GATE 3: Product Evaluation

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Contents

Component Summary

Transmission Components:


Table 1.1: Described below are the components that make up the Transmission System

Name Function Materials used Manufacturing Processes Number of times used Image
Gears Transmit power and allows the engine to operate in its narrow range of speeds while providing a wide range of output speeds. Steel Sand Casted There are 6 gears and each one is used twice except the first gear is only used once Transmission System.jpg

FIGURE 1.1: Shown is the whole transmission system that includes all of the components mentioned in Table 1.1

Main shaft Receives the rotation from the flywheel Steel Forging and Machining Once See FIGURE 1.1
Countershaft transfers the energy from the main shaft to produce output Steel Milling Once See FIGURE 1.1
Bearing Allows the mainshaft to rotate without restriction within the transmission system Carbon Steel Once See FIGURE 1.1
Sprocket Creates a specific final drive ratio Steel Die Casting Once See FIGURE 1.1
Gearshift Shaft Transfers rotation of shifter to transmission system Steel Blanking and Machining Once See FIGURE 1.1
Shifter Cam engaging and disengaging a gear Once See FIGURE 1.1
Shift Drum moves the the internal shift forks Machined See FIGURE 1.1
Shift Drum Bearing allows the rotation of the shift drum with little friction Once See FIGURE 1.1
Shift Fork moves back and forth disengaging from one gear and engaging the next Aluminum Casting There are three different shift forks See FIGURE 1.1
Shift Fork Shaft Connect all the shift forks within the transmission system Steel Once
Stopper Arm Mechanism for preventing malfunctions caused by misuse of the transmission system Once See FIGURE 1.1
Washer (several sizes) Distributes the load of the fasteners Steel Stamped ten


Clutch Components: Table 1.2: Described below are the components that make up the Clutch System

Name Function Materials used Manufacturing Processes Number of times used Image
Friction Plates Transmits power from engine to transmission by allowing to engage a spinning engine to a non-spinning transmission (wet) Carbon Sand Casting 9 Friction Core Plate.jpg

FIGURE 2.1: Shown are the friction and core clutch plates of the Clutch System

Core Clutch Plates Transmits power from engine to transmission by allowing to engage a spinning engine to a non-spinning transmission (wet) Forming Steel 8 see FIGURE 2.1
Pressure Plate applies pressure to the clutch plates allowing the drivetrain to slowly engage and provide torque through the transmission to the wheels. Cast Iron Machined Once
Sprocket Translation of mechanical energy from the engine to the wheels Steel Die Casting and Milling Once
Clutch Cover Houses the Clutch Plates, Pressure Plate, Spring, and Sprocket and secures them within the system. Steel Die Casting and Milling Once Clutch Plate Cover.jpg

FIGURE 2.2: Shown is the Cover housing the components of the Clutch System

Clutch Basket Turns the transmission input shaft Steel Forged Once Clutch Basket 23.jpg
Spring "Locks and Unlocks" the clutch Steel Cold Rolled Four Times
6x28 Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning 4
20 mm Nut Used with the bolts to hold components together Steel Threading 1
6 mm Washer Distributes the load of the fasteners Steel Stamped 4
22 mm Washer Distributes the load of the fasteners Steel Stamped 1


Engine Block Components:

Table 1.3: The components of the Engine Block are described below

Name Function Materials used Manufacturing Processes Number of times used Image
Piston Translates energy created by ignited compressed gas to translational motion Aluminum and Silicon Alloy Die Casting and Machining Total of Four Pistons Piston 23.jpg

FIGURE 3.1: Shown is the Piston that is housed within the Engine Block

Connecting Rod Translates the energy from piston-cylinder system to the crankshaft Steel Forging Four (one for each piston) PisonConnectingRod 23.jpg

FIGURE 3.2: Shown is the Connecting Rod along with the piston that is housed in the Engine Block

Crankshaft Translates linear motion from the pistons into rotational motion and power Steel Forging and Machining Once Crankshaft 23.jpg

