Group 10 - GM V-6 Engine Gate2.1

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Contents

Gate 2: Preliminary Design Review

Causes for Corrective Action

Group 10 and 11 were both assigned to analyze this V6 engine. Group 11dissected the entire engine and Group 10 decided it would make the most sense to document the reassembly process. This way both assembly and dissection could be documented. The assembly of the engine went exactly as planned. The group met at 6:30pm on Tuesday October 19th and Thursday October 21st to reassemble the engine. Group 11 had previously dissected the entire engine and the whole process was discussed in detail, however members of Group 10 were not there during the dissection. Assembling the engine was slightly more difficult than the dissection process because we did not see each piece be removed, the entire assembling process took about 5 hours. The group used their previous knowledge and mechanical skill to correctly reassemble the engine. When everything was back together there were no extra pieces. Difficulties came from having to find all the proper bolts to fasten each part to the engine block. Almost every part was properly labeled in plastic bags but a few parts were still loose. The group worked together very well. Everyone had a job and this allowed us to quickly and efficiently complete the assembly.

Most of the assembly could be done with simple tools. The only exception was a ring compressor was used to reinstall the pistons and a valve spring compressor was needed to install each valve spring. The harmonic balancer also required a special press to press it back on to the crankshaft. We used 1/4" and 3/8" drive ratchets with metric size sockets. A power drill was used to fasten on the timing chain cover. The gasket around the cover made it difficult to use ratchets so the power tool was used.

Gate 2: Preliminary Design Review

Causes for Corrective Action

Group 10 and 11 were both assigned to analyze this V6 engine. Group 11dissected the entire engine and Group 10 decided it would make the most sense to document the reassembly process. This way both assembly and dissection could be documented. The assembly of the engine went exactly as planned. The group met at 6:30pm on Tuesday October 19th and Thursday October 21st to reassemble the engine. Group 11 had previously dissected the entire engine and the whole process was discussed in detail, however members of Group 10 were not there during the dissection. Assembling the engine was slightly more difficult than the dissection process because we did not see each piece be removed, the entire assembling process took about 5 hours. The group used their previous knowledge and mechanical skill to correctly reassemble the engine. When everything was back together there were no extra pieces. Difficulties came from having to find all the proper bolts to fasten each part to the engine block. Almost every part was properly labeled in plastic bags but a few parts were still loose. The group worked together very well. Everyone had a job and this allowed us to quickly and efficiently complete the assembly.

Most of the assembly could be done with simple tools. The only exception was a ring compressor was used to reinstall the pistons and a valve spring compressor was needed to install each valve spring. The harmonic balancer also required a special press to press it back on to the crankshaft. We used 1/4" and 3/8" drive ratchets with metric size sockets. A power drill was used to fasten on the timing chain cover. The gasket around the cover made it difficult to use ratchets so the power tool was used.

Product Assembly Plan

The table below documents the procedure that was taken to dissect a GM V6 engine. Each step includes the part that is to be removed, which tool(s) will be used, and how difficult the step is on a scale of 1 to 5. Any additional concerns about removing the part are made in the "Notes" column.

Difficulty Scale

1

Quickly and easily installed by hand

2

Quickly and easily installed using tools

3

Easily installed, but time-consuming or repetitive

4

Required moderate force, skill, or special tools

5

Required excessive force and time


The Dissection Process

StepPart InstalledDifficultyTools UsedQuantity / Size of Bolts InstalledNotesPhotos
1 Harmonic Balancer 5 Pully puller/press, Wrenches none
  • Very tight press fit, needed special pulley remover to take off and pulley press to put back on
\'\'Figure 1: \'\'Harmonic Balancer
2 Exhaust Manifold (2) 1 Socket Wrench 10 x 14mm
  • remove: 12 (6 each) x 14mm hex heads
  • 2 in long
  • remove 2 gaskets per exhaust manifold
\'\'Figure 2: \'\'Exhaust Manifold
3 Fuel Injector Cover 1 Socket Wrench 6 x 12 mm

8x10mm studs 6 x 2 5/16 in (length)

