Gate 1: Product Archeology

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Contents

Project Management: Request for Proposal

Contact Info

Ryan Grace- ryangrac@buffalo.edu

Dale Higgins- dalehigg@buffalo.edu

Peter Hubert- peterhub@buffalo.edu

Nate Sutorius- nathansu@buffalo.edu

Prince Joseph- princejo@buffalo.edu

Management Proposal

To accomplish our task in an appropriate amount of time, we have decided to meet twice a week, on Tuesdays and Thursdays at 5 PM. Meetings in which we will be dissecting the engine will be held in Furnas 621, and meetings in which we are compiling work will be held at a location which will be determined by the group that week. In the event that we underestimate the amount of time needed to complete a gate, extra meetings will be scheduled by our Communication Liaison, in order to meet our deadline.

Roles and responsibilities

1. Dale Higgins: Project Manager- Lead team meetings, provide members with updates on project, make sure deadlines are met, divide work on gates between members

2. Prince Joseph: Communication Liaison- Keep members in contact, contact instructor about project complications, schedule extra group meetings if necessary

3. Nate Sutorius: Technical Expert- Compiles extra research/information about the product, assists members technical issues, adds additional information to entries

4. Ryan Grace: Site Manager- Regulates and makes necessary changes to wiki, checks all parts for accuracy, compiles and enters appropriate information

5. Peter Hubert: Documenter- Takes relevant notes/pictures of the disassembly and assembly processes, compiles information from meetings for the wiki, asserts assumptions made during meetings with fact checking

Group conflicts

All conflicts resulting between group members will be resolved as group, as this project is a summation of our collective work. Small issues such as member’s responsibilities and work will be settled by the project manager. If the manager alone cannot settle an argument, an abrupt group meeting will be called to mediate the issue. Conflicts in this setting will be settled by a majority rule, unless a solution cannot be met. In any case such as, the issue will be brought to the instructor.

Work Proposal

The process of disassembly is going to take place over multiple group meetings, as we are simultaneously analyzing each part of the engine, and also we need to take note of the engine at each state, since we will need to efficiently put the parts back together. The dissection will need to be very carefully done, as the engine has become worn in some parts from past projects groups, and also some minor pieces (nut and screws) are missing. The placement of these minor pieces will be crucial, as the engine should appear as it did when it was first given to us, so we will need to take that into account.

Our group should not have a problem with the dissection process, but our lack of knowledge of combustion engines would be our only significant shortcoming. Although a few of our group’s members are well versed in engines, some of us do not have that advantage. Too meet this challenge, we plan to do outside research to become more accustomed with our product, and as the project progresses, we will begin to pick up on the subtleties of such an engine. Any extra questions we have will be referred to our Technical Expert, who has the most sufficient knowledge of combustion engines, and will prove to be a great asset. All things considered, with the appropriate tools and a sufficient amount of work, this project should prove to be an interesting and enlightening learning experience.

The following tools are what we decided from our first analysis would be necessary to effectively dissect this engine. They are as follows:

• Wrench set

• Screwdriver set

• Allen key set

• Hex ocular socket

• Camera

• Plastics bags

Disassembly Process

Since we have not yet fully analyzed the engine, we can only speculate as to what components are on the inside. However, from what we could see, we can develop a rough idea of how we will dissect the product. We will obviously begin at the top and move down to the base of the engine, but more specifically, we disassemble in the following order:

1. Air box

2. Carburetors

3. Spark Plugs

4. Detach Head

5. Top half of engine block

6. Crankshaft cover

7. Bottom of engine block

8. Oil reservoir

Product Archaeology: Preparation and Initial Assessment

Development Profile

The 1994 Honda CBR 600 F2 was developed as a successor to the CBR 600 F1 Hurricane. Development by Hurricane LPL Ishikawa began in 1989 with the first model debuting in 1991. This bike was sold across the globe through 1994. It was intended as less boxy and more powerful version of its predecessor, boasting an additional 15 hp. These two improvements appealed to both the average motorcyclist and the professional rider. The developers clearly ignored fuel economy, based on the F2’s low efficiency (in terms of motorcycles), and went for power in order to ensure that the CBR line had a place in the eyes of professional motorsports [1]. These elements allowed the bike to continue the successful CBR line, which continues to this day in the form of the CBR600RR. The F2 model also enjoyed a period of growth in motorcycle sales. The decade in which the F2 was produced saw an 11 percent increase in motorcycle sales in the United States that was tapped by the makers of this bike [2].