FIGURE 3.3: Shown is the Crankshaft that is placed in the Engine Block

Timing Chain Connects the Crankshaft to both camshafts allowing relative motion between the two Steel Machined Once Timing Chain 23.jpg

FIGURE 3.4: Shown is the Timing Chain wrapped around the Sprocket

Timing Sprocket Allows the movement of the crankshaft through the Timing Chain Steel Shaped Once See FIGURE 3.4
Timing Tensioner Tightens the chain when installed providing no slack and loosens the chain before removal, therefore enough slack will allow the chain to be removed Steel Machined Once TimingChainTensioner Guide.jpg

FIGURE 3.6: Shown is the Timing Chain Tensioner and Guides

Timing Guide Keeps the chain on required path Plastic Molded Once See FIGURE 3.6
6 mm Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning Twenty-one
Washer Distributes the load of the fasteners Steel Stamped
8 mm Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning ten
10 mm Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning Once


Engine Head Components:

Table 1.4: The components of the Engine Head are described below.

Name Function Materials used Manufacturing Processes Number of times used Image
Casing Houses all of the components of the Head and guides air to the carburetors Aluminum Alloy Investment Casting Once Engine Head 23.jpg

FIGURE 4.1: Shown is the Casing, Gasket, and Valves of the Engine Head System

Camshafts rotates while the protruded lobes push on the valves to let air/fuel mixture into the piston and then releases the exhaust gases from the piston. Billet-Steel Casted and Machined Twice (one for intake and the other for exhaust) Camshaft 23.jpg

FIGURE 4.2: Shown is one of the camshafts of the Engine Head System

Spark Plugs ignites the compressed fuels within the piston Several different materials and metals Machined 4 Spark Plugs 23.jpg
Valves One set of valves allows a fuel and air mixture into the piston chamber and the other set releases exhaust Highly Alloyed Steel Machined Sixteen (four for each piston chamber) Shown in FIGURE 4.1, seen within the chambers of the head, and FIGURE 4.2, seen in the right-hand side of the image as reflective round components
Thermostat Regulates the temperature of the coolant and ensures the engine stays cool Stainless Steel Formed Once
6 mm Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning Twice
9 mm Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning Ten times
10 mm Washer Distributes the load of the fasteners Steel Stamped Ten Times
Nut Used with the bolts to hold components together Steel Threading Once


Carburetor Components:

Table 1.4: The components of the carburetor are described below.

Name Function Materials used Manufacturing Processes Number of times used Image
Throttle Stop Cable Changes the position of the Throttle Rubber Molded Four (one for each carburetor)
Throttle Stop Spring Applies a force on the Stop Cable and causes the cable to return to its idle position when the normal throttle operating system fails Stainless Steel Formed Four (one for each carburetor)
Choke Bracket Positions the choke cable securely Billet Steel Shaped Four (one for each carburetor)
Piston Diaphram Spring Provides resistance for the diaphram to move up and down inside the carburetor Zinc Plated Formed Four (one for each carburetor)
Vacuum Chamber Cover Keeps the air in the carburetors Plastic Molded Four (one for each carburetor)
Float Chamber Plug Drains the Carburetors when needed Titanium Machined Four (one for each carburetor)
Throttle Stop Screw Stops the engine from increasing its Rotations Per Minute and over heating Steel formed four (one for each carburetor)
Throttle Plate Rotates to control the amount of air entering the carburetor Steel Machined Four (one for each carburetor)
Needle Jet Supplies fuel to the chamber depending on the position of the throttle plate Steel Machined Four (one for each carburetor)
Float Chamber Contains the fuel chamber, float pin and the needle valve Brass Grinding Four (one for each carburetor)


Intake Components:

Table 1.6: The Intake Components are described below

Name Function Materials used Number of times used Manufacturing Processes Image
Air Box Collects air and transports it through the filter Plastic Molding Once Air Box 23.jpg

