Group 14 - GM 4 Cylinder Engine 2

From GICL Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
GM 2.2L 4 Cylinder Engine

Contents

Introduction

Our group was given a GM 2.2L Four Cylinder Inline Engine to reverse engineer over the entire semester. We will be disassembling, documenting/analyzing each component, and reassembling the engine.

Gate 1: Request for Proposal

Work Proposal

Group Capabilities and Short Comings

  • Anthony Crispo
He is very familiar with 3D modeling programs such as Pro-E, Inventor, and Solidworks. Also, he knows a lot about engines, capable of designing a Wiki page, and comfortable with technical writing and editing. However, he cannot manage his time very well and is not available most of the time due to other obligations.
  • Michael Micieli
He is capable of doing drawings in either CAD or Inventor and can easily design a Wiki page. He has great time managing skills and work ethic. Unfortunately, Mike has never worked on a car engine in his life, so he does not know that much about them.
  • Matt Rhode
Matt has worked in a machine shop for quite some time and is very comfortable with the tools we will be needing for the dissection and reassembly of the engine. He has worked on small gas engines and other small machines, but has never worked on an engine of this scale.
  • Jim Grace
Jim has had previous experience with automotive engines including assembly, design, engineering, and manufacturing. He is also very experienced in programs such as Inventor, Solidworks, Pro-E, Unigraphics, Fluent(CAE), and Ansys Design Space(CAE). He is currently trying to strengthen his high speed communications network knowledge and software applications knowledge.

Possible Challenges

Only two of the team members have a very in depth knowledge about engines, so the other two will need to do some research outside of the project to know get a better understanding of the engine. Also, since we have such a large product the documentation and organization of the individual components is going to be difficult if not done right. We are only given so much room to work with inside of the lab and once more people start taking their products apart we will be very limited on space.

Dissection and Assembly Plan

We will be working together with Group 12 over the course of this project due to the size and complexity of the engine. Instead of splitting up the engine amongst the two groups we will be working on it together, so everyone gets a chance to see each component and learn about its function within the engine. We know that engines contain hundreds of pieces varying in size and shape, so our dissection method must be organized and efficient. We plan on starting at the top of the engine and working our way down to the very bottom of it. Along the way, we will put every component in a bag, label it with a number, record when it was removed, write down what was used to remove it, and note how difficult it was to remove it. If we take the time to document everything correctly in the beginning then the assembly will go smoothly, we will just have to reverse the process. The entire process should take around 8 hours to complete.

Required Tools

  • Metric Socket Set
  • Screwdrivers
  • Nut drivers
  • Retainer ring pliers
  • Pliers
  • Wrenches

Management Proposal

We plan on working together with group 12 on every part of the engine rather than splitting it up between the two groups. Mike Micieli and Marc Krug will be communicating with each other every step of the way to make sure both groups have the information they need. Both groups will meet every Monday at 5:00 in the basement of Capen Library to discuss deadlines, tasks, and the progress of the project, which will last around an hour. There will be additional meetings within our group on Wednesdays at 6:30 in the same location to make sure everyone is on track or to clear up any concerns that will last 30 minutes. As decided by the two, lab days will be on Tuesday and Thursday at 6:30. On Tuesdays, our group will in the lab along with the company of a recorder from Group 14. For the labs on Thursday, we will send our recorder along with Group 12 so we are always informed about what goes on in lab.

Gantt Chart

Below is figure 1A, it is a Gantt chart depicting out projected time table to complete tasks assigned.

Gant chart 14.JPG

Figure 1A Gantt chart

Main point of contact:

Mike Micieli mamiciel@buffalo.edu

Group Positions

Michael Micieli-Project Leader, Communication Liaison

  • Responsible for assigning tasks and making sure the group is meeting its deadlines
  • Maintain communications with Group 12 and the Professor
  • Help with the Wiki and any other task

Anthony Crispo-Wiki Editor and Solid Modeling Expert

  • Main Editor
  • Uploads all necessary documents to the Wiki and makes sure its up to date
  • Responsible for the completion of the 3D drawings

Jim Grace-Technical Expert and Main Researcher

  • Responsible for providing everyone with the technical details
  • Research the complex issues or anything the group is unclear about
  • Keep the dissection and assembly processes going smoothly
  • Aid with 3D drawings

Matt Rhode-Main Recorder

  • Documents everything that happens during the dissection and assembly processes
  • Responsible for taking images of the engine and its components
  • Relay information to Wiki Editor

Conflict Resolution

If conflicts arrive they will be handled accordingly; minor issues will be discussed at group meetings, major issues will be dealt with by the group leader, and serious conflicts will be brought to the attention of the professor.

Preparation and Initial Assessment

Development Profile

The product was developed over a number of years. It was initially designed in 1982 and updated and reworked over the years up to 1999.
In this time period, 1982 to 1999, a key global and economic concern was the emergence of globalization. With such treaties as the North American Free Trade Agreement, products were able to be made and sold in locations around the world. This allows corporation to maximize productions efficiencies by producing products in places where labor costs are low. For example this allows our product to be produced in mexico and be sold in the USA and Canada
Chevy is a worldwide producer and vendor, it sells in markets such as China, Europe, North and South America as well as Australia. This particular product is intended to be sold globally; there is no specific country for which it was designed for, but there are specific countries that would not buy it such as the Congo in Africa. The engine, over 3 million sold, was used in many cars ranging from the Chevy Cavalier to the S-10 pickup.
The engine is designed to be used in multiple automobiles. Each of these automobiles serves different tasks. The engine, however, is designed to provide the power necessary to propel the vehicle. The intended impact on the consumer is the ability to, with regular maintenance, operate their automobile.

Usage Profile

The intended use of the 2.2 liter engine is to be the main source of power production in some Chevy and GM automobiles.
This engine is designed for both home and professional use. The Chevy Cavalier is a sedan intended as a means of transportation to and from work and daily activities. The S-10 can be used both as an individual’s daily mode of transportation as well as an ‘on the job’ truck. The most common uses of a pickup truck in the professional service is transporting items to and from job locations and moving finished products from warehouses to home consumers.
This product performs many jobs. Seeing as the engine was designed to be used in many vehicles, it has the capability to power a wide variety of cars. Its most common task is to supply power to GM and Chevy automobiles.

Energy Profile

The General Motors 2.2 litre, four cylinder engine’s primary function is to transform chemical energy into rotational energy. Chemical energy, in the form of petroleum, is supplied to the engine via the fuel pump. The fuel pump then distributes the fuel to the individual cylinders through the fuel rail and injectors. Then a source of electrical energy from the spark plugs is used to initiate combustion in each cylinder. The timing for ignition in each of the cylinders is determined by the intervals set by the distributor. Through this combustion, the petroleum’s chemical energy is converted into heat and pressure, which forces the pistons into linear motion. This linear kinetic energy is transferred to the crankshaft via the piston rods, which is then transformed into rotational energy.
While the greater portion of the engine’s power output is used to provide motion to the vehicle in which it is situated, some of the energy is also used to run ancillary systems. Both climate control and power-assisted handling are just two of the ancillary systems that use some of the energy from the engine to run. However, perhaps the most important system uses the engines energy output is the engine itself. Some of the rotational energy is used by crankshaft to keep the engine running. Also, some of energy is used to drive the fuel pump and alternator, which maintain fuel flow and provide necessary electrical energy to the engine, respectively.

Complexity Profile

In creating a complexity file for this product we have made the following assumptions:

  • For this discussion, complexity is taken as; the number of parts in the object of discussion, the level of sophistication those parts display, i.e.; design features or innovation, uniqueness or freshness of the technology, manufacturing difficulty, and the sophistication of the interactions between those components.
  • The team has taken the definition of a part to be, “the smallest denominator of a device that can accomplish the function it was intended to perform”.
  • Some generalizations will be made to describe the parts until the engine dissection occurs.


The engine is made up of roughly three hundred “components” and is summarized in the classifications below:

  • Threaded Fasteners:
There are approximately twenty to thirty types of bolts or nuts in this application. They are used to join two components together in several instances. The overall designs of the various fasteners are rather common. They are used to join large components, like the engine block to the header, and to smaller items, such as the oil filler neck.
  • Gaskets & Seals:
This particular group includes the gaskets between main components, which are used to seal from air, oil, and other fluid contamination or leaks. For higher pressure environments, fittings such as o-rings, compression seals, and mechanical seals are used.
  • Electrical components:
Items such as spark plug wires, spark plugs, the main electrical harness, and distributor and coils are all included in the electrical system of the engine. Also, there are additional electrical components including sensor wires, an oxygen sensor, a coolant sensor, and an oil sensor which all located on the engine; these sensors also relay information to the user through the dashboard. Each piece has specific function that will be detailed once dissection, inspection, and research are complete.
  • Main housings:
The following pieces were visible without dis-assembly; engine block, cylinder head, manifold, valve cover, intake manifold, and oil pan. More information on these items will be available after dissection and catalog.
  • Internal engine components:
From similar examples of common engine internal components we can say there are the following parts; crank shaft, cam shaft, oil pump, timing chain and gears, pistons and connecting rods, various bearings and journals, sleeves, valves, lifters, springs, push rods, and rocker arms. Each has a fundamental role in the transfer and distribution of mechanical energy.
  • Accessory drives, exhaust & fuel delivery:
The following items were visible externally; water pump, thermostat, pulleys (several different), belt tensioner, exhaust manifold, fuel injectors, throttle body, fuel rail, oil filter, and oil filler tube. All of the pieces are typical engine accessory components, which are all responsible for various functions such as supplying fuel to the engine, keeping it cool, and much more.

Component Complexity

  • The scale below identifies the complexity classifications for component attributes:
Simple- Well developed component to a point where it is a commodity. 1 process to manufacture.
Moderately Complex- 2 or 3 processes to manufacture – unique form, and would require some product expertise to successfully manufacture.
Complex- 4 or more processes to manufacture – unique design or unique process – core technology for a company’s success.
Very Complex- Patented unique design, manufacturing process, new technology, or proprietary technology establishing global leadership.
  • Below, the components are divided into classes and a brief reasoning behind the classification.
Simple
Threaded Fasteners: All fasteners were “off the shelf” (commodity) parts with no special features or processing.
Gaskets & Seals : All sealing parts were off the shelf items or die cut forms.
Electrical components: All electrical components were commodity parts with no special features.
Moderate
Main housings: At the time the engine was introduced, lost foam casting was a newer manufacturing process. This puts the group of components into the moderate class; 2 or 3 processes (casting, machining, press-fit seats) with an expertise needed to manufacture the product successfully.
Assessory components: This includes a variety of components, water pump, pulleys, etc. Each is a well developed, commoditized part, but requiring several steps to process the parts.
Complex
Internal engine: Many of these components (cam shaft, cylinder head, etc.) require very precise surface finishes. These can be time consuming and difficult to manufacture and puts them into the complex classification.
The majority of components are very basic in nature; housings, fasteners, and structural members that are cast, machined, forged, or manufactured are all done using common processes. For example, the cylinder head used a “lost foam” process that may have been a new application at the time the engine was designed, but is very common today. Some injection molded or cast molded products are present, particularly for high temperature application, as in the intake manifold. These show some moderate complexity and manufacturing skill.

Interaction Complexity

The interactions of the components above, in general, follow their component classifications. Fasteners and gaskets have interactions that are well known and simple in nature. Main housing have interactions that are also used across the automotive industry with only a few minor exceptions; press fit seats – which are steel inserted features that give long life to high wear areas, and studs that require additional processing. Internal component interactions of the parts associated with motion translation are complex, translating “linear motion” into rotational motion and back to rotational motion in many instances. Several having special characteristics too them, needing special processing and several steps to reach the finished product in order to create the surfaces by which they interact. An example would be the cam shaft and the lifting rods. The surface interaction is very important and must minimize friction. The same would apply to the valves and valve seats; they too rely heavily on precise interaction to accomplish their function. However, these cannot be categorized as “very complex” because the concepts have been available for many years and are well known within the industry. The team observed no new technologies delivered on this application.