The final engine that was developed [4]:

599 cc, four stroke, liquid cooled, Inline Four Cylinder

Bore X Stroke: 65mm X 42.2mm

Horsepower: 100hp @ 12000rpm

Torque: 48.6 ft-lbs @ 10500

Usage Profile

The engine of the CRB 600 F2 motorcycle fulfills several roles. Its power and sleek design allow it to be a recreational, professional, and commuter vehicle. The largest market is found in the casual motorcyclist. That is the weekend rider who is looking for speed and acceleration in his/her motorcycle so they can get a thrill on the road or can take it to a closed track when in need of an adrenaline rush. This engine also has the performance to earn a place on the racetrack in competitive motorsports. For example, every race in the AMA 600 Supersport series in 1991 was won by a rider on the Honda CBR 600 F2 [3]. Lastly, the sporty bike can be used for any sort of personal transportation and attains 40-45 mpg in fuel economy, placing it a step up from the standard sedan of the 1990’s [1]. While this no milestone for motorcycles, it would certainly appease any commuter who wants a flashy ride to work.

Energy Profile

Like all engines, the four cylinder engine our group is dissecting uses many different types of energy. This is a four stroke engine, which requires heat, pressure changes and volume changes. Masses in this system are pushed and pulled, and finally there is an electric spark to start the cycle again. For the correct combustion to occur, the air in the piston chamber needs to be a specific temperature and pressure, and needs to be filled with the right amount of flammable vapor. Those spent gases need to be removed and then replaced. Initially, the energy comes from the battery to get the piston moving, which sucks in air and fuel, and is the followed by the first spark. The rotation of the shaft pulls the piston down to create a low pressure zone and the air outside is sucked in and mixed with vaporized gasoline. Then the valves that let these in close and the pistons move up due to the rotation of the shaft. The shaft, pistons, and alternator are kept in perfect timing to each other by a system of belts and gears.

The mass of the belt and gear components creates kinetic energy, which is then converted to electrical energy in the alternator. The spinning of the coils shoots a charge to the spark plug creating a spark as soon as the gasses in the piston chamber are at the right pressure, which ignites the gas, causing heat and expansion. This new pressure pushes the piston down rotating the shaft further and when the piston comes up the exhaust valve opens and the spent gases exit. The exhaust then closes, and as the piston moves down the intake and fuel valves open. The cycle repeats as long as nothing breaks while new fuel and air is added. Primarily, the engine uses the principle that pressure increases with temperature. Kinetic energy is used to keep timing as well as produce a spark.

Complexity Profile

An internal combustion engine is a complex piece of machinery. In order to transform the chemical energy of gasoline into rotational energy the engine requires a multitude of components of various types in order to make sure that this transformation of energy happens reliably and safely. Exactly how many components are used in our engine is very hard to say. Without opening the engine the exterior reveals only the basic functions of the engine. While the exact number is not known, the basic components of an internal combustion engine should be present on the inside of our engine. Visible components include spark plugs, the valve train cover; the two pieces bolted together which make the engine block, the transmission and the oil pan. These components make up the main bulk of the engine and form what looks like a large metal case to cover the internal components of the engine. The other components are also visible from the exterior of the engine. The block air box and four carburetors are also readily visible, as well as tubes which we hypothesize to be used for cooling or oil circulation are also present. These components vary in complexity, from the extremely complex carburetors to the not so complex valve train cover, but it is easy to say that all of these components serve a purpose, and their interaction is what makes the engine operate, so the component interactions of the engine are very complex.

Component Function
Valve cover Covers valvetrain system
Spark plugs Ignites fuel in combustion chamber
Engine Block (two pieces) Houses cylinders and internal components of engine
Transmission Allows Engine to Function with different gear ratios
Oil pan Reservoir for oil that is used to lubricate internal components
Carburetors Allow a certain mixture of air and fuel into combustion chamber
Power cables Power output from alternator

Material Profile

There are various materials present in our engine. High strength materials must be used to harness the power that is stored in the chemical bonds of gasoline, and in other situations different materials are more practical for their purpose. Plastic, Aluminum, Steel, ceramic, copper, bronze and are all readily visible, and inside of the engine there is probably steel used on some of the more high impact components of the engine, such as in the valves or crankshaft.

Interaction Profile

How does the user interface with the product(s)?

The first mode of interface the user has with the Honda engine is the ignition and the accelerator. When the user turns the key, the spark plugs inside the pistons fire, lighting the fuel that is injected into the piston cylinder. Once this process has begun the accelerator allows the user to adjust the rate of fuel flow into the pistons, which will control the RPM of the engine which directly relates to the power that is produced. The user is then able to further control the engine using the clutch and changing the gears. The clutch temporarily disconnects the gears from each other so the user is able to switch gears freely and to adjust either the output power or speed of the engine

How intuitive are the interfaces?