FIGURE 6.1: Shown is the bottom side of an opened air box

Filter removes solids from the air so that only clean air enters Filter Paper Linear Extrusion Once Air Filter 23.jpg

FIGURE 6.2: Shown is the air filter of the Air Box system

4 mm Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning 16
5 mm Bolt Hold components together Steel Turning 13

Product Analysis

Piston:

Component Function:

The main function of the Piston is to transfer the force provided by the expanding gas that’s present in cylinder, of the piston sub-subsystem, through the connecting rod to the Crankshaft. Each of the four strokes of the piston creates a new function. The downward stroke creates a vacuum, which sucks a fuel/air mixture into the chamber. The Compression stroke compresses the mixture and is ignited by the spark plug. Next comes the Power stroke which creates a mechanical force as a result of the ignition. The final stroke, the Exhaust stroke, releases gases through an exhaust valve that remained after the mixture was ignited and burned. Flows associated with the Piston include............The Piston functions in an environment within the Engine Block and that is related to two camshafts (intake and exhaust), valves, spark plugs, connecting rods, and the crankshaft.

Component Form:

The general shape of the piston is cylindrical and is axis-symmetric. It is primarily in three-dimensions. The piston is roughly six and one-half centimeters in diameter and four and three-quarters centimeters in length and weighs approximately from 0.5 to 1.0 pounds. The shape of the piston is important because it conforms to the always-changing dimensions of the cylinder bore. When cold, it is designed to be elliptical and when at the operating temperature the bore becomes circular. It is made from a mixture of an aluminum and silicon alloy. The amount of silicon determines the amount of strength of the piston versus wear properties and also controls the rate of expansion of the piston. More silicon allows the piston to be machined easier........

Manufacturing Methods:

Die Casting and Machining were used to make the Piston. This is evident in the complexity of the shape and the need that it be consistent every single time. Die casting is one of the more popular manufacturing methods used on metals and is very precise. Also, many pistons would have to have been made for such a high volume company and therefore needed a cost effective way of making this particular part. Silicon makes the piston easier to be machined into.....


Spark Plugs:

Component Function:

The Spark Plug's only purpose is to ignite the compressed fuels within the piston at specific points in the otto cycle. Flows associated with the component include.........The spark plugs work in an environment that consist of the camshaft and valve system, and the piston and cylinder system.

Component Form:

Spark Plugs are very small and their general shape is that of a cylinder. It is axis-symmetric on only one axis. It acts primarily in one-dimension due to the fact that it has no motion and just lights the gas at one end of its small tip. They are roughly four centimeters long and about three-quarters in length and weigh only a couple of ounces. Its shape is important because its small enough to be placed in the piston system between the valves. Also since the overall body gets thicker towards the midsection it assists in sealing up the chamber of the piston. The Spark Plugs are made up of several different materials including porcelain, an aluminum oxide ceramic for the insulator tip and several other metals that make up the rest. The insulator and electrode's materials were decided to be used since they kept the plug from burning............

Manufacturing Methods:

Several manufacturing methods were used to create the spark plug, which include forming and molding or extruding and die casting, then machining or knurling, rolling, and then further molding .......

Camshafts:

Component Function:

The function of the camshaft is to rotate while its protruded lobes push on the valves to let air/fuel mixture into the piston and the other releases the exhaust gases from the piston. It also helps and keeps in sync with the rotation of the crankshaft which is very important in timing in the otto cycle. Flows that are associated with the component function include........The camshaft performs in the engine head, and functions along with the valves and timing chain, and therefore indirectly with the camshaft.

Component Form:

The general shape of the camshaft is a long cylindrical rod with oblong lobes that protrude from it and on one end is a gear. It has a flywheel at one end that connects to the timing chain. It primarily does work in two-dimensions since it rotates about an axis. The shape of these shafts are important because the lobes are intelligently placed so that when the shaft rotates they push on the valves to open them up at the exact time that it is needed. It is about 32 cm long and two centimeters in diameter for the rod. The lobes protrude out about two more centimeters and the flywheel has a diameter of about five centimeters. The weight of camshaft is roughly two and one-half pounds. It is made out of an iron-cast since it is easier for high volume production then steel.....