Material Profile

Visible Materials

The most abundant material used in the production of the engine is by far metals. The largest single piece, the engine block, is cast and machined iron. Iron was chosen because it is strong, durable, and much cheaper than its aluminum alternative. The exhaust manifold is also cast iron. Stamped steel is also used for things like the oil pan and oil filter most likely, because it is relatively easy and cheap to manufacture. Steel is also used for parts like gears, serpentine belt pulleys, and bolts because of steel’s strength and cost effectiveness. Parts like the water pump are made out of aluminum because of its lightweight as well as it is relatively cheap. Plastic and rubber is used on parts like hoses, dipstick cap, spark plug wires and brackets that hold hoses or wires in place.

Concealed Materials

Just like the exterior of the engine, majority of the internal parts are made out of metal. The cylinder head, valves, and pistons are most likely a cast and machined iron or aluminum. While iron is more durable and inexpensive, aluminum is makes the engine much lighter. Steel or iron is probably utilized for other parts like the camshaft, crankshaft, rocker arms, springs, and internal bolts because of its strength, durability, and cost effectiveness. Stamped steel or rubber is most likely used for the gaskets, which create an air or liquid tight seal on parts like the valve cover, oil pan, or dipstick cap.

User Interaction Profile

User Interface

The engine that we were supplied was one intended to be mounted and used inside of a retail available vehicle. This intent allows the following assumption to be made; the user would interact predominately with the engine in a manner that a person operating a vehicle would (with an addition of maintenance and repair which will be explained later). A user would sit inside a vehicle and operate the power output of the engine with a throttle cable connected to a pedal that is pressed with the user’s foot. Conventionally, combustion engines in public vehicles are initially started with a starter motor that the user activates with the vehicle’s key, however this engine does not currently have a starter motor mounted on it. In conjunction with directly controlling the engine’s performance, the user has access to information about the engine’s condition which would be displayed to the user while inside the vehicle. This is evident through the multiple electronic connections available on the engine which are linked to sensors providing vital data such as engine temperature, oil condition, air-filter condition, etc.
Beyond the operation of the engine, the user and/or others would interact with the engine during periods of maintenance and repair. For these situations, the engine has additional parts added and certain aspects specially designed. Firstly, there is a metal band extended down into the engine’s internals, which can be removed to check oil levels. This part’s existence does not directly impact the engine’s operation but is required to maintain oil amounts needed for performance. For part repair/replacement the engine is built and designed in a manner to allow a person access. There are protrusions on the main engine block which aid in handling and moving the engine. Bolts and small parts (such as spark plugs) are positioned in a manner to allow space for the necessary tool and removal of the part. It should be noted that while these additional design aspects help repair and maintenance, the average operator would still be troubled in attempting to do it without the proper understanding and tools.
The idea of something being intuitive implies that without prior knowledge and understanding of the object, a person can very quickly begin using it properly. In this sense, an internal combustion engine can be intuitive. It can be difficult for an average user to understand or know much about the engine’s processes for performing, but with short trial time or sometimes simply observing another operator, the use of the engine by a new user can be learned readily. Operation aside, maintenance and repair of the engine require a much deeper understanding of how the system works and do not lend it readily to an average operator.
Where intuitive deals with how quickly a user can operate the engine, ease of use deals more with what the user is doing while operating it. During operation, a user can expend very little energy to get the desired performance from the engine. An average user does not need to be physically conditioned in any way to help operation of the engine. Also, ease of use is shown in that when a person moves past the initial period of unintuitive operation, using the engine can almost become a second nature.

Maintenance

Maintenance is the process of keeping a product in good working order, which is key to keeping an engine running properly. The performance of the engine is a process that can degrade over time and does require proper maintenance to continue operation. The system is not frictionless and there is motion so there is energy expended into the engine that causes wear on parts. This wear should be regularly checked through maintenance and repair. As implied and stated previously, neither the repair nor maintenance can be an easy or intuitive process. This is evident in the entire field of auto-mechanics who cater to doing maintenance and repair on engines for the average user who is unsure of what to do or lacks the tools required.

Alternative Profiles

Alternative Engines

1) A similar alternative is the Mazda F2 2.2L SOHC engine used in the Ford Probe and Mazda MX6.
2) Because GM also used this 2.2L inline 4 cylinder engine in its small trucks, such as the Chevy S-10/GMC Sonoma, the optional 4.3L V6 was a direct alternative.

Advantages

1) Unlike the OHV (Overhead valve) engine, a SOHC (single overhead camshaft) engine uses the camshaft to control the valves above the cylinders. At higher rpm’s the valve timing is almost perfect because as the camshaft rotates it moves the valves up and down. The alternative also has a lower inertia on its valve since it does not require extra components such as lifters, pushrods, and rocker arms to control valve timing. Also, SOHC engines have the capability to install three to four valves per cylinder, while OHV engines can only have two valves per cylinder due to the difficulty in implementing new technologies. This particular engine has twelve valves compared to the eight on the GM engine. Better timing improves the quality of the air mixture in the combustion chambers as well as the overall efficiency of the engine.
2) The true advantage of the 4.3L V6 is more power and torque. While the 4 cylinder only had 120 hp and 140 ft-lbs of torque the V6 had (depending on model year) as much as 195 hp and 250 ft-lbs of torque. This power and torque advantage increased GM small truck’s overall performance. The larger engine increased GM’s small truck towing and cargo capabilities. Also, by increasing power GM’s small trucks were faster than their 4 cylinder counter parts.

Disadvantages

1) SOHC engines require certain timing belts or chains with similar components to keep the camshaft running. This alternative is much more complex than the OHV engine due to the different components and the positioning of the camshaft. It is also much more expensive because of the complex parts.

2) While the larger V6 produced more power and torque, it came at the cost of fuel efficiency and purchasing price.

Performances

1)The GM 2.2L OHV engine has a horsepower of 120 hp at 5000 rpm, while the Mazda F2 SOHC engine has a horsepower of 110 hp at 4700 rpm. Also, the OHV engine has a torque of 140 ft-lb at 3600 rpm and the SOCH engine has a torque of 130 ft-lb at 3000 rpm. Even though the SOHC is more complex and has twelve valves compared to the 8 valves in the OHV, the OHV engine out performs the SOHC in terms of horsepower and torque.

2)According to http://www.mpgomatic.com, gas mileage, in mpg, dropped from 22 city/28 highway to 16 city/24 highway when the V6 was chosen instead of the inline 4. Not only does worse gas mileage hurt your wallet, but so does the cost of upgrading to the optional V6 engine.

Cost Differences

1)Since the GM OHV comes from a 94’ S-10 and the Mazda SOHC comes from 91’ Ford Probe and 92’ Mazda MX6, these engines can only be bought used (refurbished). The Mazda engine costs $2180.00 while the GM engine costs $1400 .00. The big difference in the prices is the complexity of the Mazda engine. The OHV is a much more simple and durable engine than the SOHC so it costs less.

2)While we could not find the exact cost difference of the I4 vs V6, Kelly Blue Book suggests the resale value difference of the V6 is around $500 more than the I4. Also, on the model that replaced the S-10 the cost difference between the base engine and the more powerful, optional engine, about $7,000. Even though we could not find the exact price difference, we believe it to be safe to assume the price difference to be substantial, or over $1,000.

  • There are also V6 and V8 engines that offer much more power than our product, but they have a poor fuel economy.

Gate 2: Product Dissection

Project Management: Preliminary Project Review

Cause for Corrective Action

In the end the management proposal successfully outlined the work involved with dissecting of the motor. The only real issue that was presented to the group was each member’s vast differences in schedules and available time. Because of this each member was not required to attend every meeting, but only attend a regularly scheduled meeting or dissection once a week. Because of the regular meeting and dissection times, both groups were able to successfully work together without having any unresolved issues. Both groups successfully collaborated on dissecting the engine. Each group avoided encroaching on each other’s responsibilities by splitting time in the dissection lab. Good communication between the two groups was a huge factor in the successful dissection. Also, the method of documenting the parts as they came off the engine worked as planned. Each part was numbered in the order it came off as well as packaged with the accompanying fasteners. This labeling system will hopefully avoid confusion while reassembling the engine.

Product Archaeology: Product Dissection

Difficulty Scale and Ease of Disassembly

Disassembly difficulty will be measured by three main factors; time taken, mental/knowledge requirement, and physical demand. A part may be considered difficult if it takes a large chunk of time to remove, requires a great deal of strength to take off, or if the removal process requires a great deal of thought beforehand. Depending on the part, a combination of these factors will be required to disassemble the component properly. The scale is listed below:
1-Required very little force and/or time to disassemble. Able to remove by simple hand operations or basic socket or wrench manipulation and requires a small amount of mental/physical exertion.
2-Required moderate force and tools with a significant amount of time, and/or care, in order to remove properly. It will require some more thought, but it doesn’t disrupt the dissection process.
3-Required a special tool, excessive force, or a great deal of time, combined with the thought necessary to create a procedure, to remove the component
As well as a difficulty rating, each component will be judged on whether or not it was intended to be removed. There were not any components that were connected together in such a way that they were inseparable, so it can be said that every piece can be separated from the engine. However, some parts can only be accessed through the removal of another part. The decision on whether or not a part is removable depends on the person disassembling the engine. For a mechanic, each part can be considered removable because they have the proper background and tools needed to know how to separate each component; however, some parts cannot be considered detachable by the average user because they lack the tools and knowledge needed (average users only possess the basic tools such as a ratchet set). In this dissection, it is evident which components are meant to be removed by a mechanic or average user. Without the right tool, some of these parts would have never separated.
  • We disassembled the engine from top to bottom and worked our way in. Table 1A shows our dissection process.


