be made of the product, yet durable enough to make a quality product. Globally these materials may not be readily available throughout the world. Transportation may pose a threat as some of these materials may be hard to get to.
- The aesthetic properties do not exist with the motor. The motor is completely encased in the printer, so aesthetics are not are important as with other parts. The motor sits in an aluminum shell, which does have a shine, but there is no apparent effort to make this motor more aesthetically pleasing than other similar motors. However the component shell is a silver metallic color and the end caps are white. Both have a smooth surface finish which provides no actual purpose to the function.
- Manufacturing Methods
- Injection molding, stamping for the metal, extrusion for all the copper and other metal, and then machining to curve, lathe, and finish all other parts are the manufacturing methods that were used. Injection molding is used on the polyurethane gear on the end of the shaft and the polyurethane cap on the other end of the motor. This is evident because the separation lines from when the mold is taken off. The decision to use plastic absolutely effected why injection molding took place. If it was a metal end cap extrusion and cutting would have been the method of choice. If it was a different shape injection molding would have probably been the best bet for this material. The copper and other metals are extruded, and the casing is machined into a cylinder that fits tightly over the other motor components. The extrusion was the best choice because the metal material is a circular shape and metal is best machines into a cylinder by extrusion. Global factors that influenced why it was machined like this depend on where in the world you are. Geography plays an important role because you need to be able to provide power to your factory. Economically by using these methods it provides the best way to produce large amounts for the cheapest price. Also using these techniques will entice the highest quality for the materials used. Environmental influences involved in manufacturing include pollution from factories and the more efficient these methods are the less pollution caused. Societal influences that are involved in these methods involve the safety of workers. Workers need to be trained on machines which would be a societal influence.
3) Scanner Glass
- Component Function
- The scanner glass has the function of providing a flat, level, clean, transparent surface for the scanner bulb to read from any document on top of the scanner glass. A flow associated with this component would be a flow of energy. Light rays from the scanner bulb pass through the glass and then reflect off of the paper being scanned back through the glass to the scanning bulb. The unit functions in normal conditions ranging from thirty degrees to a max of one hundred degrees.
- Component Form
- The general shape of the glass is a rectangular solid. A noticeable property that the glass has is that it is level and has negligible height differences. It is primarily two dimensional. The width of the glass isn’t important to the functionality of the scanner other than to resist cracking under normal forces being applied. The length and width are the main dimensions since it has to be able to hold a range of pieces of paper which are also primarily two dimensional. The component is by inches and inches thick. The component’s shape is coupled with how the component functions because if the glass was jagged then the light would refract differently during scanning operation. The glass weighs roughly a pound and a half.
- The technical type of glass that is used, is float glass. Some manufacturing decisions that impacted this include that it is cheap and frequently made which made it extremely easy to get a hold of. Some properties that this component had to be to function is that it had to be stiff, smooth, have very minimal refraction when the light passed through it either time it goes through, and clear. Some global concerns for this include that this product can be made in any developed country, and it can be used in any altitude and climate (within reason). Economically glass is cheap and available in large quantities which allows for it to be purchased even cheaper. Societal glass doesn’t offend any cultures or groups and will be used by anyone that uses basic electronics which is the focus of sales. Environmentally this product doesn’t have a huge impact which is why it is made on a large scale. Overall this product does not have any impact one people that would prevent them buying this product. Aesthetically this piece does not have any relevance other than it has to have a smooth surface finish and not have any sharp edges to make it look user friendly. The glass is transparent because the scanner head has to read through the glass twice.
- Manufacturing Methods
- To make this glass it was formed by being put through rollers and made into a flat surface. This was chosen because rolling is the most effective way to make flat glass compared to how cheap it is to purchase. The evidence that supports that this was done by rolling is because the glass is at a constant thickness and it is very cost economical. To manufacture this product the plant would have to be located near a region that has the necessary tools to cool the glass at a rate that wouldn’t cause imperfections in the glass or crack it. Environmentally the glass making process makes some heat and air pollution.
4) Foam and Plastic Analysis
- Component Function
- The paper press in a Lexmark Z-82 all-in-one printer provides two functions. The first function is to hold the page in place while the scanning function is in progress. This is done by closing the scanner top cover and keeping it closed; any movement can create faults in the scan. When closed the paper press falls onto the page and presses down upon it. The other function is to make the scanning area light-tight. Keeping as much light internalized in the scanning unit provides the best possible scan. The paper press performs this function in the same manner as previously stated (the scanner top cover is closed). By being pressed tightly on the page and covering the whole scanner glass plate, little light may escape. In performing these functions, an energy flow is exhibited in the force of the paper press pushing down upon the page.
- The paper press component functions above the scanner unit. It is physically placed directly above the glass plate and under the scanner top cover. The environment the component rests in is separated from the external environment because typically the cover is closed. The paper press is subtly heated when the scanner bulb passes by.
- Component Form
- The form of the component is prismatic in shape. Notable properties that this component has includes\ that it has a uniform width. As a whole it is primarily three dimensional, but if broken into the two separate parts, the cover could be considered two dimensional, and the foam base is three. Its dimensions are 8.5 x 12 x 0.25 (inches) and weighs approximately two ounces.
