Group 21 2012 Gate 1

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Contents

Project Management:Request for Proposal

Work Proposal

\'\'Disassembly Plan \'\'

Our plan for disassembling the bicycle will be a step-by-step process to work our way up from the simpler systems to the more complex ones. In doing this, it will leave more room for us to analyze the complex systems, which will allow us to better grasp how the complex systems operate. Our plan can be seen in Table 1.

\'\'\'Table 1: Disassembly Plan\'\'\'

System/Device Name Process Tools Used Estimated Time
1: Brake System
  • Remove lever from handlebars using a wrench to loosen the bolt on the lever
  • Snip cable from lever using wire cutters
  • Remove brake pads using a wrench
  • Repeat for both front and back brakes
Wrench, screwdriver, and wire cutters 10 minutes
2: Handlebars/Seat
  • Remove handlebars and steering stem using a wrench. The stem will come right out after handlebars no longer hold it in place.
  • Remove seat by the lever whose purpose is to raise and lower the seat
Wrench and human hands 10 minutes
3: Shifting System
  • Undo derailleur pinch bolt
  • Snip cable from end of derailleur pinch bolt using wire cutters
  • Remove cable by manually shifting to the highest gear setting which will push the cable out
  • Repeat for both left and right shifters
Wire cutters and human hands 10 minutes
4: Gears System
  • Remove pedals using a wrench and screwdriver
  • Remove chain using a chain breaker tool
  • Remove front wheel with a wrench
  • Remove rear wheel with a wrench
  • Remove crank set using a socket tool. Remove the lock ring, loosen the bearing, and remove it from the bracket.
Chain breaker, wrench, and socket tool 10 minutes

If done in this order, our chances of encountering challenges along the way should be greatly reduced, and no one step should take much longer than any other step. The process overall should not take that long.

\'\'Challenges \'\'

There will be a few challenges that we will encounter during disassembly of the bicycle. We will need to be sure that all parts removed are properly placed aside and remain undamaged as to allow for a smooth reassembly. We will also need to remember all the steps required in removing systems so that said systems can be reattached to the bicycle and ensure that it is in working order.

\'\'Capabilities and Shortcomings\'\'

Our capabilities as a group vary since our group itself is rather diverse. Some of us excel in technical writing and planning, while others excel in the more hands on aspect of disassembling and reassembling a product. Combined, we can all put our different strengths together and learn from those that are better than us in certain aspects.

The major shortcomings for this project do not relate to technical expertise of the group, but rather in our communication and scheduling skills. Due to multiple classes and other activities, finding a time when all or most group members can assemble for the project is a challenge onto itself. This problem can be dealt with by planning group meetings early on and adjusting our individual schedules accordingly. This is also in part tied to communication issues. Because we are all students located throughout campus, communication is vital to the success of the group, and can be overcome through a variety of means such as email, text messaging, or phone calls.

\'\'Project Team \'\'

Each group member will have a specific role and responsibility for the semester. We believe by having the work evenly distributed the project will run smoothly. The assigned roles, responsibilities, as well as contact information of each group member can be found in Table 2.

\'\'\'Table 2: Group 21 Roles, Responsibilities and Contact Information \'\'\'

Nicholas Harrison Task Manager His responsibilities include assigning tasks to be finished to individual group members. Problems and concerns of the group should be brought to him. email- nlharris@buffalo.edu
Jonathan Hughes Dissection Expert His responsibilities include dissection and reassembling the product. He is the most experienced so any questions concerning those parts should be directed towards him. email- jhughes5@buffalo.edu
Elizabeth Moon Photographer Her responsibilities include overseeing the dissection and reassembly, noting any problems that may have occurred, while taking photographs. If there are any specific photo requests, please direct them to her. email- esmoon@buffalo.edu
Garrett Rice Mechanisms Expert His responsibilities will include mechanism analysis. Any questions concerning this topic should be brought to him. email- gmrice@buffalo.edu
Tiffany Vinette Project Manager/Wiki Expert Her responsibilities include programming the wiki, allowing for appropriate technical communication. All finished parts of the gates are to be sent to her by email before the due date. She is also responsible for the project management portion of the project and updating meeting minutes. She will send out additional emails containing meeting minutes and tasks to be finished for the week. Any non technical problems concerning the group should be brought to her. email- tvinette@buffalo.edu