Table 1A:Dissection Process
The table shows each step, difficulty rating, required tool(s),and corresponding image for each component we removed from the engine block.
Step Part Procedure Description Required Tool(s) Difficulty Part Image
1 Spark Plug and Spark Plug Wires Unscrew three 10 mm bolts and disconnect the three spark plug wires from the distributor and remove the three corresponding spark plugs. hands, 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Sparkplugsandwires.jpg
2 Coolant Tube Remove one 13 mm hex nut and one 15 mm hex nut and disconnect the coolant tube. 13 mm & 15 mm sockets,3/8 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (nut), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Coolant tube.jpg
3 Fuel Rail Assembly Unscrew two 10 mm mounting bolts and remove the fuel rail 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Fulerailassemblyg14.jpg
4 Intake Assembly Remove three 13 mm standoff bolts, two 13 mm mounting bolts, two 13 mm hex nuts, and disconnect the sensor wire; remove the intake assembly. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt, nut), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Intake assemblyg14.jpg
5 Oil Filter Unscrew the oil filter. Hands 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (thread), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper wrench set. Oil filterg14.jpg
6 Vacuum Sensor Loosen the 16 mm black vacuum sensor. 16 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (thread), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper wrench set. Vacuum sensor14.jpg
7 Dipstick Tube Remove one 16 mm mounting bolt on the dipstick and disconnect it from the engine block 16 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Dipstick tubeg14.jpg
8 Exhaust header/manifold (including O2 sensor) Unscrew four 13 mm hex nuts on the exhaust header/manifold and remove it along with the O2 sensor. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (nut), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Exhaust manifoldg14.jpg
9 Valve Cover Remove the six 10 mm bolts along the edge of the valve cover. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Valvecoverg14.jpg
10 Rocker Arms and Push-rods Loosen the eight 10 mm bolts within the rocker arms and pull out the eight push-rods located inside of the valve assembly. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Rockerarmsg14.jpg
11 Distributor Unscrew the three 13 mm mounting bolts on the distributor and remove distributor. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Distributorg14.jpg
12 Water Pump Pulley Remove the one 16 mm bolt on the water pump pulley/assembly and pull off the pulley. 16 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Waterpumppullyg14.jpg
13 Mounting Bracket Unscrew the four 13 mm bolts on the mounting bracket and pull off. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Mounting bracketg14.jpg
14 Distributor Mounting Bracket and spacer Remove the five 8 mm bolts behind the Distributor and pull off the mounting bracket and spacer 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Distributor mounting bracketg14.jpg
15 Valve Housing Remove the five 15 mm external bolts and five 15 mm internal bolts connected to the valve housing and lift the assembly off the engine block. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Vlave houseingg14.jpg
16 Black mount for coolant thermostat Unscrew the two 8 mm bolts on the black housing connected to the coolant thermostat. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Blackmountforcollantthermostatg14.jpg
17 Spring gasket for coolant thermostat Pull out the spring gasket housed inside the coolant thermostat. Hands 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (loose), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Springgasketforcoolantg14.jpg
18 Silver coolant thermostat housing Unscrew the two 13 mm bolts on the silver coolant thermostat and disconnect it. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Silvercoolantthermostathousingg14.jpg
19 Belt tensioner pulley Remove two 13 mm mounting bolts on the belt tensioner pulley. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Belttensionerpullyg14.jpg
20 Belt Wheel Unscrew one 18 mm bolt with an accompanying washer and three 13 mm bolts that connect the belt wheel to the harmonic balancer. 18 mm & 13 mm sockets, 3/8 & 1/2 drive ratchets 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Beltwheelg14.jpg
21 Oil Pan Remove twelve 10 mm bolts and twelve 10 mm washers from the outer edge on the bottom of the oil pan and lift off the pan. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Oilpang14.jpg
22 Oil Pump Unscrew two 15 mm bolts connecting the oil pump to the bottom of the oil pan and end the end of the crankshaft. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Oilpumg14.jpg
23 Crankshaft clamps Remove eight 15 mm bolts on the U clamps holding the crankshaft in place. (The order goes Blue, Green, Orange, Pink from the back of the crankshaft to the front.) Use a rubber mallet to tap the clamps until they are loose enough to remove. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet, rubber mallet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Crankshaftclampsg14.jpg
24 Oil Temperature Sensor Unscrew the one 8 mm bolt holding the oil temperature sensor down to the oil pan. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Oiltemperaturesensorg14.jpg
25 RPM Sensor Unscrew the one 8 mm bolt connecting the RPM sensor to the engine block. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. RPMsensorg14.jpg
26 Temperature Sensor Disconnect the 22 mm temperature sensor from the engine block. 22 mm open end wrench 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (thread), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Temperaturesensorg14.jpg
27 Back Crankshaft Clamp Remove one 15 mm bolt from the large U clamp on the back of the crankshaft. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Backcrankshaft clamp.jpg
28 Piston Clamps Using vice grips to grasp the nuts unscrew eight 13 mm nuts (2 from each clamp) from the four piston clamps and pull them off. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. Vice Grips 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (nut), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper wrench set. Pistonclamps.jpg
29 Pistons Tap out the pistons from each of their cylinders. rubber mallet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (friction), allowing it to be removed by any person with a rubber mallet socket. Pistonclampsg14.jpg
30 Push-rod Guides Remove two 10 mm bolts from each of the four plastic push rod guides (10 from each guide) and pull them out of the engine 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt, friction), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Group14pushrodguide.jpg
31 Push-rod Seats Pull out the eight push rod seats using hands or pliers when necessary. Unscrew the one 15/16” bolt holding the camshaft pulley up in front of the camshaft. Hands, needle nose pliers 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (loose), allowing it to be removed by any person able to pull it out. Pushrodseatsg14.jpg
32 Camshaft Pulley Unscrew the one 15/16” bolt holding the camshaft pulley up in front of the camshaft. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Camshaftpullyg14.jpg
33 Harmonic Balancer Using a gear puller, pull of the harmonic balancer (lots of force). Be sure that the gear puller is pulling straight. Gear puller 3, this part was not designed to be removed be an average user. It requires a high amount of force and a specialized tool (harmonic balancer/gear/steering wheel puller) which also warrants is a high difficulty rating. However, this would be something a mechanic could readily take care of and remove the part. Harmonicbalancerg14.jpg
34 Timing Gear Cover Remove the six 8 mm holding the timing gear cover in place on the side of the engine block. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Timinggearcoverg14.jpg
35 Chain Tensioner Unscrew one 11 mm bolt, one 11 mm washer, and one T-40 Torx screw keeping the chain tensioner component in place. 11 mm socket, ¼ drive ratchet, T-40 Torx screwdriver 1, due to the location of this part (behind the harmonic balancer), it was not designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt, Torx screw). These issues would make it nearly impossible for an average user to remove this part. This could still be removed by a mechanic. Chaintensionerg14.jpg
36 Timing Chain Asembly Remove one 15/16” bolt from the timing chain assembly. After the bolt is removed, place the wrench between the engine block and the gear and use it to pry off the gear. 15/16 in open end wrench 2, this part was not designed to be removed by an average user, evident by the position (behind the harmonic balancer). Knowledge was required in properly removing the gear and chain, along with a high difficulty level, a mechanic would be more able to remove this part. Timingchainasemblyg14.JPG
37 Crankshaft Lift out the crankshaft, which is now completely loose. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. Hands 1, this part was not designed to be removed, evident by the position (behind the harmonic balancer) which provides the only obstacle for an average user. A mechanic, who removed the harmonic balancer, could easily lift free the crankshaft. Crankshaftg14.jpg
38 Distributor timing gear Unscrew one 10 mm bolt holding the distributor timing gear in place. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (bolt), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Distributortiminggearg14.jpg
39 Camshaft Pull out the camshaft rotating when necessary to make sure the camshaft clears all holes. Hands 2, this part was not designed to be removed, evident by position (behind the harmonic balancer). The part requires some forethought to know to remove the distributor timing gear and to position it correctly while pulling it out. This gives it a higher difficulty rating, and offers an additional obstacle to the average user. Again, for maintenance and repair, a mechanic could still easily remove the part. Camshaftg14.jpg
40 Oil Pressure Sensor Unscrew oil pressure sensor on the side of the engine block. Hands 1, this part was designed to be removed, evident by the method of connection (thread), allowing it to be removed by any person with a proper socket set. Oilpressuresensorg14.jpg

Document the connection of subsystems

The eight sub-systems that we identified are as follows:

1.Air Intake 5. Lubrication
2.Fuel 6. Electrical / Spark
3.Cooling 7. Motion Translation
4.Exhaust 8. Combustion

We identified the following connections between the systems:

Combustion

First, it must be noted that the combustion system is the single function connected to all systems by at least one of the 4 transfer modes available, namely; physical, information, mass, and energy. Several types of sealing were used, but this will be detailed in the other subsystems. With that said, we can continue on to the remaining systems.

Air Intake

The air intake was connected to the combustion system physically and transferred both mass and kinetic energy (air at a flow rate). It also provided signals to the electrical system (for feedback and control) through sensors placed strategically in the air stream. The reason they are connected is to provide an efficient transfer of the air, while allowing the components to be separated for service or maintenance. The method used for connection was “threaded fasteners with a compression seal” between the mating surfaces. Performance, namely a leak free conduit, affects the connection type in that the joint must withstand a severe environment of heat, vibration, automotive fluids, and dirt for extended periods of time.

Fuel System

The fuel system, as noted above, was also connected to the combustion system and provided mass transfer in the form of fuel to the cylinder through the fuel rail. The connection was formed by an elastomeric radial seal (not an o-ring) and had physical contact with the combustion system through the injectors, but isolated (cushioned) by the elastomeric seal. Threaded fasteners were used only to prevent the component from being vibrated or ejected out of position. The reason for this connection is primarily to prevent fuel leaks while allowing for some flexibility in the connection. This system is essential to the operation of the engine, so performance is critical. The sealing system appears to be very robust in that it was simple, but a very positive connection.

Cooling System

The cooling system is connected to the combustion system indirectly through the crankcase. It is also connected indirectly to the lubrication system in the same fashion. It is connected to the electrical system through a sensor. The system primarily allows for the flow of mass (coolant) which also absorbs energy from the metal surfaces as it passes over them. When looking at the connection at the water pump, a flange & gasket are used to seal the connection. When looking at the coolant tube connection, an o-ring seal is used with 2 bolts. Why is this? The pump has to withstand a significant load from the pulley and justifies the sturdy flange and gasket connection. The cooling tube, since there are no forces on it, has the o-ring seal, which is much less robust. The performance effects are that, without cooling, damage to the primary function could occur. Sealing and connection is critical.

Exhaust System

The next subsystem is the exhaust and was connected to the combustion system with threaded fasteners using a compression seal. They are connected in this fashion to allow for the transfer of mass & energy, in the form of exhaust, while allowing service & maintenance. Information is also transferred to the electrical system in the form of voltage from the oxygen sensor to provide feedback for control of the engine. Performance affects the seal of this system in that a leak of exhaust gases would not critically affect the operation, but degrade the efficiency/effectiveness.

Lubrication System

The fifth subsystem is the Lubrication system, which directly and indirectly connects to the combustion system. The indirect connection is by way of heat transfer from the metallic surfaces to the lubricant as it comes in contact with all of the moving (and many non-moving) parts in the crankcase, valve housing, and cylinder head. Some mass transfer to the oil, in the way of gases and small particles occurs, through very small leaks from the combustion system. Also, the direct flow of small amounts of lubricant to the cylinder also occurs (an unwanted connection), but it does find its way in because of the nature of the piston ring sealing mechanism used to separate the two subsystems. This seal is a metal to metal seal formed by piston ring being oversized to the cylinder bore causing pressure between the two very smooth surfaces. This allows for motion of the piston while minimizing the transfer of material between the two systems.

Electrical / Spark

Electric & Spark subsystem is connected to combustion system, the intake system, the lubrication system, and the exhaust system. Each has an energy transfer, of one kind or another, and in many cases, also a signal or information transfer, via sensor. The energy transferred directly to the spark plug initiates the combustion reaction as the electric energy is dissipated as light and heat in the cylinder. The connection to the cylinder is through the threaded body of the spark plug and sealed by a compression ring. This provides a seal that will contain the pressures seen in the piston and allows for the proper grounding of one of the poles of the spark plug, while insulating it from the other pole. The performance affect of this seal is also critical in that a loss of pressure will degrade or negate the operation of the engine, but still must provide for service or maintenance. This is a critical seal. For each of the sensors, the sealing is usually to provide protection from whatever fluid is being sensed, whether it be air, oil, exhaust, or coolant. Oil, water, and air have o-ring seals with threaded fasteners, while the exhaust is welded permanently in place. O-rings provide seals with minimal leak while allowing for service. The connection at the exhaust is permanent, clearly to ensure no leak, regardless of service.

Motion Translation System

The Motion Translation Subsystem is the basis of which all the other subsystems form their location or orientation because it is what provides the energy to operate the other systems. It is connected to the combustion system through the pistons & piston rods, fuels system through the fuel pump, the coolant system through the water pump and cooling circuit, the lubrication system through the oil pump along with the various ports and channels. Some contact also occurs with the moving components causing splash, and the electrical system is connected through the alternator and receives signals from the rpm sensor. Each is physically connected and involves a transfer of energy of some kind. The “reason why” they are connected is to facilitate this energy transfer and the manner in which they are connected is by pulley & bearing components with the exception of the lubrication system. The lubrication system not only has a pump, but also depends on a “splash” type of distribution caused by the moving components that are bathed in lubricant. The performance influences this subsystem in that it is the source for the other subsystems to be powered. Connection, sealing, and interaction all play critical roles, for example, lubrication; all moving parts have to be in contact with the lubricant system in some way to reduce friction and transfer heat.