- The shape of the paper press is due to the fact that its function is to cover the scanner glass plate. The glass plate is rectangular and therefore the paper press is the same size and shape to cover that area. Its depth of 0.25 inches is so that when the scanner top cover is dropped onto the page, it will press into the scanned item, holding it in place, but provide some “give” so that the paper press will be flush on the surface of the item to be scanned (if the item is not flat itself).
- Polymers are the materials used in manufacturing the paper press. More specifically, for the foam base polyurethane is used, and for the cover, polypropylene is used. Manufacturing decisions impacted the choice of material because of the fact that foam is made in a specific manner, and because of this manner of production, a specific material is used (often polyurethane because it is cheap). In order for the paper press to be functional, its spongy property is necessary to provide the “give” mentioned above.
- The materials to manufacture this component were chosen specifically for distinct reasons. Globally and environmentally, polyurethane and polypropylene were chosen because the raw materials to manufacture them are abundant and easy to obtain. Economically, the materials are cheap to purchase and manufacture. The cheap cost is a big societal factor because cheap materials make cheap products which are more desirable to the consumer.
- Aesthetically, the paper press is designed for functional purposes. The foam backing is hidden behind the cover and therefore does not need to be pleasing to the eye. Its only purpose is to provide some bounce. Since it is hidden and does not need to be aesthetically pleasing, it is simply dark gray. The cover piece serves two purposes on the other hand. One is to reflect the light back toward the scanner bulb to maximize the amount of light shining on the paper. In order to reflect light best, the cover is colored white. Another aesthetic of the cover is that the material is very smooth and flat. This also allows for the light to reflect directly back at the bulb as well as to not taint the original copy or scratch the glass plate. The aesthetics of the cover, like the foam backing are also to maximize functionality.
- Manufacturing Methods
- In order to make the paper press, a couple manufacturing methods were incorporated. For the foam backing, a bath of hot liquid polyurethane was blasted with hot CO2 gas. Gas bubbles filled the polyurethane bath which was then heated more until the bubbles burst, leaving behind a spongy porous material. Next the material was cooled and machine cut to its specific dimensions. The evidence of this is because the material is undoubtedly foam, which is not made in many other ways. The cover was made from polypropylene. The polymer was extruded through a narrow slit and poured onto rollers where it cooled. After cooling, the thin, long polypropylene sheet was machine cut to its specific dimensions. This is assumed because it is a polymer and the material is too thin to be manufactured using injection molding. Extrusion then machine cutting is the cheapest and most efficient way to manufacture this part.
- The choice of material impacted the way in which the individual parts would be manufactured. Since both parts were to be made from polymers, the cheapest, easiest manufacturing methods involving those materials were chosen. For creating a foam material from a polymer, the best way is using the CO2 bubble method. For manufacturing very thin plastic sheets, extrusion is the best method. Also, both materials had to be simple rectangular prisms, therefore the shape of each did not require complex manufacturing processes.
- The technologies required for each part of the component are both very basic manufacturing processes. Globally and socially, the manufacturing processes necessary can be done in any factory equipped with the proper technology. Economically, these processes are both cheap, and therefore desirable. Any excess material that is not used can be melted down and reused, which is a desirable environmental factor.
5) Main Circuit Board Component
- Component Function
- This component is the motherboard for the printer. The circuit board has multiple functions that are necessary to the printers function. All information is collected and processed in the circuit board, then output to individual components to perform their function. The user inputs are processed by the main circuit board and the component functions accordingly. The other inputs are the scanner and computer information. After the inputs are processed in the circuit board, it now outputs information to the printer. This function tells the printer the information it needs to create a printed document.
- The main way the circuit board works is by electrical power. This means energy is part of the flow of this component. Material is also part of the flow. The way this flow works is that electrons are the material and they flow through the conductive properties of the circuit board. That is how the energy flow is created, by electrons charging up the capacitors to power the circuit board and trigger the devices needed for each function.
- The circuit board operates on the inside of the printer. It is attached to all components of the printer meaning it needs to have space to connect all the pieces. However it is stabilized by 4 screws connecting it to the main frame of the computer. The temperature does not get extremely hot inside the printer so basic room temperatures are operating conditions.
- Component Form
- The circuit board has very distinct geometry, material and appearance that make it identifiable from other components. The general shape of the circuit board is a rectangular base with the electronic components extruding from the top and soldered to the base. The circuit boards only notable property is that it is not symmetric in any way because of the all the electrical equipment attached, making it essentially three dimensional. However the board, without any electrical components, is planar symmetrical in geometry. It has a length of 6.25 inches, a width of 4.25 inches and variable height from an eighth of an inch to a quarter of an inch. The shape of the board is essential in the performance function. The board needs to have a large flat base so the conductive element (copper) can be traced out evenly and is able to fit into the space it has inside the printer. The weight of the circuit board is roughly a half a pound.