Manufacturing Methods:

The Camshaft is made by methods of turing and milling..........

Crankshaft:

Component Function:

The function of the Crankshaft is to translate linear motion for the pistons into rotation. The rotation of the crankshaft will indirectly cause the wheels of motorcycle move. Also, the rotation of the crankshaft is timed perfectly with the camshafts through the timing chain. Flows associated with the Crankshaft include.......The crankshaft functions within the engine block and is conncected to the timing belt and pistons

Component Form:

The general shape of the crankshaft is a long rod with square shapes that extend off of the rod to help translate the motion. It is noticeably an awkward shape and looks like a "maze". It works in primarily two dimensions since it also rotates about a single axis creating torque. The crankshaft's shape is important because the square-shaped extensions off of the shaft are pushed by the connecting rods to help translate the motion from the piston to the crankshaft. It has dimensions of 42.8 cm in length and two diameters of 8.2 and 10.6 cm and weighs roughly 20 to 30 pounds. It is made from steel because strength is needed to withstand stress. Any weaknesses could cause problems with the bike..............

Manufacturing Methods:

The Crankshaft is forged and then machined. This is evident since no parting lines are visible and since forging is used to create stronger parts which is need in the crankshaft.........


Filter:

Component Function:

The only function of the air filter is to remove solids from the air so that only clean air enters. Flows associated with the Air Filter include........The air filter functions above the engine head and connected to the intake.

Component Form:

The shape of the Air Filter is square and is about six inches in width, a foot in length, and roughly one inch in depth. The weight of the filter is less than one pound. It contains levels of material, that look like ripples, parallel to each other and is symmetric along two axes. It primarily performs in three dimensions since air will maintain a loading across the filter and will come from all directions. The shape is important because the air flows through the filter in between the parallel levels which then collects the dirt and dust. The filter paper is made from filter paper and housed in a plastic casing. Decisions that impacted this was the fact that the paper was cheap and effective........

Manufacturing Methods:

Manufacturing methods that made this part were injection molding for the plastic casing and linear extrusion for the filter paper. The plastic has evidence of parting lines and riser marks which suggest is was manufactured in a mold. As for the filter paper, the lack of thickness and evidence of the ripple effect show that the paper was extruded. Both the material and shape impacted the method of manufacturing.


Component Complexity

Roman Numeral Name of Item Precision Accuracy Quality Manufacturing Process (Complexity) Overall Size
I Alternator 1 3 3 2
II Intake Filter 1 2 1 1
III Fly Wheel 3 3 2 1
IV Timing Chain 3 3 2/3 1
V Pistons 3 3 3 2
VI Carburetor 2 2 3 2
VII Clutch plates 1 2 1 1
VIII Camshaft 3 3 3 2

Table 1-2

Meaningful Scale

Precision Accuracy: This section defines how accurate the component might have been to allow the engine to run with no problems.

Quality: This defines the quality inspection required on this component before it left the factory. Certain components of the engine must pass a minimal requirement, so that failure during ware and tare does not occur.

Manufacturing Process: This section defines the complexity of the item related to manufacturing. In other words, how easy can the item be duplicated or manufactured? Can a machine reproduce the component easily?

Overall Size: This section compares the component to the overall size of the engine.

