Gate 1 - Group 6 2012

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\'\'\'Project Planning\'\'\'

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This gate goes through the planning required for the project. It starts out with a section on project management. This section has a work proposal that discusses the goals of the project. There is a management proposal that discusses each members role in the group and their responsibilities. the product archaeology section discusses several things about the object. These are the history and the development of the wrench. It also discusses the usage profile, energy profile, complexity profile, and materials profile. Finally there is a alternatives section.

Project Management

Work Proposal

Gate 2


Product Archaeology:

  • Excavation (Dissection)

Project Management:

  • Preliminary Project Review

\'\'\'Tools and Timeline\'\'\'


  • Philips head screwdriver
  • 5/32” Allen wrench
  • 13/16” wrench
  • camera

\'\'\'Estimated Time:\'\'\' 30 min for dissection

\'\'\'Anticipated Challenges\'\'\'

  • It may not be possible to achieve a cross-sectional view due to casing
  • Parts may fall out of the casing before understanding of how they connect is achieved
  • Keeping track of all the parts may be difficult

\'\'\'Group Assets\'\'\'

  • It may not be possible to achieve a cross-sectional view due to casing
  • Parts may fall out of the casing before understanding of how they connect is achieved
  • Keeping track of all the parts may be difficult

\'\'\'Group Shortcomings\'\'\'

  • No group member has ever taken apart a pneumatic tool
  • Group members chose a pneumatic tool because of great potential to learn from the experience but because of this have very few ideas about how the impact wrench works
  • No group member has used a wiki before

Gate 3


Product Archaeology:

  • Evaluation

Project Management:

  • Coordination Review

\'\'\'Tools and Timeline\'\'\'


  • camera
  • scale
  • ruler
  • Creo Parametric 1.0

\'\'\'Estimated Time:\'\'\' Several hours for research and solid modeling

\'\'\'Anticipated Challenges\'\'\'

  • Solid modeling and maintaining a good timeline for work deadlines to be met may be difficult
  • A higher demand for research and analysis will mean more hours must be put into completing the Gate on time

\'\'\'Group Assets\'\'\'

  • One group member has experience in solid modeling and has volunteered to take on this part of the project
  • The dis-assembly and re-assembly technicians have a wealth of knowledge regarding manufacturing processes and indications

\'\'\'Group Shortcomings\'\'\'

  • No other group member is familiar with solid modeling, thus putting the burden on one person

Gate 4


Product Archaeology:

  • Explanation

Project Management:

  • Critical Project Review

\'\'\'Tools and Timeline\'\'\'


  • Philips head screwdriver
  • 5/32” Allen wrench
  • 13/16” wrench
  • camera

\'\'\'Estimated Time:\'\'\' 30 min for re-assembly, several hours for research, analysis and presentation

\'\'\'Anticipated Challenges\'\'\'

  • This part of the project will demand a lot of coordination among members and more critical thinking in groups – more time will have to be dedicated to planning meetings and communicating

\'\'\'Group Assets\'\'\'

  • All of the members have the theoretical background necessary (through physics and other courses) to contribute to the explanation of design tools and constraints
  • One member has a background in economics and is able to make additional contributions to the GSEE analysis

\'\'\'Group Shortcomings\'\'\'

  • Design revisions will be difficult because of the level of creativity required in identifying challenges and solving them within all of the design constraints highlighted in previous gates

Gate 5


Product Archaeology:

  • Documentation

Project Management:

  • Delivery

\'\'\'Tools and Timeline\'\'\'


  • N/A

\'\'\'Estimated Time:\'\'\' Several hours for research, analysis and corrective action

\'\'\'Anticipated Challenges\'\'\'

  • The end of the semester will be a very busy time for everyone, so care must be taken for this part of the project to not be overlooked

\'\'\'Group Assets\'\'\'

  • Members have expressed and demonstrated their dedication to the project and to other group members throughout the project thus far.

\'\'\'Group Shortcomings\'\'\'

  • All group members have taken on quite a few credit hours this semester and will likely be less available as this important part of the project nears.

Management Proposal

The group has decided to manage its work by utilizing well defined roles for its members, regular meetings and designated deadlines for communication via E-mail.

Roles have been split up among group members as follows:

\'\'\'Communication Liaison\'\'\'-Amie Vuong

  • Serve as a point of contact for instructors -
  • Compose and disseminate communication between group and instructors
  • Compile group input for Gates and prepare preliminary drafts to be reviewed and edited by group members
    • Respond to editing comments and sends out second draft, repeating process until satisfactory

\'\'\'Project Manager and Intra-group Communications Coordinator\'\'\' - John Pfalzer

  • Set timeline for work to be done, including internal group due dates for work leading up to class due dates
    • Since each Gate has two Fridays between due dates, the group has tentatively planned to meet on the first Friday to discuss the tasks to be completed by each member in the following week. The second Friday will be the intra-group due date for the written portion of the Gate, and the week leading up to the class due date will be used to edit and re-edit the Gate according to group input via E-mail and occasional contact in person since many members attend the same classes.
  • Arrange group meetings, including coordinating group member availability and booking learning space in campus libraries as necessary
    • Currently, group availability has been Fridays between 12pm and 1pm, and most recently, the group has met in a study room in Lockwood to discuss this particular Gate. Future meetings will be similarly planned.
  • Preside over group discussions and mediate group conflicts
    • Should a conflict arise and the project manager be unable to mediate alone, a democratic process including a majority vote on the issue at hand will result. Ramifications for poor behavior in the group will result in a poor evaluation from members at the end of the project

\'\'\'Technical Experts\'\'\'
These roles have been defined in light of the skills and experience that these members have in accomplishing the tasks required for the Gates to be completed.