- There are multiple materials that the circuit board is made from. First is has a fiberglass base and is attached to the copper conductive material by an epoxy resin. Also a tin-lead mixture is applied to prevent oxidation. All contact points are made from aluminum, tin-lead mixture (solder), and nickel. Resistors in the board are made from carbon composition which is a mixture of ground carbon and ceramic. The lead wires are made from conductive metal. The capacitors are made out of the conductive metal aluminum. Transistors and diodes are made from semi-conductive material, silicon. Integrated circuit chips or microchips are also made from silicon and copper. In the manufacturing of the circuit board many of the small components were made from a certain material for a reason. The copper was used to provide a conductive material for electrons to flow through. This was absolutely necessary because copper is one of the best conductive elements and is still able to be traced out. The aluminum was chosen in manufacturing because of its easy workability and cheap price for bulk. Silicon was chosen for the same reason. The carbon composition was made because it was the best technology available when the product was manufactured. The circuit board properties provide different functions. The resistor has the mixture of carbon and ceramic. Carbon is resistive and ceramic has insulating properties. The ratio of these materials determines how resistive the element is. The silicon properties provide important conductive element to make sure the transistors, diodes and IC’s are able to function. The main materials properties in these materials are conductive or resistive. The copper and fiberglass are essential because the material properties provide conductive (copper) and insulating (fiberglass) properties to the main structure of the board. Economic concerns that were taken into account when deciding how to make this component are cheap materials are used in all instances. Circuit boards that are made with more expensive materials would be overkill for this product because of the environment it operates in. Global concerns do not really affect this product. It can perform at any altitude, and climate (within reason).Basically any industrialized country can produce this component. Societal factors involved in deciding materials are being able to transform what is needed to each language. Electronics is essentially the same throughout all cultures, however you need to be able to interpret each part needed and what it is called. Environmental concerns are definitely influencing manufacturing of some parts of the circuit board. For instance lead is used, which is a poisonous material. The reason it is used however is because it is in small amounts and is not exposed.
- There is no need for aesthetic properties for the circuit board because it is contained inside the printer. It however has to be organized in a manner that it is easy to read in case of troubleshooting and it is. The color of the component varies because of the different parts involved in it. It has a green copper base, black and silver IC’s, blue covering on the capacitors, and white marking on parts to identify them. The copper is smooth surface finish except where cut out because of traces. This is for functional reasons. IC’s have a smooth top just for aesthetic and geometrical purposes because it’s a casing on the outside. It also needs to be smooth to function as a surface to display part numbers.
- Manufacturing Methods
- There were many methods used to make this part. The copper and substrate was rolled to make it flat. The copper was then etched or traced out by a drill or milling machine. This is supported because the surface is smooth and then parts in the middle of the piece are missing. The choice of material and shape of the final material made it essential for rolling to take place. Global concerns influenced this decision by making sure it was done in an industrialized country so it was able to manufacture. Manufacturing plants also need to supply water for employees so globally need to be located in an accessible region. Societal reasons for using rolling would be that people need to operate the machine used to roll the copper. This provides jobs in the community where there is manufacturing plants. Economically rolling is important because it is a way to make a precise thickness to a sheet of copper. This allows you to make your material extremely cost efficient. Environment factors that influenced the methods used in the circuit board are regulations put on how much lead can be used in a product. In essence there should be minimal amounts for products sold in the United States.
6) Scanning Bulb Assembly
- Component Function
- The function of this component is to send information of a hard copied document to the circuit board where it can be processed. This component does multiple functions to essentially complete the scanning function. One is the bulb lights up to create photons. Diodes transform photons into electrons. The diodes receive the photons from a mirror involved in the assembly, reflecting light. The diodes transmit to the lens to produce an image that is transmitted throughout other components and to a computer. The flows associated with this component are energy and material. For energy flow the bulb in the scanning unit sends out photons in the form of light. Inside this assembly there are diodes that convert the photons into electrons. These electrons are transferred to the circuit board by wires. The environment inside the scanner assembly between the glass and top is where the bulb is located. The bulb heats up because of resistance in the bulb and the colliding electrons. The heat however does not meet extreme temperatures. It is a snug space and the bulb is locked into place by snapping it in place to the tray that moves back and forth. This movement is based off of the tray movement, not the actual bulb and is by no means an extremely fast velocity however a solid structure will keep any stresses from breaking the bulb or individual diodes.
- Component Form
- The scanner bulb assembly has very simple geometry and made from only a few materials providing a basic appearance. The general shape of this component is a rectangular prism. It is not completely symmetric however it has been machined to extreme precision. Notable properties are that the bulb is fairly brittle. The part is three dimensional because it has a length width and height. More specifically the height is three-eighths of an inch, nine and a half inches long, and one inch wide. The shape of the component is coupled to the function because it has to be square to assure you can design a system to move it evenly along the glass length and evenly distributed the light. The weight of the entire component is less than half a pound.
- The component has multiple materials it was made from .The outer casing for the bulb is made from poly-urethane. The bulb itself is a clear poly-urethane and some mercury. There are metal connectors that the wires clip into to transmit electrons. Manufacturing the bulb to such a thin long piece is made easiest by using plastic. The outer casing is made of plastic because injection molding allows for mass production of this part and a cheap way of production. The reflective properties of the mirror are needed to assure its function. Also the diodes need to have semi-conductive properties to transmit electrons. The bulb has to be clear so that the light created emits the most amount of photons possible. Economically the decision to use this material was made because it was the most cost effective material. However the decision to use plastic could possibly hinder the sales of it. A more durable material may exist to increase life of the product. This is the same with the bulb and diodes. Environmental factors that influenced the decision for this material is that mercury is used which can hinder the sales and stray some people from buying it because of the health issues related with mercury. Globally the access to such materials can be limited to developed nations that know how to refine and transport certain elements from nature. Societal factors include photons, which can cause small amounts of radiation. This is not especially healthy in large amounts and people may be weary of using such a device.