How do the three categories above impact complexity? Depending on the component, certain accuracies, materials, and quality must all be present. The Camshaft for example, must have high precision when being manufactured because the camshaft operated valves that control intake and exhaust. Minor errors and accuracy can result and poor overall performance of the motorcycle. Quality and material are important because quality assures that the item can go through a long period of wear and tear without breaking down. A minor defect can cause total failure of the engine. For example, going back to the camshaft, if this component were to suddenly fail, the whole overall process of the engine would fail and damage can occur within. Materials are important because within an engine, temperatures can reach a couple hundred degrees. Certain materials must be used according to their characteristic. Lastly, the overall manufacturing process of an item can determine the cost and availability of the component is. If the component is difficult and costly to produce, then availability of the item would be limited **SEE CHART FOR COMPONENT RATING

How complex are the interactions? Depending on the component, interaction complexity can vary. For example, the timing chain interacts with the camshaft, and then to the valves, which deal with intake and exhaust etcetera. So the timing chain would have a high component interaction rating. The exhaust pipe rating would be low because this component only functions with the exhaust fumes from the combustion chamber.

Solid Modeled Assembly

Piston 23 CAD.jpg

Figure 1. Piston

Piston Cylinder 23 CAD.jpg

Figure 2. Piston Cylinder

Piston 23 Connecting Rod.jpg

Figure 3. Wrist Pin

Piston 23 Rod.jpg

Figure 4. Connecting Rod


Piston

Piston, moves inside a cylinder between BDC (Bottom Dead Center) and TDC (Top Dead Center) compressing air and fuel mixture to get pressure. Its translate heat energy to the mechanic energy. The pressure is transmitted to the crankshaft by a connecting rod. Firstly, air and fuel mixture comes to cylinder by intake valve. At that time, piston is at BDC. Piston moves up by crankshaft to compress the mixture. At that time, the piston is at TDC. The expanded gas pushed the piston at BDC and the crankshaft spins. Combusted gas exits by exhaust valve. (1)

Connecting Rod

It connects piston to crankshaft. One side of a connecting rod is connected to piston by wrist pin, and other side is connected to crankshaft by crankpin. Connecting rod converts axial movement which is done by piston in cylinder to rotary motion which spins crankshaft. (2)

Crankshaft

Crankshaft is connected to pistons by connecting rod. It translates the linear energy into a rotational energy with its arrangement. Pistons move up and down with the arrangement. Also, it is connected to flywheel which lays kinetic energy in. (4)

Cad package

The CAD Package used was Autodesk Inventor 2010 The connecting rod is fasten to the crankshaft by the tread. Wrist pin connects the connecting rod to the piston. When the piston moves up and down, it obtains bearing to the connect rod. (3) In the Honda engine, it was made from steel, which provides very high strength, and hardness.

Engineering Analysis

Engineering Analysis

Problem Statement: How long would it take for the motorcycle to completely come to a stop with the force of friction and a 125N force of engine braking applied?

Statement of Assumptions:

-The motorcycle velocity = 40 mph ~ 17.8 m/s

-Force of the engine braking – 125N

-Mass of the bike = 295lb ~ 133.8 Kg

-Coefficient of Friction between rubber and gravel road = .55

-Drag Force applied to the body and Bike are ignored

-Treat the body and bike as a point object


Governing Equations:

Normal Force = m*a

Magnitude of Static Friction Force = μk*N

Initial Energy = Final Energy = (½ mv2+mgy = ½ mv2+mgy)

Motion with Uniform Acceleration = X=Xo+Vot +1/2 axt2

Calculations:

Normal Force = (mass)(acceleration)

= (113.8kg)*(9.810m/s2)

= 1311.2.kg* m/s2 (Newton (N))

Magnitude of Static Friction Force = μk*N

= (.55)*(1311.2kg* m/s2)

= 721.2N

Energy Final = ½ (113.8kg)(17.8m/s)2 + 0 – f*d – (Force of engine braking)

0 = (2.12E4N-m) – (721.2N)*d – 125N

-(2.12E4N-m) + 125N = -(721.2)*d

29.2m = d

X=Xo+Vot +1/2 axt2

29.12m = 0 +17.8m/s(t) +0

29.12m/ 17.8m = (t)

1.64s = (t)


Solution Check: After looking at the equations used to find out the time it would take for the bike to come to a stop. All the units cancel out and it makes sense for the weight and the speed, it would take 1.64s to stop.