Four Factors

The interconnection of subsystems are affected by global factors in that the manufacture & recycle-ability of each of the components have standards for each country, that if not managed properly or with sensitivity, will limit the markets to which it can be made available. Societal factors include the emissions of the engine, so as to not be detrimental to the overall population, and met US requirements. Along the same lines, environmental factors influence the treatment of waste from the manufacture, the resources used to create the components, and the materials depleted in the process. Since the majority of the components are metals, a very high percentage are recyclable, which is very positive for the environment. Economic factors influenced the connections of the components by limiting the cost of these connections and creating a balance between the money spent and the effect of proper connection (or improper connection). This is pointed out in the subsystem paragraphs, but in general, this is accomplished by minimizing the number of fasteners or through the use of inexpensive materials.

Subsystem Arrangement

The arrangement of subsystems appears to be driven by the source power that runs the component and the primary application of its function. For example, the cooling system; has the water pump at the front of the engine where power is distributed to many of the components. This also provides an excellent area to indirectly interface with the lubrication & combustion components through porting and coolant circuits in the cylinder head and crank case. In the same fashion, the electrical system begins at the same place, at the front of the engine to receive its power, and then distributed to areas where it is needed. Proximity of the component depends primarily on these two things; where it gets its power and where the component performs its function. Some components cannot directly interact because of adverse effects. This includes the lubrication system and the cooling system. Since the coolant causes corrosion, it defeats the lubrication subsystem and must be kept separate. However, it is still important that there be an exchange of heat to control operating temperature. The same applies to the electrical and cooling system. Interface between these two systems is primarily through sensing devices because of the coolants ill affect on the electrical system. We can use the same thinking with the electrical and the fuel system, since the advent of a spark in the presence of fuel would be catastrophic, it is important to keep these two subsystems separate until it is time to ignite the fuel deliberately. However, a completely different reasoning arises between fuel and coolant, i.e.; the fuel does not need to be cooled, so there is no reason to bring the two together under these circumstances, and in the same fashion, exhaust and fuel also never need to be in contact and it is important to keep these two separate to avoid any additional instability of the fuel prior to combustion.

Part Location Reference

Coolant Tube Assembly
Crankshaft Clamp Assembly
Pulley Assembly


Location of the camshaft
Valve Assembly
Location of the harmonic balancer
Location of the timing chain cover bolts
Push-Rod & Rocker Arm Assembly
Sensor Assembly
Thermostat Location
Location of the distributor timing gear

Gate 3: Product Analysis

Project Management: Coordination Review

Cause for Corrective Action

As the project continues our group is still working well together. The Management Proposal is still an effective method of successfully managing everyone in the group. By having a flexible schedule as well as one regularly scheduled meeting helps with ensuring no one in the group is left out as well as no one becomes too dominant. The previously established means of communicating with each other, as well as with the other 4-cylinder group, has made the team well coordinated ensuring our group is always steadily making progress and continually meeting our goals. By dividing up working and allowing each member to make progress individually makes it easy to see that each member is truly carrying their own weight. As we are nearing the end of the semester we are lucky in that we have not had to take any action towards negative group members or group members not carrying their own weight. Hopefully this trend will continue through the end of the semester.

Product Archaeology: Product Dissection

Component Summary

Sensors


Vacuum Sensor

Vacuum sensor14.jpg

Part #
1997278
Weight
0.5 lb
Materials
plastic, steel
Manufacturing
The vacuum sensor is manufactured with:
A stamped plate, evident in its thin width and bent edges
Injected molded body, with visible seam lines and plastic material
Function
Measures manifold pressure and mass flow rates to determine the best ration of inputs for maximum combustion.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Overall Height: 10 cm
Width at Largest Point: 7 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 6

Oil Pressure Sensor

Oilpressuresensorg14.jpg

Part #
6617008
Weight
0.25 lb
Materials
brass, plastic, rubber
Manufacturing
The oil pressure sensor is manufactured by:
Lathed brass end, visible in the groove marks around the part and the part's axial symmetry
Injected molded O-ring, evident by the seam line and pliable material
Injected molded connector, evident in the seam lines and the plastic material
Stamped center piece, supported by its small thickness
Function
Measures the pressure of the oil and relays the information to determine the amount of oil needed for the best performance of the engine.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter: 1 cm
Height: 6 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 24

RPM Sensor

RPMsensorg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
0.25 lb
Materials
steel, plastic, rubber
Manufacturing
The RPM sensor is manufactured by:
Injected molded connector, evident by the seam lines and plastic material
Injected molded O-ring, visible in the seam lines and pliable material
Stamped aluminum end, evident by its very thin thickness
Function
Reads the window (notch) on the fly wheel to determine when the one piston is making a stroke and thereby determine the rotations of the engine.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter: 1.75 cm
Height: 8 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 25

Temperature Sensor

Temperaturesensorg14.jpg

Part #
10456209
Weight
0.25 lb (all plugs and wires)
Materials
brass, plastic, steel
Manufacturing
The temperature sensor is manufacture by:
Injected molded connector, evident by the plastic material and seam lines
Lathed fitting, which is visible in the axial symmetry of the component and the circular grooves
Machining, the part has an external thread on one end which would require machining to make
Function
Measures engine temperature and relays information that helps to determine the best ratios for combustion and engine performance.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Larger Diameter: 3.5 cm
Smaller Diameter: 1 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 26

Oil Temperature Sensor

Oiltemperaturesensorg14.jpg

Part #
24575739
Weight
0.25 lb (all plugs and wires)
Materials
plastic, steel
Manufacturing
The oil temperature sensor is manufactured by:
Injected molding, evident in the seam lines and the plastic material use
Die casting, visible in the part's rough surface finish
Machining, due to the external threading on the end of the cast section
Function
Measures oil temperature and relays information that helps to determine the best ratios for combustion and engine performance.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Height: 5.5 cm
Diameter: 2 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 40

O2 Sensor

O2sensor.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
0.25 lb
Materials
aluminum, plastic, copper, rubber
Manufacturing
The O2 is manufactured by:
A drawn wire, thin in diameter
Injected molded connector, with visible seam lines
Cast protrusion, evident by the rough surface finish
Machining done to the protrusion, shown by the addition of threads to the piece
Function
Reads the oxygen content of the exhaust and relays information to determine if the proper amount of oxygen is present during combustion.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length of Sensor: 8.5 cm
Length of Sensor and Wire: 34 cm
Diameter at Widest Point: 2 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 8

Pulleys and Gears


Water Pump Pulley

Waterpumppullyg14.jpg

Part #
24576031 JA
Weight
2.5 lb
Materials
steel, plastic, aluminum
Manufacturing
The water pump pulley is manufactured by:

-A stamped metal wheel, evident by its relatively thin width -Extruded center, visible by the constant cross-section

Function
Receives torque for and transmits it to the water pump in order to power the water pump.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter: 11.5 cm
Height: 11.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 12

Belt Wheel

Beltwheelg14.jpg

Part #
10112371
Weight
1.5 lb
Materials
Steel
Manufacturing
The belt wheel is manufactured by:
Die casting, the part is made from a single piece of material indicating either machining of casting, and the geometries of this part to not require machining to be created
Function
Receives torque form crankshaft in order to drive the belt and thereby other tertiary systems.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Height: 2.5 cm
Diameter: 16 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 10

Belt Tensioner Pulley

Belttensionerpullyg14.jpg

Part #
Illegible
Weight
0.75 lb (all plugs and wires)
Materials
Steel
Manufacturing
The belt tensioner pulley is manufactured by:
Stamped wheel, due to its relatively thin thickness
Die cast body, evident by its rough surface finish
Extruded tube due to its constant cross-section
Lathed collar, evident by the visible circular grooves around the center of the part
Stamped and machined plate/impeller, evident by the overall thin thickness and intricate geometries
Function
Maintains tension on the timing belt in order to maintain the transmission of torque to the tertiary system. It redirects the timing belt to other systems.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter: 8 cm
Height: 2.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 19

Chain Tensioner

Chaintensionerg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
1 lb
Materials
steel, plastic
Manufacturing
The chain tensioner is manufactured by:
Injected molding, visible in the seam lines on the two plastic pads
Stamped casing and leaf spring, evident in the very thin and precisely bent shape of the parts
Function: Creates tension on the timing chain to maintain the transmission of torque between gears.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Base 1: 10.5 cm
Base 2: 5.5 cm
Side 1: 10.5 cm
Side 2: 11.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 35

Timing Gear Assembly

Timingchainasemblyg14.JPG

Part #
GM10198810
Weight
2.5 lb
Materials
steel
Manufacturing
The timing gear is manufactured by:
Die casting, evident in sections of the part with rough surface finish
Lathing, visible in the side of the gear and the circular lath marks
Milling, evident in the high precision of the gear teeth
Drilling, due to the central hole
Broaching, the main supporting evidence is the keyway
Function
Prevent contaminants and debris from entering the timing gear and timing chain.
Amount: 1 gear and 1 chain
Dimensions
Chain: 56 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, .5 cm thick
Gear: Dout 2 cm, Width 1 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 34

Timing Gear Cover

Timinggearcoverg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
1 lb
Materials
aluminum
Manufacturing
The timing gear cover is manufactured by:
Die casting, evident in the plate's surface finish
Injected molding, visible in the gasket's seam line and pliable nature
Drilling, evident in the holes and threads places in the part
Function
Prevent contaminants and debris from entering the timing gear and timing chain.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 30 cm
Width: 19 cm
Height: 2.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 34

Camshaft Pulley

Camshaftpullyg14.jpg

Part #
24574843
Weight
2 lb
Materials
plastic, steel, aluminum
Manufacturing
The camshaft pulley is manufactured by:
Multiple stamped plates, evident in their thin thickness and layered together
Injected molding, visible in the seam lines of the wheel and that it is made up of a hard plastic
Function
Maintains tension on the timing belt to better transmit torque between systems. Redirects the timing belt to other systems
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter 1: 7.5 cm
Diameter 2: 8 cm
Width 1: 3.5 cm
Width 2: 4.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 32

Distributor Timing Gear

Distributortiminggearg14.jpg

Part #
110401333101
Weight
1 lb
Materials
aluminum, steel, rubber
Manufacturing
The distributor timing gear is manufactured by:
Die casting, evident in the surface finish of the body, and the shaft
Milling, visible in the intricate geometries cut into the shaft
Injected molded O-ring, due to the seam line and pliable material
Stamping, evident in the separating plate's small thickness
Function
Receive rotational mechanical energy from the camshaft and allow for the proper timing of the distributor. It keeps the distributor in perfect timing with the rest of the engine, so the fuel air mixture is ignited at the right time.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Largest Diameter: 3.5 cm
Smallest Diameter: 1.75 cm
Height: 13.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 38

Spring Gasket for Coolant Thermostat

Springgasketforcoolantg14.jpg

Part #
1809189
Weight
0.25 lb (all plugs and wires)
Materials
steel, plastic, rubber
Manufacturing
The spring gasket is manufactured by:
Injection molding to form the gasket, evident but the seam line and rubber material
Two stamped metal sides, due to their thin thickness
Extruded core, due to its constant cross-section
Drawn wire, due to the visible spring surrounding the core with thin diameter
Function
Allows the engine to heat up to the proper temperature and then regulates the flow of coolant to maintain that temperature.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Largest Diameter: 4.5 cm
Smallest Diameter: 2.5 cm
Height: 4.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 17

Fasteners

Mounting Bracket

Mounting bracketg14.jpg

Part #
41-948 25320502
Weight
10 lb
Materials
steel or cast iron
Manufacturing
The mounting bracket is manufactured by:
Die cast body, evident by rough surface finish
Drilled holes and threads, visible on the body
Function
Provides mounting for other systems that attach to the engine (i.e. alternator, water pump, etc.).
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 39 cm
Width: 17.5 cm
Thickness: 1 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 13