- The aesthetic properties of this part are size and color. The aesthetic properties that serve a purpose for this are the color, more specifically transparency. The color of the casing is black, and the bulb is transparent. This transparent property of the bulb is so that it can emit light onto the document. The mirror is reflective and needed so that photons will bounce off of it. The surface finish is smooth on all parts. This relates to the functionality and aesthetic reasons. The bulb needs to be smooth so refraction of photons does not occur and the highest intensity of light can be emitted.
- Manufacturing Methods
- To make this component injection molding was used for the casing and blow molding for the bulb. The evidence to support this is that you can see the casing has lines from where the mold was taken apart. As far as the bulb is concerned all plastic bulbs are made from blow molding. Material choice absolutely impacted the decisions for these methods. If a glass bulb were chosen they would have to use glass blowing to make the actual bulb. Other materials such as metal for the casing would incorporate all different machining operations such as forging, rolling, or drilling. The tiny indents and cutouts that make up the components shape, impacted why injection molding was used. It is easier to make a multiple pieces.
- Globally the decisions to use these methods are based on the technology available where manufacturing is taking place. Machinery has to be powered by something and supplying that is essential. Economically injection molding is a cheaper process if you mass produce a product. Socially these methods cause a need for people to know how to run machines so a higher level of thinking needs to be evident. Environmentally injection molding can produce waste from excess material in the mold, to having to use multiple molds which cause waste as well.
7) Belt Tensioning Device
- Component Function
- The belt tensioning device performs two functions which are to make sure the belt is strait so it does not wave and have the belt rotate around with little friction which is why a pulley is at the end. The flows associated with this component include the flow of energy in the form of force in the spring that is compressed pushing on the belt. The environment that this component functions in is an average temperature environment where it does not experience extreme heat or extreme cold temperatures.
- Component Form
- The general shape of the component is a combination of cylindrical and rectangular solid shapes which means all of these are primarily three dimensional. The pulley, pulley rod, spring, and spring rod are all cylindrical. The frame that the pulley rests on is a rectangular solid. All of the cylindrical components are axis-symmetrical. The relevance of the shape is that it creates a smooth surface in a linear direction. The frame has a noticeable property that it was at one time flat and then bent into the current shape. The component is two inches long, an inch and a half wide, and a half inch high. The shape allows the part to be small and have a small profile so it can fit under the scanner glass and be a minimal size to allow the scanner bulb to have maximum room to move around.
- The weight of the component is lighter than a quarter pound due to the only metal being the frame, spring, and pulley shaft. Other materials include the pulley and pulley rod which are made of polyurethane. The reason for these decisions in materials include that the parts are cheap and easy to make. The properties for the material in the spring include that the spring must be able to withstand compressive forces without breaking. The other metal in the components have to be able to withstand compressive and shear force without failing. Other plastic pieces only have to withstand compressive and very slight shear force. Globally these materials are not influenced by differences in altitudes or anything to do with differences in regions. Economically these materials are cheap and easy to make anywhere. Societal these parts do not affect anyone or anything. Environmentally these do not have too much affect since both of these materials are made on a large scale and there is not much material being used.
- This component has minimal aesthetic purpose. Since it is mainly an internal component and can only be seen through the glass, the only aesthetic quality in needs to have is to be safe looking and made to look like it will not fail along with the intention of the product not failing in the first place. The colors of the component are the same colors as the original color of the materials. The metal has no surface finish and the polyurethane pulley is the only thing that has a smooth finish to avoid extra friction when it comes into contact with the belt. Overall all of these finishes are for function.
- Manufacturing Method
- The spring was extruded and then machined into the circular form. This is known because the metal on the spring has little lines down the length which is a sign that it was extruded and then turned to create the curvature. The polyurethane pieces were all injection molded and the reason that conclusion was made is because the pieces have parting lines on the sides. The frame was once a flat piece of metal and then punched to the correct size. After that the metal was formed into the right dimensions and specifications. The reason this conclusion was made is because it would be the most economical and fastest way to produce the product. Also the metal has a rounded top and flat bottom which is a sign that it was punched and then to get that shape it would have had to be formed. Also all of the sides and edges are parallel with each other which proved that it was formed. Material choice in this case was based off of if the part had to be smooth and be able to work under tension, compression, or shear forces.
- These manufacturing processes had minimal influence on global aspects since these processes could be done in any developed area. Societies have no problem using these materials. Economically these products could be made cheap and fast due to the materials being readily available. Environmentally these products release small amounts of heat and air pollution. Overall these materials were made with materials that had minimal negative effects and were cost effective.
The component complexity will be based on a number of different categories. These categories are: number of functions performed, dimensions of the part (1D, 2D, 3D), number of materials, and amount of manufacturing methods used. The basis for the scale will be defined below for each category. To determine the total complexity, each category ranking is summed together.