The interfaces are relatively intuitive for a user that is familiar with motorbikes as far as we were able discern by only looking at the engine, and not the rest of the vehicle sections. Every vehicle has a key to start the ignition and since we could see the spark plugs it is safe to assume that the vehicle starts with a key which should be obvious to anyone that is old enough to drive a motorbike. One of the cables we found coming out of the engine seems very likely to be one that controls the fuel flow which is a very generic way of how a bike accelerator works. We found another cable that seemed to operate the clutch which would also lead us to assume that the clutch operation would be very intuitive. Then we found the lever that controls the gears protruding right out of the gear box, which is where most bikes have it so that is also very intuitive interface.

Is the product easy to use?

The controls of this engine should be very obvious to anyone that is used to riding motorcycles mainly because all the reasons listed above that makes its controls feel very natural. For people that are completely new to the engine it is very likely that it will need some explanation from an experienced user as well as a good amount of practice before they feel that the Honda engine is easy to use.

Is regular maintenance required? If so, how easy is the maintenance?

Just like any motor vehicle engine, this Honda engine will require regular maintenance to ensure that it performs at an optimal level. The most important maintenance for the engine is oil change and we were able to spot the valves through which we would drain the dirty oil as well as where we would pour the replacement in through, in a very short amount of time. Also, if in any case the maintenance requires that the engine needs to be opened up in any way, the engine is set up so we are able to take apart any one specific section without having to take the whole machine apart. This will definitely save time, energy and even lowers the likelihood of making any unnecessary errors during minor repairs.


Product Alternative

What product alternatives exist?

An alternative product that is competing more and more against gas powered engines such as our Honda CBR 600F2 engine areelectric motors. electric motors run on power stored in batteries, which must be charged at regular usage intervals. The challange in this is in applying an electric engine to a product such as the Honda CBR 600 F2 motorcycle, which is a high performance motorcycle. Constraints on range and frequency of usage are what hold the electric motor back from being more competitive with the gasoline engine. Another possible alternative would be to reduce the number of cylinders in the bike which would still reduce the power of the bike.

What are the advantages?

Electric engines produce almost zero emissions while in use which is a very positive impact due to the rising CO2 crisis. They are also known to be much quieter than gasoline powered engines which would help greatly reduce noise pollutions in cities. They can also be much safer in times of accidents because of the fact that batteries do not catch on fire and explode nearly as easily as gasoline tanks. A two cylinder engine would save much more gasoline than the current 4 cylinder engine by not producing unnecessary amount of power that ends up being wasted anyway. This reduces the amount of CO2 emissions from the engine and helps the cause of slowing down global warming.

The 2 cylinder engine should also improve the fuel economy of the engine because it should require a significant amount less fuel to travel the same distances.

What are the disadvantages? The main disadvantage of an electric engine is that our battery technologies have not yet caught up enough to be portable enough and be powerful enough to sustain a motorbike engine as well as a gasoline engine can. The battery charging also takes significantly more time than refilling a tank at a pump which makes it impractical for long distance usage.

The disadvantantage of the 2 cylinder engine would be that its acceleration would be significantly lower than the acceleration that would be produced with the current 4 cylinders.

How do these alternatives compare?

The alternatives have very good potential of replacing this engine and in fact, these product technologies have replaced this engine over the years in newer bike models. The electric design still isn’t ready for the general public yet but engines with fewer cylinders have definitely been implemented for their beneficial results in large scales.

What are the differences in cost?

The price of an electric engine ranges from $2000 up to $5000 and even more for the battery alone. The price of a 2 cylinder gas powered engine ranges from $500 to $2000. The price of engine we are working with could not be found but it is obvious that it will be more expensive than the 2 cylinder engine. The Honda engine on the other hand will definitely be a lot cheaper than electric engine when considering the prices of both the engine itself and the battery pack that has to go with it.

Sources



[1] http://hallicino.hubpages.com/hub/MPG-Guide-The-700-Top-Selling-Motorcycles

[2] http://researchwikis.com/Motorcycles_Marketing_Research

[3] http://anon21405.atspace.com/racing/600ss_race_hist-8.htm#1994

http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/index.php?dispatch=categories.view&category_id=36

http://www.google.com/search?gcx=c&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8&q=2+cylinder+motorcycle+engine#q=2+cylinder+motorcycle+engine&hl=en&sa=X&tbs=p_ord:pd&tbm=shop&prmd=imvns&ei=_A-STtnhOana0QHd0PAe&ved=0CAsQuw0oAg&fp=1&biw=1600&bih=775&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&cad=b