Distributor Mounting Bracket and Spacer

Distributor mounting bracketg14.jpg

Part #
24576136
Weight
0.25 lb
Materials
aluminum
Manufacturing
The distributor mounting bracket is manufactured by :
Die cast body, evident by rough surface finish
Drilled holes and threads, visible on the body
Function
Mounts/Connects the distributor to the engine block.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Side 1: 15 cm
Side 2: 6 cm
Side 3: 6 cm
Side 4: 6 cm
Side 5: 11 cm
Side 6: 6.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 14

Piston Clamps

Pistonclamps.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
0.5 lb (each)
Materials
the clamp is most likely steel, the inner collar is aluminum
Manufacturing
The piston clamps are manufacture by:
Die casting with cutting, evident in the rough surface finish and circular saw marks
Drilling, the parts have multiple holes that would've been created by a drilling process
Function
Clamps the pitons to the crankshaft. The collar allow for lubrication (see manufacturing for details)
Amount: 4
Dimensions
Outside Diameter: 8 cm
Inside Diameter: 5.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 28

Back Crankshaft Clamp

Backcrankshaft clamp.jpg

Part #
GM 25240
Weight
2.5 lb
Materials
Steel
Manufacturing
The back crankshaft clamp is manufacture by:
Die casting with cutting, evident by the rough surface finish and the circular saw cuts
Extruded aluminum covered that are pressed and rolled, evident by the constant cross-section with a center channel pressed into it and a curve added. This is done to lower expenses; it is easier to add an oil groove in a thin aluminum collar than to mill it into the piston clamp
Drilled holes, the part contains smooth holes through the part which would be best created by drilling
Function
Bolts to the block to hold the crankshaft in position.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Outside Diameter: 13.5 cm
Inside Diameter: 6.5 cm
Thickness: 4.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 27

Crankshaft Clamps

Crankshaftclampsg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
1.5 lb (each)
Materials
steel
Manufacturing
The crankshaft clamps are manufactured by:
Die casting with cutting, evident by the rough surface finish and the circular saw cuts
Extruded aluminum covered that are pressed and rolled, evident by the constant cross-section with a center channel pressed into it and a curve added. This is done to lower expenses, it is easier to add an oil groove in a thin aluminum collar than to mill it into the piston clamp
Drilling, the parts contain smooth holes through the part which would be best created by drilling
Function
Bolts to the block to hold the crankshaft in position.
Amount: 4
Dimensions
Outside Diameter: 11.5 cm
Inside Diameter: 7 cm
Thickness: 2.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 23

The engine also has 100+ bolts, nuts, washers, and screws. These are all made of steel and are all different shapes and sizes depending on the component requires for fastening. They were manufactured through lathing processes.

Fluid Transfer Components



Coolant Tube

Coolant tube.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
1.5 lb
Materials
Steel
Manufacturing
The coolant tube is manufactured with:
Multiple extruded tubes which are welded together, shown in their constant cross-section and welding fillets
Stamped plates, evident in their small thickness
Injected molded fitting, due to visible seams and plastic material
Function
Transports coolant to the engine block.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter: 5
Length: 60 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 2

Fuel Rail

Fulerailassemblyg14.jpg

Part #
17200924 DELPHI 00097
Weight
1 lb
Materials
copper, plastic rubber, brass, aluminum
Manufacturing
The fuel rail assembly is manufactured with:
Multiple injected mold connectors, evident by the seams and plastic material
Multiple extruded and shaped tubing, seen in the constant cross-section with areas of bending
Multiple stamped fittings, evident in their low thickness and large quantity.
Function
Delivers fuel to individual cylinders.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 36 cm
Hose length: 36 cm
Hose Diameter: 2 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 3

Intake Assembly

Intake assemblyg14.jpg

Part #
12563051
Weight
7 lb
Materials
plastic, silicon, aluminum, brass, rubber
Manufacturing
The intake assembly is manufactured with:
A large injected molded case, with visible seam lines and plastic material
A metal die cast core, evident by the rough surface finish
Extruded tubing, due to its constant cross-section
Extruded and machined fittings, evident by their constant cross-section and internal threads
Multiple stamped plates with thin thickness and identical shape
A drawing and bending, visible in a spring with thin wire and creating tension
Function
Evenly distributes the combustion mixture into each cylinder to obtain optimum efficiency.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 37 cm
Height: 27 cm
Width: 28 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 4

Oil Filter

Oil filterg14.jpg

Part #
2501074
Weight
0.5 lb
Materials
aluminum, foam, rubber
Manufacturing
The oil filter is manufactured with:
Injected molded O-ring, evident by the seam lines and plastic material
Injected molded center, due to plastic material and injection points
A stamped metal exterior, due to its low thickness
A stamped metal base, evident by its small thickness
Function
Removes contaminants from the engine oil.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter: 7.5 cm
Height
8.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 5

Dipstick Tube

Dipstick tubeg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
0.5 lb
Materials
plastic cover, aluminum tube
Manufacturing
The dipstick tube is manufactured with:
An extruded tube, evident by its constant cross-section
A stamped mounting plate, due to its thin thickness
Injected molded cap, evident by its plastic material and visible injection point
Rolled metal strip, due to its thin thickness and constant profile
Function
Allows a user to check the oil level of the engine.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Diameter: 4 cm
Length: 40 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 7

Oil Pan

Oilpang14.jpg

Part #
156050
Weight
6 lb
Materials
aluminum, rubber
Manufacturing
The oil pan was manufactured by:
Stamped plates, as seen by their small thicknesses
The drilled, evident by the holes surrounding the rim of the pan
Function
Houses the motor oil that is transported to lubricate the engine. Holds the oil for the crankshaft “bath.” A magnet in the bottom of the oil pan also helps to isolate any metal contaminates from the rest of the oil.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 37 cm
Height: 24 cm
Width: 17 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 21

Oil Pump

Oilpumg14.jpg

Part #
10198830
Weight
2.5 lb
Materials
aluminum, steel, plastic
Manufacturing
The oil pump was manufactured by:
Die casting with cutting of the body, which has a rough surface finish and circular saw marks
Extruded tube, which can be inferred by its constant cross-section
Stamped circle, evident by its very flat nature
Function
Pumps oil through passages in the engine to lubricate the systems that need it.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Max Height: 23 cm
Width: 13 cm
Length: 16.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 22

Exhaust Header Manifold

Exhaust manifoldg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
10 lb
Materials
steel or cast iron
Manufacturing
The exhaust manifold with O2 sensor is manufactured with:
Die cast body which is cut, evident by the rough surface finish and circular saw marks
A drawn wire, thin in diameter
Injected molded connector cast, with visible seam lines
Function
Directs the exhaust out of the engine. Houses the O2 sensor.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Side 1: 14 cm
Side 2: 30 cm
Side 3: 13 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 8

Black Mount for Coolant Thermostat

Blackmountforcollantthermostatg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
0.25 lb
Materials
steel
Manufacturing
The black mount for the cooling thermostat is manufactured by:
Stamped plate, evident by it's thin thickness and bent edges
Extruded piper, due to constant cross-section

F;unction: Acts as a flange connection for coolant intake. Houses the Spring Gasket for Coolant Thermostat. A;mount: 1 : 1

Dimensions
Height: 4 cm
Top Diameter: 3.5 cm
Bottom Length: 9.5 cm
Bottom Width: 7.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 16

Silver Coolant Thermostat Housing

Silvercoolantthermostathousingg14.jpg

Part #
24575473
Weight
0.5 lb
Materials
aluminum
Manufacturing
The silver coolant thermostat housing is manufactured by:
Die casting and cutting, evident by the rough surface finish and the circular marks indicating a circular saw cut
Function
Acts a channel for coolant to flow trough. Houses the Spring Gasket for Coolant Thermostat.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 18 cm
Diameter: 4.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 18

Electrical Components



Spark Plugs

Sparkplugsandwires.jpg

Part #
41-948 25320502
Weight
1 lb (all plugs and wires)
Materials
porcelain, zinc chromate, aluminum, copper
Manufacturing
The spark plugs are manufactured with:
An extruded tube, due to its constant cross-section
An injected molded casing which is evident by the seams and plastic material,
This part is also heavily machined, evident by the intricate geometries that are present.
Function: Provides the necessary electrical spark to ignite the fuel air mixture within each cylinder.
Amount: 1
Dimensions:
Length: 7.5 cm
Diameter: 1.5

Associated Dissection Step: 1

Spark Plug Wires

Sparkplugsandwires.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
1 lb (all plugs and wires)
Materials
copper, rubber, plastic
Manufacturing
The spark plug wires are manufactured with:
Injected molded covers which, is evident by the seams in the material
Extruded tubing, which is evident by the constant cross-section
And with what is assumed to be wire inside being drawn due to its thin diameter
Function
Transmits the electrical charge from the distributor to the spark plugs.
Amount: 3
Dimensions
Length: 67 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 1

Distributor

Distributorg14.jpg

Part #
11040450D12
Weight
2.5 lb
Materials
plastic, aluminum, cooper inside for wires
Manufacturing
The distributor is manufactures with:
Stamped base plate, evident by its small thickness
Injected molded casing, due to visible seam lines and plastic material
Extruded connecting points, due to constant cross-section
Function
Transfers voltage through the spark plug wires to the spark plugs in the correct firing order.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 15 cm
Width: 13.5 cm
Height: 9 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 14

Valve Train

Valve Cover

Valvecoverg14.jpg

Part #
24577252
Weight
2 lb
Materials
aluminum
Manufacturing
The valve cover is manufactured with:
Die cast body, due to the rough surface finish
Machining, due to the threaded holes
Injected molded gasket, with visible seam line
Function
Maintain pressure within engine and valve housing as well as prevent oil leakage.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 34 cm
Width: 14.5 cm
Height: 4 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 9

Valve Housing

Vlave houseingg14.jpg

Part #
24576144
Weight
25 lb
Materials
aluminum
Manufacturing
The valve housing is manufactured by:
Lost foam casting, evident by the unique surface finish
Drilling done, evident by the threaded holes on the housing
Function
House the valves that control to intake of fuel and air as well as the release of exhaust from the cylinders.
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length: 45 cm
Width: 15 cm
Height: 14 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 15

Push Rods and Rocker Arms

Rockerarmsg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
0.5 lb (each rod and rocker arm)
Materials
steel
Manufacturing
The push-rods are manufactured by:
Extruded tube, due to its constant cross-section
Machined bearings that are drilled and attached, evident by their spherical shape and smooth surface finish
The rocker arms are manufactured by:
Die cast head, evident by rough surface finish
Extruded axle, from constant cross-section
Die cast pivot, evident by rough surface finish
Extruded, cut, and ground cylindrical bearings, evident by the constant cross-section and smooth surface finish
Amount: 8 of each component

Dimensions:

Rocker Arm
Length: 7.5 cm
Width: 3.5 cm
Height: 4.5 cm
Push Rod
Length: 19 cm
Diameter: .75 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 11

Push Rod Guides

Group14pushrodguide.jpg

Part #
24575541
Weight
0.25 lb (each)
Materials
plastic
Manufacturing
The push-rod guides are manufactured by:
Injected molded, evident in seam lines and plastic material used
Function
Guide the push rods in a straight linear path.
Amount: 2
Dimensions
Length: 15 cm
Width: 2.5 cm
Height: 5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 30

Engine Internals



Harmonic Balancer

Harmonicbalancerg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
1 lb
Materials
steel
Manufacturing
The harmonic balancer is manufactured by:
Casting, visible in the rough surface finish
Lathing, which can be seen from the grooves cut into one side of the part
Drilling, evident in the holes drilling and threads added to the part
Broaching, which can be seen from the key way in the part
Amount
1
Dimensions
Din= 4 cm
Dout=4.5 cm
Height=4 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 33