Number of Functions Performed:
1 - One function performed
2 - Two functions performed
3 - Three or more functions performed
Number of Dimensions
1 - One dimensional
2 - Two dimensional
3 - Three dimensional
Number of Materials
1 - One material
2 - Two materials
3 - Three materials
4 - Four or more materials
Number of Manufacturing Methods Used
1 - One manufacturing method used
2 - Two manufacturing methods used
3 - Three or more manufacturing methods used
Low Complexity (requires little time and low cost for manufacturing)- Zero to five
Medium Complexity (requires more time to manufacture which costs more for manufacturing)- Six to nine
High Complexity (requires lots of time due to multiple steps and materials which would bring up the manufacturing costs)- Ten to thirteen
|Component Number||Component Name||Functions Performed||Dimensions||Materials||Manufacturing Methods Used||Complexity Rating|
|4||Foam and Plastic||2||3||1||1||Medium|
|5||Main Circuit Board||3||2||4||3||High|
|6||Scanner Bulb Assembly||2||2||1||2||Medium|
|7||Belt Tension Device||2||3||2||2||High|
Table D: This table provides a way of organizing the data used to complete a complexity scale as well as the final complexity result.
Each of the categories used has its own affect on how complex a component is. Overall it was found that the more complex components were depended mainly on the amount of different materials used and amount of manufacturing methods used. The function of a component has its own impact. If there is a component that provides more than one function it has to be at least moderately complex to highly complex. Component form also has played a major role in how complex it is. If the part has more dimensions than another component it may be harder to design making it more complex. As far as the manufacturing methods used to make the part that has a large effect on how complex the part is. The more process a part has to go through influences the time, money, and thought that goes into making the part.
The interaction of each component can vary for how complex those are as well. One way to define a scale for these can be interpreting how many components interacting make up a single function. The easiest way to define a scale for complexity would be to count the number of components interacting and the more there are the more complex the interactions are.
- The scanning function of the unit is limited to one scan at a time which increases the amount of time for scanning if multiple sheets are being scanned. It also uses more energy due to the scanner having to be on for a longer amount of time, and the scanner head moving two ways for each sheet of paper being scanned.
- A revision that would be made is a removal of the current scanning method to one that has a top feed system. This would allow sheets to be read one after the other and then dispensed in another tray directly below. Also the scanner head would be fixed which reduces the amount of energy being used since the paper would be moved one way instead of the scanner head moving back and forth over the paper. This also reduces the amount of time the printer is on which saves energy.
- The reduced amount of energy would address economic and environmental concerns because it is saving energy which helps the environment along with using less energy saving you money for electricity to power your unit. Also the ease of making one less step for each print would make it more attractive to the consumer which affects economic since people would be more attracted to buy this printer and societal concerns since it is easier to use.
- A design revision that would be possible is the ink cartridge cart and in turn the ink cartridges. By making the ink cart differently to allow more spaces for separate ink cartridges you can essentially upgrade the resolution of your color print-outs. The way to revise the ink cart would be to keep it the same size, and make smaller compartments for each ink cartridge. This would allow for other functions of the printer to remain as they are. By adding two more slots you could now have a spot for black ink, as well as the three main colors that can create all other colors, yellow, blue and red thus providing higher resolution images. This boost in performance of the machine may also affect the cost. The ink cartridge could also be refillable.
- The benefits of these extend to the four factors. Economically, by implementing this revision it would create a greater market for all other types of still image products. By being able to produce hard copy images from digital sources the market would explode for high resolution printers as well as those digital sources. By creating higher resolution print-outs you could essentially print-out more aesthetic documents. Societal concerns are that people will be able to express new ideas they have and portray them on a more personal level. Environmentally the feasibility of such an innovation would provide less waste because you would not throw out ink cartridges, instead get them refilled at a service center.
- When disassembling the product, right now three different screwdrivers are required. For a person disassembling for the first time, they would have to try a variety of tools until the proper one was found for each separate screw. This process is time consuming and aggravating.
- A valuable design revision that could be done on the product would be using one style screw for all connections involving them. With a universal screw, the consumer purchasing the product will find it easier to perform service on the product when necessary. After one time of disassembling the product it will be easier to recall which size screwdriver is necessary for the job.
- Consumers who purchase the product would be very pleased with the ease of operation and service, as that is a major concern for today’s society. Lexmark will also save money in purchasing the screws from the manufacturer. Buying bulk of one style screw as opposed to bulk of two styles would be a smart economic decision.
- Ink-jet printing is slowly becoming an obsolete technology. It seems extremely slow when printing multiple pages and is very costly. A better alternative would be switching to laser-jet printing. Laser-jet technology allows for faster, cheaper prints in finer detail.
- All three of the improvements listed above are what is expected by society today. Nothing is fast unless it is instant, and sharp details are extremely important. Consumers want a product that provides these types of accolades. Globally and environmentally, this design revision would cut down on pollution. Given the fact that more prints can be obtained per toner cartridge, that leads to less waste product.