\'\'\'\'\'Computer Technology Expert\'\'\'\'\' - Kyle Schmidt

  • Solid model components as necessary
  • Manage wiki page
  • Research any media which can be used and suggest additions to written materials as appropriate
  • Organize and format any multimedia resources used by the group, including any video, photos and animation as needed.

\'\'\'\'\'Dis-assembly Technicians\'\'\'\'\' - Spencer Heyden and Michael Wrona

  • Research product for the purposes of dissection strategy
  • Develop an order of operations and communicate plan to members before dissection
  • Lead the dissection process by delegating tasks to members and making sure that procedure is followed

Meeting Plan

\'\'\'Who:\'\'\' All group members are expected to attend group meetings and notify the Project Manager should he or she not be able to attend. If more than two group members cannot attend the meeting, the meeting will be rescheduled for a better time.

\'\'\'Where:\'\'\' The group will meet in the following places according to availability of the space as to be determined by the Project Manager.

First choice – reserve study space in Lockwood Library

Second choice – meet in one of the study rooms on the third floor of Capen Library

Third choice – meet in the lobby of Capen to move somewhere appropriate

\'\'\'When:\'\'\' The group currently has availability on Friday between 12pm and 1pm. The group plans to meet on the first Friday between Gate due dates and schedule additional meetings thereafter as needed.

\'\'\'What:\'\'\' The initial meeting to discuss the Gate will be used to distribute tasks and responsibilities to members as well as establish intra-group due dates. The Communication Liaison will keep notes during the meetings in order to facilitate future evaluations of group interactions and participation as well as challenges confronted and planned resolutions.

\'\'\'Why:\'\'\' The group meetings are primarily for organizational purposes but will also serve later in the project as a forum for discussion of ideas and a time during which members can work on the disassembly and reassembly parts of the project.

Product Archaeology

Development Profile


In order to understand the development of the impact wrench it is necessary to begin with the advances that were made in compressed air technology. Compressed air was first used in pneumatic devices in the 17th century by Otto von Guericke for ideal environments for his science experiments. The pneumatic hammer and the pneumatic drill, which are both very similar to the impact wrench, were invented in the late 1800’s.

\'\'\'Market Influences and Impact\'\'\'

Impact wrenches in general were initially intended to be sold all over the world for industrial and commercial use. Advantages over other sources of torque have provided a market for the impact wrench and have driven many improvements in the design as well as research on how to increase efficiency in pneumatic devices and systems in general.


  • Various materials and housing now used to optimize weight for the tool
  • Improvements in the clutches to be manually changed to different settings and to provide higher torque

\'\'\'Solutions to Challenges\'\'\'

  • Manufacturing
    • Meets demand for more precision and accuracy in applied torque in manufacturing processes
  • Automotive Repair
    • Industry utilizes the large amount of torque applied by the impact wrench and its portability daily in the removal of tires and difficult bolts as well as in its assistance to stranded drivers
    • Major demand for such a powerful and portable device created through increased use of automobiles and mass transit due to urban sprawl, longer commutes and thus greater wear on tires and need for efficient repairs
  • Safety Needs
    • Safe for work in areas of high risk of fire or electrocution to user

\'\'\'Market Expansion to Home Use\'\'\'

The impact wrench that will be dissected by the group is designed for home use. Households use the impact wrench for “Do-It-Yourselfers” who are working on projects that often require torque issues such as project cars, lower level racing circuits, and mechanics who work out of their garages.

Usage Profile

\'\'\'Intended Use:\'\'\' the quick and efficient removal of bolts and other projects which require a wrench mechanism with either a powerful torque or a very precise torque.

\'\'\'Usage Environment:\'\'\' Although many impact wrenches on the market are for the automotive repair sector and other industry level usage, the impact wrench that is being dissected is for home usage. Due to its use of compressed air rather than electricity, it can be used in areas that are wet or where a spark can pose a danger.

\'\'\'Examples of Specific Household Tasks Performed:\'\'\'

  • Automotive repair, including the quick removal of tire bolts
  • Fastening or removal of difficult nuts, bolts or screws
  • Home improvement or do-it-yourself construction projects

The Kobalt Tools Website features the Impact Wrench in its Garage Display “For the Mechanic,” advertising it primarily for its usage for the do-it-yourself mechanic.