Pistons

Pistonclampsg14.jpg

Part #
6498 for heads 8398 for shaft
Weight
2.5 lb
Materials
steel
Manufacturing
The pistons are manufactured by:
Die casting, evident in both the piston head and the piston rod in their rough surface finish in places that are not machined later
Lathing, the piston head shows circular grooves on it typical of a lathing process
Milling, two channels cut into the pistons have been done through a removal process, likely milling
Stamped piston rings, evident in their flat nature
Amount: 4
Dimensions
Head
D= 9 cm
Height=5.5 cm
Shaft
D=8 cm
Height=18 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 29

Camshaft

Camshaftg14.jpg

Part #
101012HB
Weight
10 lb
Materials
iron
Manufacturing
The camshaft is manufactured by:
Extrusion, due to the constant cross-section of the central shaft
Lathing, visible in the cylindrical weights and the grooves alone their sides
Grinding, visible on the edges of the weights and the edges of cams in their very, very find surface finish
Amount: 4
Dimensions
D= 4.5 cm
Length=42.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 39

Crankshaft

Crankshaftg14.jpg

Part #
none
Weight
40 lb
Materials
Steel
Manufacturing
The crankshaft is manufactured by:
Die cast, visible in the rough surface finish on on machined sections of the part
Lathing and ground, evident by the very, very smooth sections of the crankshaft that attach to the pistons and engine block
Milling, visible in the key slot on the end of the crankshaft
Drilling, due to the small divots in the crankshaft formed from balancing
Amount: 1
Dimensions:
D= 8.5 cm
Length=42.5 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 37

Engine Block

EngineBlockg14.jpg

Part #
24576035
Weight
100 lb
Materials
Steel
Manufacturing
The engine block is manufactured by:
Lost foam casting with cutting, visible in the unique surface finish and circular saw cuts
Drilling, visible in the many clean holes and threaded holes on the block
Milling, due to cavities in the block that cannot be cast
Grinding, evident in the smooth surface finish of the piston cylinders
Amount: 1
Dimensions
Length=42.5 cm
Height=22 cm
Width=15 cm

Associated Dissection Step: 41



Product Analysis

  • This gate requires an assessment of several components and the following were selected for this exercise: push rod, rocker arm, intake/exhaust valve, cam shaft, and cylinder head. Detail regarding each part is in the text below as well as a complexity scale with a small description:

Complexity Scale

Simple = The volume is less than 10 cubic inches and requires 1 to 2 process steps to manufacture
Moderate = The volume is less than 20 cubic inches and requires 2 to 4 operations to create
Complex = The volume is less than 30 cubic inches and requires 5 or more operations to manufacture
These can each be modified if new technology is part of the process or if a new application of an existing process is identified. If the precision of the part exceeds capabilities of the available supplier base, add 1 rating level.

Cylinder head

The cylinder head has multiple functions; cooling, distribution of lubricant, sealing, and several others. We will limit this discussion to just its primary function; providing a structure. This structure is the framework for the valve train and also the enclosure for the cylinder. In its function of structure, it is the medium to resist forces, or transmit them to other components. The flow associated with this transmission of force is energy. The environment that this component functions within is relatively extreme. Combustion temperatures over 3,000 F, ambient temperatures below -40 F, high vibration, noise, oil, gas, and corrosives. Overall dimensions are; 17.5” x 7” x 5”. The form is intricate; machined surfaces for sealing, boss features for support of other components, clearance holes for rods, tapped holes for fasteners, inserted steel precision honed valve seats, and porting for coolant and oil. Exterior un-machined surfaces are as cast with lost foam impressions. Material is aluminum, likely a 6000 series (6061-T6) to withstand the temperatures of combustion. The external appearance of the head is “as cast” and at appropriate areas, machined for interface with other components. Aesthetics have little to do with the color and is not part of the function. Notable properties are typical of cast aluminum products; a rough finish where un-machined. Since it appears to be a lost-foam casting, no draft on the features are necessary. This cannot be manufactured using conventional casting and may have been a factor in the process selection because it adds stiffness & uniform sections. This is definitely a three dimensional part; all axis (x, y, & z) have unique features and required manufacturing operations. All of the forms and features are directly linked to function; it provides structure by acting as the link for force transmission between two other structures. The head weight is approximately 26 lb. There is no doubt that manufacturing had a part in deciding the material selection, and in the same breath, we can say that there are few other materials than aluminum that offer the machine-ability, strength to weight ratio, and versatility at a competitive cost. Match these items to our four factors; global, societal, economic, and environment. The economic factor is obvious; it is inexpensive, and abundant. This can also be tied to a global factor – that it is available in most countries. Conversely, environmental impact is minimized because of the relative ease in processing of the material and its recyclability. This is also linked to societal factors associated with minimizing pollution and its affect on the society as a whole. The complexity of this product can be categorized as complex. It is intricate, but not mechanized. It has a wide variety of shapes, holes, threaded features, blind porting, precision honed surfaces, face milled surfaces, and ground surfaces. It is a complex, mass produced part.

Cam Shaft

Continuing on, in reverse order, the cam shaft is the next component of discussion. The function, in its most basic form is to transmit rotational motion into linear motion. There are no other functions for this part. The flow that would be associated with the function is energy. This component lives in an environment bathed in oil and temperature ranges of -40 F to about 450 F. The forces it sees are directly associated with the resistance of the push rods to motion and the moment (force due to offset centroid) created by the cams along its length. This provides the means by which the push rods are displaced to translate rotational motion to linear motion. The asymmetry (cam) is directly coupled to its function. This leads us to the general form of the cam shaft. It is not axially symmetric, rather, it has to be just the opposite shape, to create cams. The cams are tear-drop shaped lobes spaced non-uniformly along the length. This is definitely a three dimensional form. Overall dimensions are; 17” long with a minor shaft diameter of 1”. Its mass is ~5 lb. The base material is likely steel with some form of heat treatment; induction hardening, carburizing, nitride, etc. The material is not driven by manufacturing. Materials with this hardness are difficult to process in order to obtain the “precision smoothness” necessary for minimizing friction related deterioration. This too can be linked to the very shinny, chrome like, surface-finish. Although the shinny “color” is not for aesthetic purposes or provide function, it is typical of surfaces that need to minimize friction. The selection of this material over materials like chrome, molly, or heavy metals minimizes global impact by ensuring availability, while also being sensitive to societal and environment concerns because it is commonly thought of as a safe material. Add to these ideas the low raw material costs, makes this an economically sound decision. The complexity of this part is classified as moderate, not because of the operations or technology, but because of the additional time necessary to attain the very smooth, precise finish.

Intake/Exhaust Valve

This component’s function is similar to the previous two components in that it transmits force, but this is only a means to an end; its primary function is to seal the cylinder before and after combustion. It does this through “providing structure” at the appropriate time, but then moves to allow fuel and air into the cylinder and exhaust out of the cylinder. Providing structure (or transmitting force) is a single function and its flow is energy. The environment in which it performs this task is the same environment described in the cylinder head - temperatures over 3,000 F, ambient temperatures below -40 F, high vibration, noise, oil, gas, and corrosives. Its form is a 3 dimension “T” shape, axially symmetric, as if the “T” were spun with the “leg” as its axis. The “leg” is 5.25” long, and .25” in diameter. The top is approximately 1.75” in diameter and 0.125 thick. The shape is integral to its function because it must mate properly to the cylinder head to enclose the combustion chamber and also must have appropriate leg length to be moved to the correct position for gases to flow at the apportioned time. Its approximate weight is 1 lb and is made from high carbon steel. Manufacturing may have had a small part in deciding this material, but the continuous repetitive stress would have been more of a factor in material selection. The properties of steel, particularly the forged steel used, are perfectly suited for such a repetitive loading situation. It is also no coincidence that the material and process minimize impacts associated with the four factors. Global impact, similar to other steel products, is abundant in most countries. It is also low cost, demonstrating it is an economically conscientious material. Steel is not a hazardous material, which satisfies societal concerns and is recyclable meeting environmental concerns. Tell tale indicators for forging appear at the taper of the neck. This is typical of drop forging or drawn forged forms. Color has no impact on the use or function – it is not visible from the consumer vantage point. Surface finish is important only in that it be low friction at the neck, where it slides through guides, and where it seats against the cylinder head. This is a small part that might normally be classified as a simple part, but because of the honed or lapped seat we will classify this as moderately complex. Please reference the scale in the first paragraph.

Rocker Arm

This is actually an assembly, but we will be treating it as a single component. This part also transmits force. It pivots in a fashion not unlike a see-saw in order to reverse the direction of the motion and force provided. It is easy to see that the shape is directly related to the function described. The flow associated with this is energy and it is its only function. The environment that it is exposed to is very similar to that of the crankshaft - bathed in oil and temperature ranges of -40 F to about 450 F. The see-saw form that it has is three dimensional. It has a thickness of about 1”, a width and height of ½”, and the length is approximately 2.5”. It is not symmetric about its axis and has a weight of approximately 2 lb. The material is likely an alloy steel - it has a unique greenish tint to it and this may be a result of the materials added in order to provide special endurance characteristics to the steel. Manufacturing likely had considerable input into the material selection process because of the manufacturing volume and the size. Global impact on the part may have been only a small part of material selection in that it has steel bearings that would be readily available. Societal impact may be driving the alloy compounds through regulations. Environmental factors also may drive the alloys because of the parts “final” disposition to a landfill. Economic factors for this part may have driven “trade off” choices on the number of parts in the assembly to minimize the overall cost impact. I can see no aesthetic properties associated with the component. It is ugly, but that is acceptable because it is never seen by the consumer. The manufacturing method used appears to be sand casting. The finish is that of a sand cast part and the features (radii, fillets, ribbing, thickness, etc.) are that of a casting process. Portions are machined to receive other components, but the exterior surfaces are unfinished. This is unusual for such a small steel part. Economic factors, because of the large volume, drove the decision to cast the part. Machining would be very expensive. No global, societal, or environmental impact can clearly be identified. The complexity of this part is classified as simple. No intricate features or time consuming processes are indicated. Interactions with mating parts are not complex.

Push Rod

The last component is the push rod. Its function is to transmit motion and force from the cam shaft to the rocker arm. It is the sole function of the part and the flow associated with it is energy. Its environment is that of the rocker arm - bathed in oil and temperature ranges of -40 F to about 450 F.As the name suggests, this is a rod; 3/8” in diameter and 7.5” long. The material is an alloy steel similar to the material in the rocker arm. It too, has a greenish tint. It is primarily two dimensional and the function is linked directly to the shape in that it is literally a link between two other moving parts. Each rod weights less than half a pound. The material is likely very similar to the material of the rocker arm – an alloy steel of some kind. Global impact on the part may have been only a small part of material selection in that it may have limited the alloys used. The same can be said regarding societal impact – regulations that restrict alloy compounds. Environmental factors also may drive the alloys because of the parts “final” disposition to a landfill. Economic factors for this part would be that is relatively easy to manufacture, thereby limiting the cost impact. This too is a component that would never be seen by the consumer. Aesthetics would play a very minimal role in any decisions. Surface finish of each end of the rod is very important. They must be very smooth to minimize friction where this would be accomplished through a separate process. Because the part is a rod, it is likely rolled, drawn, or forged. No clear manufacturing marks are visible. The material is a factor in the manufacturing process selection, but it this the rod shape that puts it into the process category. Rolling, drawing, or forging are industry standards for this form and offer advantages for each of the four factors. Global impact would be that the manufacturing technology is readily available to most countries. Societal impact might include that it is the most efficient method for producing the product. This also is an advantage economically and environmentally because if the method is efficient, the cost will be optimal and the usage of resources will be minimized. Complexity of this part would have to be classified as simple. It is a rod. Rods are simple parts. Interactions are also simple it transmits primarily normal forces. This is a very simple interaction.
In summary, the attributes for these components have been discussed, evaluated, and enumerated in plain terms that help to provide an understanding of decisions that went into the development and formation of those attributes.