Cause for corrective action
- Our group has not come across any major problems or conflicts internally. Most problems arose from small miscommunication matters that were easily resolved by the next meeting, if not sooner. Almost all miscommunication was due to emails not being always available to all group members all the time. For instance, one group member commutes, and has no Internet connection over the weekends or on holiday breaks. This means that any communication for the group must take place during the week, or that member will not be able to participate. This problem is easily resolved with communication taking place during the week. There have been no other problems to date. At this late a point in time, any conflicts can be devastating to the group. Therefore, any discretion will be met with harsh punishment. (TBD)
Printing Design Change
Copy Page Stapling
- A design problem that was found with the Lexmark Z-82 All-In-One printer is that all the papers begin to pile up when mass quantities are being printed. The product dispenses paper from the printer into a tray that collects the printed items. There is no way of sorting out multiple copies that have many pages that need to be kept together. Such materials include pamphlets, packets, essays and power points. A way to fix this is to include an automatic stapler to combine each sheet of paper together for each copy. The way the paper leaves the printing unit and into the paper tray means the placement of the stapler needs to be taken into account. The staple should be in the upper left hand corner if one looks at the front of the document. Also, once the staple is placed in the set of documents, there needs to be a way to remove it from the vicinity so more pages can enter the “staple zone”. To do this there will have to be a paper feed into the stapler, then a system which will drop the stapled pages down into the paper collecting tray.
- From an economical standpoint, this product would increase in price due to the stapling system that would be incorporated. Also, more materials will be required to incorporate the new system. Regardless of these issues, the advantage of the extra feature would outweigh the disadvantage (increase in cost). Consumers are willing to spend a little more money for higher functionality.
- By introducing an automatic stapling system into the product, it will create less work for the user. Typically, when printing multiple copies, the user must separate the copies and bind them by their own means. This takes time and effort which can be reduced by incorporating the design revision. Anything that speeds up a process and makes it more efficient is pleasing to society as a whole. For this reason, the revision would have a societal influence.
- Globally this design revision will have minimum influence. The only conceivable effect introducing a stapling system would have would be a noise consideration. A stapler needs to be punched down, which makes a little bit of noise. In a location where minimizing noise levels is an issue, this product might be considered unacceptable.
- Automatic staplers have very low failure rates. The system applies the same force every time and therefore there are almost never any jams. In the case where human force is used to staple pages, often not enough, or too much force is applied and a jam occurs. Every jam creates waste, which is bad for the environment. An automatic stapling system would reduce waste and in the long run help the environment.
- Overall this design revision may take some research into the feasibility and actuality. However the need to print multiple pages on reoccurring occasions would make this necessary for optimal performance. The need to save time is always a task engineers are attempting to elaborate on.
- The Lexmark Z-82 all-in-one printing unit currently uses a parallel cord to connect to the computer. This cord provides the means to transfer information back and forth between the two. The use of a parallel cord creates constraints on capabilities of using the product. A design revision which would remove these constraints would be to remove the parallel cord and replace it with blue tooth technology.
- Incorporating blue tooth technology would reduce the hassle of set-up. Instead of having to run wires along walls, the printer unit can be placed anywhere near an outlet. Also, printing can be performed from any location within a certain range of the printer. These are societal factors in that the customer will be pleased with its simple installation and removing the constraints of printing locations. This will in turn lead to customer loyalty and a boost in sales. In turn, this affects Lexmark in an economic stand-point. Though a wireless system would be slightly more expensive, its advantages will outweigh its disadvantages (higher price). Another way the economic factor would be influenced by this design revision would be that the product will have a longer shelf-life. Many current technological devices are moving toward wireless technology, therefore moving in that direction would keep Lexmark ahead of the curve.
- Switching to blue tooth technology will have global implications as well. Currently there are several style ports for different computers depending on region. Wireless technology will make it such that the connection between computer and printer is universal, regardless of location. This will in turn expand Lexmark’s sales regions; another economic factor.
- The removal of parallel cords means that there will no longer be a necessity to manufacture this part. If the part is no longer manufactured then less of the raw materials used to manufacture it will be used. Also, the manufacturing process which produces emissions that are released into the air will be removed. Finally, when the unit’s life is over, there are fewer waste products. These issues show that the removal of the parallel cord would have significant environmental factors.
Touchscreen and multiple connectivity
- A possible design revision at the system level of the Lexmark Z82 All-In-One printer would greatly affect the user interface and the function of the product. By adding a touch screen to the design and allowing it to connect directly to a camera, USB, or SD card the printer can essentially produce hard copies of information directly from an installed program rather than connecting to another source (PC, Mac). Changing the printer in this way is a great improvement because now users that do not own a computer can produce documents in public locations, or create photos, and print them directly from the portable devices. Also this interface may provide users with a more aesthetic interface to deal with rather than the dull buttons and LCD screen the product currently possess’.