\'\'Weekly Meetings \'\'

If there is any need to contact our group, please get in touch with the Project Manager, Tiffany Vinette. Our group will meet on a weekly basis, Mondays at 5:00 p.m., located in Knox 104. Any other additional meetings will be decided upon by the Project Manager. At these meetings, we will be bringing the Project Manager up to speed on the tasks at hand. For the dissection process, we will be meeting in the lab during a specified time and day TBD. At these meetings we will go over any week to week tasks and assignment questions that any group members have. Any issues concerning the group can also be brought up at this time.

A timeline is provided for a reference as to which tasks should be done and when. Table 3 is provided below.

\'\'\'Table 3: Project Timeline\'\'\'

Week of Sept 10 Week of Sept 17 Week of Sept 24 Week of Oct 1 Week of Oct 8 Week of Oct 15 Week of Oct 22 Week of Oct 29 Week of Nov 5 Week of Nov 12 Week of Nov 19 Week of Nov 26 Week of Dec 3 Week of Dec 10
Monday Meeting
Product Proposal:
Section 1: The Four Factors
Section 2: Product Complexity
Section 3: Product Cost and Ownership
Turn in Product Proposal Due 9/12
Gate 1:
Work Proposal
Management Proposal
Product Archaeology
Wiki Update
Turn in Gate 1 Due 10/8
Gate 2:
Preliminary Project Review
Dissection
Wiki Update
Turn in Gate 2 Due 10/26
Gate 3:
Cause for Corrective Action
Component Summary
Product Analysis
Solid Modeled Assembly
Engineering Analysis
Design Revisions
Wiki Update
Turn in Gate 3 Due 11/16
Gate 4:
Cause for Corrective Action
Product Reassembly
Mechanisms
Design Revisions
Wiki Update
Turn in Gate 4 Due 11/30
Gate 5:
Finalization of Deliverables
Final Assessment
Technical Report
Oral Presentation Date TBD
Wiki Update
Turn in Gate 5 Due 12/ 14
Key
Monday Meeting
Proposal
Gate 1 Tasks
Gate 2 Tasks
Gate 3 Tasks
Gate 4 Tasks
Gate 5 Tasks

Product Archaeology: Preparation and Initial Assessment

Development Profile

The history of the bicycle is highly debated, as many different models have been designed over the past couple hundred years. However, the first time two wheels and a frame were used for transportation purposes is believed to be in 1817. Common mountain bicycles have become more and more popular in recent years due to its ability to travel in different types of terrain. The bicycle operates by using mechanical energy from the rider, so there are only economic concerns when it comes the initial physical design of the bicycle, as it needs no fuel to operate. Ideally, a designer would want to find a lightweight but strong material for all parts, especially the frame. The designer would want the wheels to be durable, as that is the subsystem that is facing the most potential operating difficulties from extended use due to constant rolling contact with the ground. The main purpose of the bicycle is to provide free, efficient transportation after one owns the bicycle. It is used by people virtually everywhere across the world whose climate permits it. It is used widely in both urban and rural areas. Spalding is an American sports company, as what they market is widely intended for American markets, but bicycles are also very popular in China and parts of Europe.

Usage Profile

The bicycle is intended to be used to transport a person and that person\'s belongings a relatively mid-ranged distance, meaning longer than a reasonable walk and shorter than a reasonable drive. Many other people in America and other parts of the world also use it as a form of exercise, as users can burn hundred of calories per hour, depending on their body composition and level of intensity of exercise [1]. Different types of bicycles are made for different types of conditions and distances, but the mountain bike is one of the most common due to its vast versatility. It is extremely common in other countries for people to use bicycles as their primary source of transportation, especially in larger cities [2].