Solid Modeling

Below are the solid modeling constructions of the piston assembly. These parts were chosen to be modeled because their importance to the engine as a whole. When broken down even the simplest of engines have pistons, so our team feel that it is a good place to start when analyzing a product such as this. The piston assembly is also one of the most recognizable parts of the engine. This helped us in the modeling phase because there was already a basic understanding of the part where as so other parts are not as easily understood.

Our group decided to use AutoCAD Inventor 2010. This is a CAD package has many advantages over other packages. For instance we found that obtaining a copy of Pro-E but found challenging so we looked in to AutoCAD Inventor 2010 and found that it is free for students. Some group members already had some limited experience with Inventor and there is a large amount of information on the internet about the use of Inventor. These factors made choosing AutoCAD Inventor 2010 an easy choice

Individual Parts

Piston Head: absorbs the impact of air/gas explosion
Piston Rod: facilitates to coupling of the piston head to the piston arm
Piston arm: allows the lateral motion of the piston head to be translated in to rotational motion
Piston Arm Coupler: connects piston arm to crankshaft
Screw: helps connect the coupler to the arm
Nut: helps connect the coupler to the arm

Assembly Drawings

Full Piston Assembly
Exploded View of Piston Assembly

Engineering Analysis

An important component of all engines is the intake manifold. The intake has to evenly distribute air to each of the cylinders. While this seems like a fairly mundane task, the manifold has to be designed to work in a variety of conditions such as high and low temperatures as well as high and low altitudes. These extremes change air densities and if the intake is improperly designed can cause the engine to not function properly. To ensure the intake could sufficiently meet the engines demand, we believe the engineers at GM would have undergone a similar process.

Problem Statement:

Does the air intake allow for extremes in air density without affecting typical engine function, in places such as Denver, CO?

Diagram of the System:


Enginemanifold14.jpg



Assumptions:

  • Usage needs to include areas inhabited by humans.
  • Ideal gas laws apply.
  • Consider air to be ideal.
  • Air to fuel ratio for a gas engine 14.7:1 (mass).
  • Density of air at sea level: 1.2041 kg/m¬3 and at an elevation such as Denver: 1.0467 kg/m3.
  • Density of gasoline = 719.7 kg/m3
  • Density of gasoline Vapor = 3.5 * Air = 3.5 *1.2 kg/m3 = 4.2 kg/m3
  • Density of gasoline Vapor = 3.5 * Air = 3.5 *1.0467 kg/m3 = 3.66 kg/m3
  • Gasoline is completely vaporized entering cylinder
  • Total Combined Volume of cylinders is equal to 2.2 liters.
  • Max rpm = 7000
  • Total energy can be summarized as elevation energy, velocity energy and pressure energy. Of these, pressure energy losses dominate & other losses can be neglected.
  • L for plastic pipe = 0.00015 and we are in the region of turbulent flow

Governing Equations:

  • v=1/ρ
  • ploss = λ (l / dh) (ρ v2 / 2) (also called the D'Arcy-Weisbach Equation) is valid for fully developed, steady, incompressible flow, where:
ploss = pressure loss (Pa, N/m2)
λ = friction coefficient
l = length of duct or pipe (m)
dh = hydraulic diameter (m)

Calculations

Vtotal per rev = 2.2 l, mass ratio of air to fuel = 14.7:1

Density of air and fuel mixture maximum and minimum

Minimum

Unit volume of gasoline vapor = 1/ 3.66 kg/m3 = 0.273 m3/kg
For every 1 kg of gasoline vapor 14.7 kg of Air are required, therefore we divide 14.7 kg / 1.0467 kg/m3 = 14.04 m3
Volume % = Vx/Vtotal; .273/(14.04+0.273), 14.04/(14.04+0.273)
Vapor = 1.9% Air = 98.1%
Density of Mixture = 15.7kg/ 14.313 m3 = 1.097 kg/m3

Maximum

Unit volume of gasoline vapor = 1/ 4.2 kg/m3 = 0.238 m3/kg
For every 1 kg of gasoline vapor 14.7 kg of Air are required, therefore we divide 14.7 kg / 1.2041 kg/m3 = 12.21 m3
Density of Mixture = 15.7kg/ 12.446 m3 = 1.261 kg/m3

Volumetric flow rate at maximum rpm = 7000 rpm x 2.2 l x 0.001 m3/l / 3600 s/m = 42.7 m3/s.

Diameter of Air Inlet = d2/4 = 3.14159*(0.0254m)2/4 = 5.06707 x 10 – 4m2 (times 4)

Velocity = Vdot / A = 42.7 m3/s / (4 *5.06707 x 10 – 4m2) = 21067 m/s

Hydraulic diameter dh (wetted perimeter) is d = 3.14159*0.0254m = 0.07979m (times 4)

ploss = λ (l / dh) (ρ v2 / 2) =

Minimum density

= 0.00015*(0.300m/4*0.07979)(1.097kg/m3 * 210672/2)
= 34324.3 N/m2 = 34.3 kPa

Maximum density

= 0.00015*(0.300m/4*0.07979)(1.261kg/m3 * 210672/2)
= 39454.3 N/m2 = 39.4 kPa
  • The value of ~5 kPa between the two values relates to a relatively small amount of work. Changing this may not be cost effective for the efficiency improvements one might see associated with 5 kW / 0.746 hp/kW = 6.7 hp. This would require more evaluation.

Design Revisions

  • Because of its age, a few improvements could be made to the GM 4 cylinder engine to further improve its efficiency, performance, and environmental impact. These improvements would also have an effect on the engines economic, environmental and societal concerns.

Overhead Camshaft

This 4 cylinder engine is a traditional pushrod engine, meaning the camshaft is below the cylinder head. Because of this pushrods are needed to link the rocker arms with the cam and camshaft. If the engine design was changed to an overhead cam design, (single overhead cam or dual overhead cam) the camshaft would be moved to the top of the cylinder head and therefore the pushrods would be eliminated. Traditionally, an overhead cam design makes for a more efficient engine. The engine would gain efficiency due to a lighter, pushrod-less valvetrain, meaning the camshaft has less weight to push. Also, less moving parts means there is less energy sapping friction in the valvetrain. Less friction means more efficiency as well as an increase in performance. A more efficient engine would help address many societal concerns of fuel efficiency and general environmental friendliness. A more fuel efficient engine also plays into economic concerns, allowing consumers to spend less on gas. The largest downside is because typically when an engine is first designed, engineers choose to either design an engine that utilizes push rods or one that has an overhead cam. Because of this, changing from push rod to overhead cam would be large scale design change, extremely difficult, expensive, and typically not done.

Time1.jpg

Variable Valve Timing

Another area for improvement would be the addition of variable valve timing, or VVT. VVT allows the engine to change when the intake and exhaust valves open and close as well as for how long they are open or closed. For example, regular non-VVT camshafts are optimized for a compromise between high-end power and low-end torque. This compromise hinders the engines efficiency and performance when compared to VVT. By having variable valve timing, the engine will create more power, as well as be more efficient, over a larger RPM range. VVT helps gain efficiency and increase performance because the timing of the valves will not only be confined what is essentially an optimized compromise, but can adjusted to optimize the current engine’s demand. VVT often translates to a rather large efficiency and performance gains. For example, when BMW first introduced their version of VVT, Valvetronic, they gained a claimed 10% in power output and fuel efficiency. A more efficient engine means the engine is more likely to meet societal, as well as environmental, concerns about pollution and fuel efficiency. Also, variable valve timing first started to be introduced during the 1980's and 90's and is a rather common technology today. Because VVT isn't state of the art technology and is becoming increasingly common, the cost of changing to VVT should be minimal.

Time2.png

Compression Ratio

The last improvement that we suggest is increasing the compression ratio. Compression ratio is the ratio of a cylinders volume when the piston is at the fully open stroke versus fully closed stroke. If the compression ratio is increased, the engine will become more powerful as well as more efficient. Increasing the compression ratio allows a larger fuel-air mixture to enter the cylinder, meaning more power, but it also causes the fuel-air mixture to compress more creating a more easily ignitable mixture by the better mixing and evaporation of the fuel into the fuel-air mixture. While this does improve the engines overall performance and efficiency it does induce more wear and tear on the engine, and require higher octane fuel. So a higher compression ratio plays into environmental concerns due to its higher efficiency but will come at a cost to the consumer by creating the need to use a more expensive fuel. While a high compression ratio is desirable, there is limitation to how high of a ratio an engine can withstand. For example, most of todays naturally aspirated modern gasoline cars use a compression ratio around 10:1, while race engines rarely exceed 14:1. Race engines can have a higher compression ratio due to their much higher octane fuel and short expected life. This GM engine use a ratio of 9:1. We suggest increasing the ratio closer to todays common ratio of 10:1. While the initial design change will involve an initial investment by GM, the manufacturing cost should stay the same.

Gate 4

Project Management: Critical Project Review

Cause for Corrective Action

As the product dissection project comes to a close, our group continues to work well with each other. The only problem we have truly encountered so far is being able to schedule group meetings due to each member’s increasingly busy agenda. To work around this problem, we have meetings when the majority of the group members are free. Meetings are used to work as a group as well as plan out upcoming steps. Absent can then be kept up to date through email or phone. Also through the use of a dedicated Gmail account, with a calendar, all of us are aware of when everyone can meet outside of class for face-to-face discussions. Through the use of any and all of these means, we ensure all the work is divided evenly and completed on time. Collectively, all these methods successfully compensate for the limited availability of members. The earlier method of organizing parts while dissecting the engine was successful. By labeling parts in the order they came off and storing them with their fasteners allowed the both groups to reassemble the engine with little difficulty. All in all, each member works well with each other and all tasks are completed on time due to planning, organization, and flexibility.