2 x 2 9/16 in (length) – back left corner
-remove valve cover gauge connecting oil and valve cover
\'\'Figure 3: \'\'Fuel Injector Cover
4 Electric Ignition 1 Socket Wrench 2 x 10 mm
\'\'Figure 4: \'\'Electric Ignitino
5 Throttle Body 2 Socket Wrench 3 x10 mm (Image#23) Bolted on top of intake manifold
\'\'Figure 5: \'\'Throttle Body
6 Water Pump 2 Socket Wrench 4 x 14 mm
  • disconnect rubber hose
  • remove: 4x14mm hex heads
    • 2in long
\'\'Figure 6: \'\'Water Pump
7 Valve Covers (2) 2 Socket Wrench 6 x 13 mm
  • remove: 6 (3 per cover) x 1/2in hex heads
    • 3 ½ in long
  • Branded with Vortec name
\'\'Figure 8: \'\'Valve Cover
8 Distributor Shaft 2 none none
  • Plastic, removed by hand
  • remove: 1x1/2in hex heads
    • 7/8 in long
\'\'Figure 8.1: \'\'Distributor
9 Intake Manifold 2 Socket Wrench 10 x 14 mm
  • remove: 8 (4 each side) x 1/2in hex heads
    • 1 ¾ in long
\'\'Figure 9: \'\'Intake Manifold
10 Cylinder Heads 2 Socket Wrench 26 x 13 mm
  • heavy component but not difficult to remove
  • push rods will fall out when cylinder heads are removed
\'\'Figure 10: \'\'Cylinder Heads
11 Plastic Lifter Covers 1 Socket Wrench 4 x 10 mm
  • remove: 2 (per cover) x 10mm hex heads (permanently pressed into cover)
  • remove lifters
    • 6.6cm long
    • 2.1cm radius
  • Rotated engine so lifters were horizontal to install
\'\'Figure 11: \'\'Lifter Covers
12 Push Rods 1 none none
  • dropped into place
\'\'Figure 11.1: \'\'Push Rods
13 Lifters 1 none none
  • placed by hand into lifter holders first, then into engine
\'\'Figure 11.2: \'\'Lifter
14 Rockers 1 Socket Wrench 12 x 14 mm
  • assembly required removal of several rockers to reattach heads
  • grooves for pushrods and valve springs
\'\'Figure 12: \'\'Rockers
15 Serpentine Belt Pulley 1 Socket Wrench 3 x 14 mm
  • one bolt missing
  • belt contact faces away from engine so concave place faces out
\'\'Figure 13: \'\' \'\'Source: Group 11\'\' Serpentine Belt Pulley
16 Timing Chain and Cover 1 Socket Wrench 3 x 14 mm
  • remove plastic 6 x 3/8 in hex heads (with rubber bushing) and discard after removal
  • 2 x 1 ½ in long, located under top 2 hex heads
  • 4 x ¾ in long
  • chain is connected to all sprockets which must be removed first to take off chain
  • remove oil splasher (by hand)
\'\'Figure 14: \'\'Timing Chain, Sprockets, and Cover
17 Camshaft Sprocket 2 Socket Wrench 3 x 13 mm
  • remove: 3 x ½ in hex heads
  • 1 3/8 in long
  • remove cam shaft sprocket and the chain will come off with it
  • remove cam shaft gear (sits directly behind sprocket and has angled teeth)
  • alignment hole in sprocket must line up with alignment hole in cam shaft gear
\'\'Figure 15: \'\'Camshaft Sprocket
18 Balancing Shaft 2 Socket Wrench 2 x T30 Torx
  • remove: 1 x 3/8 in hex head along with 3.18 in. washer
    • 1 1/8 in long hex heads
  • remove retaining collar:
  • remove: 2 x T-30 torx bolts
  • ½ in long
  • remove shaft from housing (will require hammer)
\'\'Figure 16: \'\'Balancing Shaft
19 Camshaft 2 Socket Wrench 2 T-30 Torx Bolts
  • remove retaining collar (groves facing out):
  • remove: 2 x T-30 counter sink bolts
    • 3/8 in long
  • remove cam shaft (by hand)
  • Rotate engine upside-down
\'\'Figure 17: \'\'Camshaft
20 Oil Pan 2 Socket Wrench 12 x 12mm
  • remove oil distributor
  • remove: 2 x ½ in hex head
    • 3 1/8 long, thread for 7/8 in.
  • remove: 10 x ½ in hex heads from oil pan
    • ¾ in long
\'\'Figure 18: \'\'Oil Pan
21 Oil Pump 1 Socket Wrench 2 x T-20 Torx Bolts
  • Includes mount, pump, drive gear.
  • Oil Pump orients by lining up with hose hole
  • remove: 1 x 5/8 in hex head
    • 2 1/8 in long, threaded 1 1/8 in
\'\'Figure 19: \'\'Oil Pump
22 Pistons 1 Socket Wrench, Ring Compressor 2 x T-20 Torx Bolts
  • Piston rings had to be compressed before they could be installed into cylinders.
  • Installation was very repetitive but relatively simple.
  • Each piston had an indicator mark that pointed to the front of the engine.
  • Cylinders were numbered odd on the left bank and even on the right relative to the flywheel.
  • disconnect connecting rod from crankshaft by removing collar
    • remove: 2 x 14mm hex nuts
    • remove collar with force
    • remove bearing sleeves (under collar and in arc on top of connecting rod)
  • remove piston with mallet (indicator mark on top of piston points toward front of engine)
  • repeat process for 5 other pistons
\'\'Figure 20: \'\'Piston and Connecting Rod
23 Crankshaft 1 Socket Wrench 8 Hex Bolts
  • Crankshaft is held in place by the main bearing caps.
  • seated Remove Crankshaft collar with seal.
  • seated over 2 studs, slides off.
  • remove 3 main bearing caps
  • remove: 2 x 5/8 hex heads
    • 3 ¼ in long, threads 1 in
  • remove crankshaft
\'\'Figure 21: \'\'Crankshaft