Energy Profile

When analyzing the types of energy that are present in the system of a bicycle and the rider, it is important to understand that energy is constantly being converted to other types, as long as the rider is pedaling or the wheels are turning. One way energy is supplied by the rider when the rider moves their legs in a circular motion, rotating the chain rings and sprockets which are connected to a set of cogs on the rear wheel by a chain. Some bicycles have a gear system that allows the rider to interchange these gears and cogs, often using a simple derailleur system. This kinetic energy is now converted to rotating the wheels, which causes the bicycle to translate in the linear motion. The faster the bicycle is moving, the more kinetic energy is present in the system. When a rider is riding up a hill there is a loss in kinetic energy as the bicycle slows down. The rider can also input mechanical energy by moving the handlebars to the left or right which turns the front wheel, causing the bicycle to move left or right. The rider can also use a force to squeeze the brakes located by the handlebars that will transmit this force through the use of cables to squeeze the brake pads that slow down and eventually stop the tires. These things all affect the kinetic and potential energy of the system.

Complexity Profile

There are four main systems in a bicycle that contain individual components that vary in mechanical complexity. It is imperative that all four of these systems are working properly to ensure a safe and effective experience for the rider.

\'\'Structural System\'\'

Most frames in common bicycles are made from an aluminum alloy, where a compromise is made between weight/strength efficiency and cost. The shape is designed to be aerodynamic but support certain weight. Handlebars for steering and wheels for translation are also major components in the structure. A subsystem for the structural system is the suspension system that uses a shock absorber.

\'\'Drive System\'\'

This system is is what transmits the input energy from the rider to output kinetic energy. The main aspect of the bicycle that makes it so popular is that it doesn\'t require some kind of material fuel that costs money. The rider moves their feet in a circular path moving the pedals which are attached to gears and a chain that cause the wheels to turn. A subsystem of the drive system is the transmission subsystem, which involves a gear shifter, cables, derailleur, and gears.

\'\'Brake System\'\'

The braking system is the most important safety feature on the bicycle. A reliable braking system is important no matter what type of bicycle is being used, as it is a very complex system. Caliper brakes are common on most mid-range distance bicycles. This subsystem applies a pressure to the tire rim proportional to the force applied by the rider. This subsystem includes the brakes, brake pads, cables, and caliper arms.

Material Profile

The frames of most common bicycles are made of steel or aluminum alloys. This is because steel and aluminum are relatively cheap and machinable. Aluminum is the cheaper option, but it is not nearly as strong as steel. When aluminum is chosen, the frame must be made considerably thicker due to its lack of strength [3]. The spokes of the wheels are usually made out of steel and are very strong. The wheels are made out of rubber. Seats can be made out of a variety of materials, often leather. Chains are made out of steel, as they are made to be resistant to corrosion.

User Interaction

Bicycles are very popular due to their ease of use, which is often learned by people at a very young age and it is a skill that is easily retained for life. Riding a bicycle is a purely mechanical process, and the path a rider will travel is easy to visualize. Steering and braking are largely intuitive, as it becomes second nature with experienced riders. The product is easy to use at a young age and can be done as long as the user is physically fit. Maintenance can be somewhat complex for bicycles. This is because there are many systems and subsystems that are required to work almost perfectly in order for the bicycle to function properly. Maintenance can be as simple as pumping air into a tire or replacing a chain to being as complex as replacing an entire tire and rim and fixing gears. Cleaning and maintenance should vary based on how often the bike is used, and what kind of conditions it is exposed to [4]. The amount of problems the user can fix depends on their skill and experience with bicycles.

Product Alternative

The bicycle is very unique because it is a source of mid-range transportation that requires no expensive fuel to operate and it can travel a certain distance in a relatively short amount of time. An alternative for a short bike ride would be to walk, which would be slower but require less extreme energy to be expended. An alternative to a long bike ride would be to travel using a motorized vehicle, which would be faster but require a cost of energy. Also, driving somewhere is not a form of exercise, which should be taken into account. This is why so many people use the bicycle on a daily basis, which proves it to be a truly great innovation in transportation across the world.