Product Archaeology: Product Explanation

Product Reassembly

Difficulty scale

Assembly difficulty will be measured by three main factors; time taken, mental/knowledge requirement, and physical demand. A part may be considered difficult if it takes a large chunk of time to attach, requires a great deal of strength to connect, or if the process requires a great deal of thought beforehand. Depending on the part, a combination of these factors will be required to assemble the component properly. The scale is listed below:
1- Less than 5 minutes to complete, physical & mental effort is minimal, and requires no special tools (something other than the contents of a typical home tool box; screwdriver, pliers, etc.)
2- More than 5 minutes, but less than 15 minutes to complete. The effort to remove is greater than a 10 lb force to remove, but less than a 20 lb force. A strategy must be devised to overcome obstacles that impair removal.
3-Any one of the following justifies this degree of difficulty; more that 15 minutes to remove, more than a 20 lb force, and/or the initial strategy to remove fails and requires a special tool or process is necessary to overcome obstacles in disassembly.
  • Table 2A shows our reassembly process.
Table 2A:Reassembly Process
The table shows each step, difficulty rating, required tool(s),and corresponding image for each component we replaced on the engine block.
Step Part Procedure Description Required Tool(s) Difficulty Part Image
1 Camshaft Insert the camshaft into its proper location, rotating when necessary to make sure the camshaft enters correctly. hands 1 Camshaftg14.jpg
2 Distributor Timing Gear Screw one 10 mm bolt to hold the distributor timing gear in place. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Distributortiminggearg14.jpg
3 Oil Temperature Sensor Screw a one 8 mm bolt to hold the oil temperature sensor down to the oil pan. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Oiltemperaturesensorg14.jpg
4 Temperature Sensor Screw the 22 mm temperature sensor to the engine block. 22 mm open end wrench 1 Temperaturesensorg14.jpg
5 RPM Sensor Screw one 8 mm bolt to connect the RPM sensor to the engine block. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 RPMsensorg14.jpg
6 Pistons Compress the piston rings and then tap in the pistons into each of their cylinders. Rubber mallet and piston ring compressor. 3 Pistonclampsg14.jpg
7 Crankshaft Place in the crankshaft in to the engine, It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. Hands 1 Crankshaftg14.jpg
8 Piston Clamps Using vice grips to grasp the nuts screw eight 13 mm nuts (2 from each clamp) to the four piston clamps. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. Vice Grips 1 Pistonclamps.jpg
9 Back Crankshaft Clamp Screw one 15 mm bolt to the large U clamp on the back of the crankshaft. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1 Backcrankshaft clamp.jpg
10 Crankshaft clamps Replace eight 15 mm bolts on the U clamps to hold the crankshaft in place. (The order goes Blue, Green, Orange, Pink from the back of the crankshaft to the front.) Use a rubber mallet to tap the clamps in to place. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet, rubber mallet 1 Crankshaftclampsg14.jpg
11 Oil Pump Screw two 15 mm bolts to connect the oil pump to the bottom of the oil pan and end the end of the crankshaft. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1 Oilpumg14.jpg
12 Push-rod Seats Place the eight push rod seats using hands or pliers when necessary in to place. Screw in the two 9 mm bolts to hold them in place. Hands, needle nose pliers 1 Pushrodseatsg14.jpg
13 Chain Tensioner Screw one 11 mm bolt, one 11 mm washer, and one T-40 Torx screw to keep the chain tensioner component in place. 11 mm socket, drive ratchet, T-40 Torx screwdriver 2 Chaintensionerg14.jpg
14 Distributor Timing Gear Insert and then screw in a one 10 mm bolt to hold the distributor timing gear in place. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 2 Distributortiminggearg14.jpg
15 Timing Chain Asembly Replace a one 15/16” bolt from the timing chain assembly. 15/16 in open end wrench 2 Timingchainasemblyg14.JPG
16 Timing Gear Cover Replace the six 8 mm bolts to hold the timing gear cover in place on the side of the engine block. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 2 Timinggearcoverg14.jpg
17 Harmonic Balancer Using a rubber mallet, replace the harmonic balancer (lots of force). Be sure that the mallet is hitting straight. rubber mallet 3 Harmonicbalancerg14.jpg
18 Belt Wheel Screw one 18 mm bolt with an accompanying washer and three 13 mm bolts to connect the belt wheel to the harmonic balancer. 18 mm & 13 mm sockets, 3/8 & 1/2 drive ratchets 1 Beltwheelg14.jpg
19 Oil Pan Replace twelve 10 mm bolts and twelve 10 mm washers to the outer edge on the bottom of the oil pan. It is suggested the engine be upside down for this step. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Oilpang14.jpg
20 Oil Filter Screw on the oil filter. Hands 1 Oil filterg14.jpg
21 Camshaft Pulley Screw on a 15/16” bolt to hold the camshaft pulley up in front of the camshaft. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1 Camshaftpullyg14.jpg
22 Water Pump Pulley Replace one 16 mm bolt on to the water pump pulley/assembly. 16 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1 Waterpumppullyg14.jpg
23 Oil Pressure Sensor Screw the oil pressure sensor on the side of the engine block (self screw). Hands 1 Oilpressuresensorg14.jpg
24 Silver coolant thermostat housing Screw on two 13 mm bolts to the silver coolant thermostat. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1 Silvercoolantthermostathousingg14.jpg
25 Spring gasket for coolant thermostat Push on the spring gasket housed inside the coolant thermostat. Hands 1 Springgasketforcoolantg14.jpg
26 Black mount for coolant thermostat Screw the two 8 mm bolts on the black housing connecting it to the coolant thermostat. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Blackmountforcollantthermostatg14.jpg
27 Push-rod Guides Replace two 10 mm bolts from each of the four plastic push rod guides (10 from each guide.) 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Group14pushrodguide.jpg
28 Valve Housing Replace the five 15 mm external bolts and five 15 mm internal bolts to connect to the valve housing. 15 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1 Vlave houseingg14.jpg
29 Push-rods place the rods inside the valve assembly. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Rockerarmsg14.jpg
30 Rocker Arms Replace the eight 10mm bolts within the rocker arms. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Rockerarmsg14.jpg
31 Valve Cover Replace the six 10 mm bolts along the edge of the valve cover. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Valvecoverg14.jpg
32 Exhaust header/manifold (including O2 sensor) Screw four 13mm hex nuts on the exhaust header/manifold and replace it along with the O2 sensor. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1 Exhaust manifoldg14.jpg
33 Mounting Bracket Screw four 13mm bolts on to the mounting bracket. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1 Mounting bracketg14.jpg
34 Belt tensioner pulley Replace two 13mm mounting bolts on the belt tensioner pulley. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1 Belttensionerpullyg14.jpg
35 Distributor Mounting Bracket and spacer Replace the five 8 mm bolts behind the Distributor. 8 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Distributor mounting bracketg14.jpg
36 Distributor Screw the three 13 mm mounting bolts on the distributor. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1 Distributorg14.jpg
37 Intake Assembly Replace three 13 mm standoff bolts, two 13 mm mounting bolts, two 13 mm hex nuts, and connect the sensor wire. 13 mm socket, 3/8 in drive ratchet 1 Intake assemblyg14.jpg
38 Fuel Rail Assembly Screw on two 10 mm mounting bolts to hold the assembly in place. 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Fulerailassemblyg14.jpg
39 Spark Plug and Spark Plug Wires Replace the three spark plugs in to their corresponding slots, screw three 10 mm bolts and connect the three spark plug wires to the distributor. hands, 10 mm socket, 1/4 in drive ratchet 1 Sparkplugsandwires.jpg
40 Coolant Tube Replace one 13 mm hex nut and one 15 mm hex nut. 13 mm & 15 mm sockets,3/8 in drive ratchet 1 Coolant tube.jpg
41 Dipstick Tube Replace one 16 mm mounting bolt on the dipstick and connect it to the engine block 16 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1 Dipstick tubeg14.jpg
42 Vacuum Sensor Tighten the one 16 mm bolt that connects the black vacuum sensor to the engine block. 16 mm socket, 1/2 in drive ratchet 1 Vacuum sensor14.jpg


Original Assembly

The advantages of OEM (original equipment manufacture) assembly include things like ergonomic assembly aids (lifts), automated fastener attachment, and in process inspection techniques. These things aside, the parts go together in the same sequence and require approximately the same effort. Much more care may have been taken to ensure the proper function of the engine for running and installation into its final, in-vehicle, home. Proper torques, fluid levels, and other factors would be included in the types of attributes that fall into these categories.

Disassembly-Assembly

Re-assembling the engine, in 90% of the instances, merely required a reversal of the disassembly process. One of the few components that required special re-assembly procedures was the piston. The piston rings require preloading for the piston to be properly installed. This preloading also required a special tool. Without the tool, there is a potential for damage to the cylinder. In the disassembly process, the parts were simply tapped and pulled to remove it. No need for any particular attention was required. Many of the components can be removed independently, with no related sequence of disassembly.

System Design Revisions

The GM 4 Cylinder Gasoline Engine was a well know engine in the GM product line. Unfortunately, it was equally well known for its lack of power and efficiency. This trait had a common thread through much of the material we gathered as the team investigated the archeology. Design revisions focused on improving these system characteristics will have the largest positive impact on 4 concerns.

Major changes to the engine would need to be made in order to gain significant improvement to power and efficiency. We would propose making 3 changes that affect essentially every subsystem in the engine in one fashion or another, but we will only discuss the changes as they pertain to the subsystem in which they were categorized. Our subsystems were divided in to eight groups as follows:

1. Air Intake 5. Lubrication
2. Fuel 6. Electrical / Spark
3. Cooling 7. Motion Translation
4. Exhaust 8. Combustion


The first revision would be to the motion translation subsystem. Many engines of this type have transitioned to Overhead Cam systems because of the reduction in parts (no push rods or lifter mechanisms), improved efficiency of the engine (reduced moment of inertial & friction), and increase in power. This team would propose the same for our first subsystem change. Essentially all components in the Motion Translation subsystem would need to change in order to accomplish this. This would need to include changes to the cylinder head, crankcase, crankshaft, timing chain, cam shaft, piston rods, and virtually every other component within the system, with the exception of fasteners. The reason all these components require changes is due to the rearrangement necessary to accommodate the camshaft’s new position above the piston.

Gm 4 cylinder engine.JPG


Figure 1 illustrates the position of the hardware over the piston in an overhead cam engine, while figure 2 shows the position of these components below the piston. Short of putting a “bump” in the hood, the parts would need to be repackaged. The cylinder head, bearings, valve housing, and so on, will also need to be above the piston. So in other words, all of the other parts need to move down to provide space above the piston. This brings us to the second change; variable valve timing. The thought for this change is, as long as we are making such a large modification to the other components in the system, we can incorporate the necessary adjustment for the addition of variable valve timing. We add 4 new valves and arms, however, in the previous change we reduced many more parts, so there will still be a net reduction in parts. The benefit for this change would be improving fuel efficiency and would out weight the additional 4 valves and supporting hardware/electrical updates. The last change proposed is increasing the compression ratio. We categorize this in a different subsystem (combustion), but it is interwoven with the mechanical translation subsystem. This is another situation where we take advantage of the changes driven by the first and second revisions and opt to include increased stroke, as long as parts are already being modified. We would already be changing the piston rod and the crankshaft position, so this could be included in the changes. Higher compression ratios equate to higher efficiency of the power cycle. There are no foreseeable disadvantages to including this.

These changes affect our 4 concerns in a very positive way. The effect with regard to global concerns would be to meet more stringent emissions standards. In general, the concern that all countries have been voicing with regard to the pollution and emissions problem, are being reflected in tougher emissions standards and performance improvements, such as the ones mentioned above, allow the product to be sold in markets that might seek to restrict its sale. Societal affects would be along those same lines; improved emissions has the perception of being “safer”, for the society as a whole, because of the reduced contribution to degrading air quality. Economic impact for these changes can be thought of in two ways. It is true that there would be an investment required to redesign, manufacture, and test the changes, however, it is anticipated that there would be an overall reduction in the number of parts. This would have a trend to reduce assembly cost, piece part cost, and the complexity of the system. Fuel economy improvement would be seen first-hand by the consumer at the gas pump. Add this to the ability to expand or at least retain business in countries that might seek to restrict its sale, would increase net sales. The last of our 4 concerns, environmental concerns, is clearly improved from our discussion above with regard to global and societal aspects. Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and a reduction in parts would have a very positive impact on air quality, fuel economy, and less mass in a land fill.

Part Location Reference

Coolant Tube Assembly
Crankshaft Clamp Assembly
Pulley Assembly
Push-Rod & Rocker Arm Assembly
Sensor Assembly
Thermostat Location
Valve Assembly

Citations

The following sources were visited on September 16, 2010:

http://www.samarins.com/glossary/dohc.html

http://www.rebuilt-engine-blocks.com/engines/Automobile_Engine_GMC_2200LB_5_CHEVY.html

http://www.autoworld.com/news/Chevrolet/Chevrolet_Vortec.htm

http://www.mazdatruckin.com/B2200/B22Specs.html

http://www.amazon.com/MAZDA-Engine----Remanuafctured-Block-Rebuilt/dp/B000FB8S6M/ref=sr_1_8?s=gateway&ie=UTF8&qid=1285208150&sr=8-8

http://www.mazda-mx6.info/history/

The following source was accessed on September 21, 2010:

http://www.enginebuildermag.com/Article/2437/rebuilding_the_chevy_22l_engine.aspx

The following source was accessed on December 8, 2010:

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/camshaft.htm

http://www.samarins.com/glossary/dohc.html