Post Dissection Analysis

\'\'Ease of Disassembly\'\'

Almost every part in the engine was intended to be disassembled. Engines frequently require service or maintenance to different parts so having parts that are easily disassembled makes it easy to carry out these tasks. The hardest part about service is accessing the parts. When the engine is installed in a vehicle many areas are hard to access. When it\'s removed everything is easily reached. The entire engine was disassembled and reassembled mainly using basic tools such as a socket wrench which every mechanic has a set of. There were only a few different sizes and types of bolts, all of which were very common. This makes it easy for a mechanic to take out a specific component of the engine to fix or replace it if it needs to be serviced.

\'\'Connection of Subsystems\'\'

The GM V6 engine has multiple subsystems, each of which are connected and work together to allow proper, overall function of the engine. The 2 major subsystems are the mechanical and the electrical subsystems. The mechanical system provides mechanical energy, which powers to the electrical system. Every moving part of the engine is connected to the crankshaft in some way. The pistons are connected directly to it with a shaft. As the fuel combusts and pressure changes in the cylinders, the pistons move back and forth, causing the crankshaft to rotate. The crankshaft is connected to pulleys and pumps by belts, which are connected to the alternator. As the crankshaft spins, the pulleys and belts provide electrical and mechanical energy to the alternator. Before this rotation occurs however, the initial function must be performed by the user. This function is to turn the key, which transmits a signal to the starter motor to initiate the spinning motion.

The subsystems are all connected by mass through the crankshaft. The crankshaft is a solid component which cannot be further disassembled, and it is shaped in such a way that as it spins the parts connected to it move in and out. The pistons are directly connected to it. As it rotates, it also spins the camshaft which then opens valves. Force from the valve springs hold the valves closed until the lifter presses up on a rocker, which in turn pushes down on the valve, opening it. The lifters ride up and down on the cams of the camshaft. The systems are connected by means of energy as energy is transmitted and converted throughout the engine. When the user turns the key, electric energy from the battery is transferred to the starter, which initiates the engine movement. Fuel and air are combined and combusted in the cylinders, which causes the pistons to move and transfer their mechanical energy to rotational energy in the crankshaft. This mechanical energy is transferred through the whole engine by means of direct contact with the crankshaft or by belts, pulleys, chains, and sprockets and powers systems such as the oil pump and the coolant system. The kinetic energy of the belts connecting the crankshaft to the alternator is converted to electrical energy by the alternator, which keeps the battery charged. The rotational energy of the crankshaft also powers the rotation of the camshaft. The spark plugs receive electrical energy from the battery and the distributor dictates which plug fires by spinning over contacts for each plug. A shaft that is connected to the camshaft by cogs is timed with the engine and synchronizes the sparks. The spark plugs are responsible for the combustion of the fuel/air mixture in the cylinders, which initiates the kinetic energy to move the pistons.

Each component of the engine is connected in such a way to ensure its efficient and proper functioning. The mechanical energy that runs throughout the engine is transferred through direct contact to each of its moving parts. Since everything is connected directly, every system is dependent upon one another. The movement of the pistons requires the combustion of fuel and air, which requires a spark from the spark plugs. The electricity used by the spark plugs cannot be discharged without the distributor, which results from the interaction of the crankshaft with other parts. The battery, which is required for the engine\'s ignition, is charged by mechanical energy that originates in the combustion of fuel. The way that each component is connected is necessary for the use of one major fuel source, allowing for the most efficient process possible. Since there are so many moving parts, some energy is lost to friction and proper lubrication helps decrease this loss.

When it comes to automobiles, society puts a high value on efficiency. An engine that consumes a smaller amount of fuel in a given time is usually valued highly by society because less money is required for fuel purchase. The direct connection of parts previously discussed is used in most manufactured engines because it is the most efficient. Economic factors such as fuel efficiency were kept in mind when designing the engine to increase popularity and sales.

The subsystems of the V6 engine are assembled into the shape of a “V”. This is the optimal formation to ensure that all the moving parts can receive power from the crankshaft which runs right through the middle of the engine block. The subsystems of the engine are also arranged for simplicity and ease of maintenance since engines need to be serviced frequently. Parts that most often need to be serviced, for example, the oil filter and air filter are arranged near the bottom and top to make them easy to replace. The subsystems included in this engine are not particular to what they cannot be near. However, once other systems are included such as the electrical and fuel systems, it becomes very important to arrange certain subsystems away from others. For example, the electrical and fuel systems must arranged far from the exhaust pipe since the heat from the pipe can ignite a fuel line or destroy an electrical system.

Functional Model of Engine System

Figure 22: First Level System Functional Model
Figure 23: Second Level Component Functional Model

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