Discussion There are many other factors that are taken into account in this situation, but for calculation purposes and knowledge wise, what is stated above can calculate the distance and time it would take for a motorcycle to stop if an initial velocity is given.

Design Revisions

Design Revision #1 (Fuel Injected) Now days it is rare to see a newer motor of this size that is not fuel injected. The fuel injected system allows so many advantages (listed below) in comparison to having a carburetor. In order to make our Honda engine into a fuel injected engine a few things would have to occur starting with the carburetor (subsystem) being completely removed from the engine. You are going to need to add, injectors, vacuum lines, an Engine Control Unit and a fuel pressure regulator. All of these are necessary in order to successfully add a fuel injector to a carburetor ran engine. Although it may be a lot of work to change this part of the motor it is worth it for the following reasons:

• Less maintenance

• Higher engine performance

• Better fuel efficiency

• Easier to start and run the engine

• Reduced emissions

• Overall better control over how the engine runs


Four Factors When we look at the environmental concern of adding fuel injection one can see that the increase in fuel efficiency directly impacts this concern. The higher fuel efficiency means that the engine will be using less gasoline which in turn means less emissions. When looking at the economic aspect we see that adding the fuel injection system may be a little costly, however, when you add in that there is an increase in fuel efficiency that adds a great selling point to the public. Society is always begging for higher performance and the best technology at the time and with fuel injection we have both of these.

Design Revision #2 (CVT) The second revision that we would suggest would be the addition of a CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission). This type of transmission is new technology for many people and has been seen on snowmobiles and now a few makes of Nissan. The CVT transmission has the ability to provide an unlimited range of gear ratios in the transmission. A CVT uses a pulley and belt system to provide an unlimited range of gear ratios. It is different from the Honda transmission which has a set number of gear ratios. A CVT uses parts such as a high density rubber/metal belt, a driving pulley actuated by a hydraulic cylinder, a mechanical torque-sensing driving pulley, sensors and microprocessors to perform its function. In order to add this transmission the old subsystem transmission would have to be completely removed and replaced with the CVT. The CVT transmission comes in a set package but does include the parts listed above. For the following reasons the CVT motor is highly recommended:

• Improved fuel economy

• Less emissions

• Quicker acceleration


Four Factors When looking into the four factors one can find many reasons that this would be a good change to the motor. The decrease in emissions is a huge selling point for the economic concern. People like to see that they are helping out the environment while getting the type of motorcycle they want. The improved fuel economy is also a great selling point along with a good reaction for the environment. The quicker acceleration will make those performance frenzy people in society fall directly in love with the design revision. The only bad part to this revision is the economic cost, but overall the addition of the CVT would be great for all aspects.


Design Revision #3 (Supercharger) The best way to improve the performance of the engine dramatically would be to add a supercharger. You would have to add a subsystem that connects the exhaust to the intake. A supercharge compresses air and then forces it into the internal combustion chamber. By compressing air and then forcing it into the internal combustion engine of the bike, the supercharger increases the overall density of the air inside of the engine. The result is that the engine system itself becomes more powerful. It is suggested to do this because it will allow:

• Higher performance

Four Factors By Adding a supercharger to the Honda Engine we look directly at the change in performance of the bike. This mainly concerns the societal aspect of revision because people demand higher performance and a supercharger will give them this. Economically the cost of the bike would increase, however, with the demands of people and performance this should not be a big factor. Overall, the addition of higher performance in a supercharger will attract adrenaline junkies and should cause little problem in selling this engine.







REFERENCES:

(1) Piston (n.d.). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piston

(2) Connecting rod (n.d.). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Connecting rod

(3) Piston pin (n.d.). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gudgeon pin

(4) Crankshaft (n.d.). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crankshaft

(5) Engine Assembly (n.d.). In Ford. Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://www.fordscorpio.co.uk/manual/engines/dohc16v/DOHC16VDismant.pdf