- This type of an upgrade to the product can cause certain societal, economic, environmental, and global concerns. Most importantly this type of an upgrade involves how the user interacts with the All-In-One printer. From a societal standpoint this product involves the ability for any kind of user to work with it. People with vision problems will be able to see the color screen better than a gray LCD screen and the use of icons will allow for users to interpret the function they are using. Also the interface will allow users to connect with it more readily by using different information storing devices. Globally this technology is fairly well known in most developed countries. However providing an interface that is proficient in many languages would be essential. This product would allow you to change the language setting to many different languages directly from the interface. Looking from a consumer and producer standpoint economic concerns can generate mixed responses. Take for example a consumer that owns a camera and does not have the means to buy a computer, however is very passionate in compiling photographs. This feature on the product would be extremely beneficial to such an individual after an initial cost. Over time the product would make up for the cost to print photos from a second party. The producer of such a product would however have to spend time developing and researching what types of touch screen interfaces would help sell the product to the consumer. This would cost the producer initial costs as well as cost during the products lifetime, by doing research to insure the interface is working correctly and lasting. Environmentally this revision to the product will cause slightly different concerns. Different materials are used to develop this part of the product. Also emissions from vehicles of people driving to drop off and pick up copies or printouts will affect the environmental concerns for this product.
- Essentially by revising the printer in such a way to add a touch screen interface will multiple connectivity abilities would be beneficial to the user. It also adds an appeal to it which can be used as a selling point by the producer. The interaction of this printer with other devices than a computer would be considered a luxury.
Lexmark Z82 Assembly
For the reassembly of the Lexmark Z82 all-in-one printer, this page will go through a step by step assembly process. If a larger view of the picture is wanted, click on the picture and it will take you to another page where the picture is enlarged. In some cases labeling was not used because it took too much away from picture, but what happened was explained in the extra documentation. For the original assembly, parts like the printing unit and scanning unit were preassembled and then attached once the part that it connects to was ready for other parts to be attached. Original disassembly and reassembly of this printer is very similar. At some points different steps could be taken which is why they do not match up with the disassembly, but these differences are very minimal and do not make a difference for the end product. Also some steps in this reassembly are combined to make the reassembly easier because if these steps are not done all at once it creates problems in later steps to make reassembly more difficult and timely. For tools, unless specified, a class two phillips head screw driver was used (clockwise to put back in). There were little to no challenges faced due to parts going in easier than expected, and only needing a portion of the tools stated in our initial analysis. Below is a scale to rate how difficult it was to put back each part along with the approximate effort needed to do the task. The scale ranges from 1 to 5 with 1 being a very simple step which requires little time (a few minutes) and no hard work to accomplish, and 5 being a step which was very difficult to complete and required the most time (more than 10 minutes).
|Scale number||Difficulty to attach part||Approximate time needed|
|1||Part just put in place||Less than 10 seconds|
|2||Attachment ports visible (up to four ports)||20 seconds or less|
|3||Attachment ports visible but (more than four ports)||60 seconds or less|
|4||Attachment ports visible with one non-visible port||2 minutes|
|5||Attachment ports visible with two or more non-visible ports||2 to 4 minutes|
|6||Lots of force required to get part in place||Up to 5 minutes|
|Procedure Number||Part Name/Part Put on||Part Placement||Extra Documentation||Difficulty scale rating||Picture|
|1||Printing rollers||Back of the ink jet plate||To place this on, ten plastic pieces had to fit into slots and move up to lock in place. Once the part was moved up, three additional clips locked into place||3|
|2||Printing gears||Left of the ink jet plate||This piece required a clip on the printing gear harness to be placed into the ink jet plate and then a screw fixed it in place||2|
|3||Printing rod||Front of the ink jet plate||The left of the rod had to be placed in first and then the left went in with little force. Then the two ends of the rods were locked into place by two clips on each end||2|
|4||Paper out feed||Front of the ink jet plate||The part was held in by two clips on each end (one in the front and back for each side)||2|
|5||Metal gear spacers||Front of the ink jet plate||This part is held on by three protrusions that allowed to part of be fit on top of the paper out feed. These protrusions were at each end and the middle. Then 2 screws on each end kept it from popping out from its position.||3|
|6||Printing belt tensioning device||Left of the ink jet plate||To put this piece in, the pulley assembly had to be slid into the ink jet plate and then the right plastic piece had to go into the metal hole (so the spring had something to push against when the belt is put on the pulley)||1|
|7||Printer motor||Left of the ink jet plate||This required two screws to be attached (one at the top left and one at the bottom right)||2|
|8||Rubber pad tray||Right of the ink jet plate||For this, two protrusions that were on either side of the tray had to go into the ink jet plate. Then once the back of the tray is touching the plate, two clips on each side of the tray lock it into place||2|
|9||Second printing roller||Front of the ink jet plate||First the left side of the rod with the cut outs for the belt groves was fit into its clip along with the belt being attached and then the left side of the rod was fit into its clip.||6|
|10||Wire harness||Rear of the ink jet plate||On the rear of the ink jet plate the part is place on the top of the plate and slid to the left until the metal clip in the plate attached itself to the wire harness. Then on the other side, a screw was attached to hold it in place||4|