Energy Profile: Air Compressor vs Electric Motor


Complexity Profile

\'\'\'Complexity Scale \'\'\'

The complexity of each component will be evaluated for each of two categories: Complexity of Part Design and Complexity of Interactions. The components will be scored relative to the other components listed in the chart that follows. Components will be numbered from 1 through 6 with the least complex scored at 1 and the most complex scored at 6.


Material Profile


User Interaction Profile

Compressor Inlet

This is the connection between the compressor and the impact wrench.

  • designed to be compatible with most compressor lines
  • has a metal connecting piece that threads a male and female part together and provides a seal. This is the area where many losses can occur in energy efficiency.


  • check for leaks and kinks
  • oil should be applied through the air inlet daily.


This is the interface at which the user has the most contact with the impact wrench.

It is ergonomically designed:

  • weight of the impact wrench is balanced in the user’s hand during use
  • the grip of the impact wrench is made of plastic for more comfort when the user engages them


Heavy use of the impact wrench and neglect can lead to a rougher appearance of the housing as well as dents and can even cause maintenance to be required.

  • care must be taken to not drop the impact wrench or leave it in places where it could be run over


This is the control interface for the user.

  • allows the user to turn the impact wrench on and off by engaging or disengaging the trigger, respectively

It is ergonomically designed:

  • force needed to engage the trigger has been minimized by material choices and designs
  • the trigger is made of plastic for more comfort when the user engages it


Heavy use or misuse of trigger can increase the risk of breakage.

  • force should be applied by the user perpendicular to the surface of the trigger – unnecessary lateral force can cause it to become disengaged with its inner connections causing a loss of control


This also serves as a control interface for the user.

  • allows the user to choose different settings for the torque output
  • requires the user to turn a dial and locks into place into one of five settings, one of which provides an option to go in reverse.


The user must take care that the switch is locked into the groove to prevent slippage.

\'\'\'General Maintenance Notes:\'\'\'

  • oiling of the parts inside and out after prolonged usage
  • checking the impact wrench for loose connections as a safety precaution due to the sudden and forceful impact created, which can cause loose parts to become dangerous projectiles
  • due to the few parts and their simplicity in design, repairs of the impact wrench are generally low in demand for time and money – many do-it-yourself videos and other resources are available for users.

Product Alternative Profile: Available Alternatives to the Pneumatic Impact Wrench

\'\'\'Product Alternative Profile: Available Alternatives to the Pneumatic Impact Wrench\'\'\'

Three alternatives to the Pneumatic Impact Wrench were profiled and analyzed for advantages and disadvantages: \'\'\'the manual socket wrench/crescent wrench, the battery-powered power drill with socket attachment, and the electricity-powered impact wrench\'\'\'. A summary of the findings appear in the table that follows.

\'\'\'General Conclusions\'\'\'

  • The impact wrench is only a good choice for consumers when the tasks for which the tool would be used are appropriate to the tool – if household jobs have low torque requirements or require work in small spaces, then it is much cheaper for consumers to purchase a manual socket wrench or a crescent wrench.
  • Given that the costs of the other power driven tools on the market are comparable to the impact wrench, the choice among them are mainly based on tradeoffs with respect to the power inputs and outputs.

\'\'\'Tradeoffs \'\'\'

  • Power inputs – When put up against battery or electricity powered tools with similar scopes of usage, the pneumatic impact wrench has a relatively more inconvenient and overall less energy efficient (due to losses from the compressor) power source for consumers. The pneumatic impact wrench requires a large initial investment by consumers in air compression technology, but likewise benefits from the appeal of providing additional uses for households which already have compressors.
  • Power outputs – Namely, the torque output in both magnitude and precision by the pneumatic impact wrench is unmatched by that of its competitors within the same price range.



Anjus Chiedozie, The History of Pneumatic Tools, accessed Oct. 4, 2012, .

Power Tools: Impact Wrenches, Chicago Pneumatic, accessed Oct 4, 2012,

Birney Summers, Which is Better? Compressed Air or Electric Tools?, accessed Sept. 29, 2012,, (Aug. 26, 2007).

Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. "pneumatic device," accessed Oct. 2, 2012,

Impact Wrench, Wikipedia, accessed on Dec 7, 2012,

Impact Wrench, Wikipedia, accessed on Dec 7, 2012,

Impact Wrench, Wikipedia, accessed on Dec 7, 2012,

Clutch, Wikipedia, accessed on Dec 7, 2012,

Spring (device), Wikipedia, accessed on Dec 7, 2012,

Impact Wrench Use and Maintenance, Tech Tire Repairs, Vol. 26, Issue 1, accessed Oct. 5, 2012,, (Mar. 8, 2002).

Youtube search: air impact wrench repairs, Youtube, accessed on Dec 11, 2012,

Image: Socket Wrench Blue Tone, accessed Oct. 5, 2012,

Image: Battery Powered Wrench, accessed Oct. 5, 2012,

Image: Electric Powered Wrench, accessed Oct. 5, 2012,

Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. "pneumatic device," accessed Oct. 2, 2012,