|11||Ink cart motor||Front right of the ink jet plate||The motor head had to be pushed through the hole and then the screw holes had to be lined up. Once that was done the two screws were attached to fix it into place||2|
|12||Ink cart||Front of the ink jet plate||The top of the ink cart was placed on the top of the ink plate||1|
|13||Ink cart belt and printing rod||Front of the ink jet plate||The belt was first attached to the cart. Then the belt was placed over the motor and then stretched over the belt tensioning device. Lastly the printing rod was placed through the hole on the right for the rod and then attached with two clips on each side||6|
|14||Paper tray||Front of the printer base||This part had to be placed down and then slid up until it hit the back of the top of the base (when it was in place a mechanism snapped into place so it was known that it was locked into place)||1|
|15||Roller housing||Rear of the printer base||This piece had to be placed into four protrusions (two on each side) for this piece to be attached||1|
|16||Back panel #2||Rear of the printer base||This part needed to have two protrusions put into place and then the part was moved up until the clips locked it into place||2|
|17||Rear motherboard plate||Rear of the printer base||This piece was attached using two screws. The screws were in the back right and left of the plate||2|
|18||Right metal control panel plate||Back right of the rear motherboard plate||This piece was attached by being slid into two clips (one on the right and one on the left)||2|
|19||Right computer communication motherboard||Back right of the printing base unit||To attach the motherboard along with the metal plate below it required two class one screws to be screwed in on the bottom right and left of the motherboard||2|
|20||Left metal control panel plate||Back left of the motherboard plate||This piece was attached by being slid into two clips (one on the right and one on the left)||2|
|21||Left computer communication motherboard||Back left of the printing base unit||To attach the motherboard along with the metal plate below, it required two class one screws to be screwed in on the bottom right and left of the motherboard||2|
|22||Printing unit||Middle of the printing unit base||To attach the printing unit to the base, the printing unit was fit into two protrusions sticking out of the base, and then two screws on the bottom right and left held it into place||2|
|23||Middle cover||Top of the base of the unit||To attach this piece the cover had to move into two slots on the bottom. Then three screws kept it attached. Two screws were attached to the base on the bottom right and left of the cover. The third was attached on the top middle of the cover||3|
|24||Support panel||Middle left of the middle cover||This required the protrusions on the panel to be pinched and fit into the holes on the cover||2|
|25||Main motherboard||Middle of the middle cover||This motherboard required two screw at the top left and right to secure it (then other parts would secure it in place later on in the assembly)||2|
|26||Display panel||Front of the middle cover||This part was put into place and then left alone (when this part is fixed into place fixes the main motherboard into place by applying extra pressure to the bottom right corner of the motherboard)||1|
|27||Inner plate #1||Front of the main unit||To put this part in, two clips on the top right and middle of the plate were put into the middle cover. Then two screws on the bottom right and left of the plate attached it to the main structure (this also fixed the display panel to the main unit)||2|
|28||Right face plate||Right side of the main unit||To attach this, this part had two clips that it attached to on the bottom left and right. Then a screw on the top middle fixed it in place||2|
|29||Left face plate||Left side of the main unit||To attach this, this part had two clips that it attached to on the bottom left and right. Then a screw on the top middle fixed it in place||2|
|30||Back panel||Rear of the main unit||This piece had four protrusions that fit onto the bottom of the main unit (two on each side). Then two screws on the top left and right held it in place||3|
|31||Springs||Bottom of the bulb tray||Each spring went into one of the holes that were located roughly three inches from each end||1|
|32||Bulb assembly and plastic tabs||On top the tray||This required the bulb assembly to be put in with the bulb facing up and the wires lining up with the bulb tray hole||1|
|33||Scanning gear/motor assembly and gear cover||Right of the scanning unit housing||This piece required a screw on the bottom right, bottom left, and top right to fix it into place. Then the gear cover went on top without anything other than the adhesive that is already on the underside of the cover||2|
|34||Scanner belt pulley||Left of the scanning unit housing||This piece was attached using two screws that were attached on the top and bottom of the piece||2|
|35||Scanner belt||Middle of the scanning unit housing||Attaching this included putting the belt over the gearing driver. Then the belt had to be stretched over the belt tensioning pulley||6|
|36||Scanning shaft||Middle of the scanning unit housing||The shaft had to be placed into a slot on each side that kept the shaft in place to prevent it from making unwanted movement||1|
|37||Scanning unit||On top of the scanning unit housing||The scanning unit was placed in the shaft with the wires on the top side||1|
|38||Scanner wire cover||Top middle of the scanning unit housing||This piece had two protrusions on the top left and right that fit into the housing. Then the cover was pushed down till it locked into place with the clips that were located on the bottom left and right.||2|
|39||Scanner glass||Top of the scanning unit housing||This piece was placed on the top of the housing and then kept in place by four pieces of tape which were at each of the four corners||2|
|40||Top scanning unit plate||Top of the scanning unit housing||This piece was attached to the housing by having the eight clips (two on each side of each corner) engage to the plate||3|
|41||Top plate||Back of the scanning unit housing||This piece had two clips on the bottom right and two on the bottom left that attached to the scanning unit by going into two holes and then attaching when the clips went flush with the scanning unit||3|
|42||Scanning unit||Back of the main unit||The clips on the back left and right of the main unit attached to the scanning unit by being pinched and moved around until the protrusions moved into place||2|
|43||Wire cover #1||Back of the main unit||This piece had the back left and right tabs put into the top back of the main unit. The two clips engaged to keep it in place when the front of the wire cover was moved down||2|