Engine Societal Issue

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Team Anonymous

Societal Impact

With oil prices rising around the world it is society's job to decide which engineto use.

  • Positives
    • The consumers seem to reacting to the increased fuel prices. In a survey by autotrader.com, 62% of respondents said that they would consider a more fuel efficient car in their next purchase. Furthermore, the Prius sales have gone up by 70% in the past year and the Honda Civic Hybrid went up 53.8%. This increase in sales from the societal need for more fuel efficient cars has led to more alternation fuel research. A couple examples of this are the new Chevy Volt with the series hybrid engine, the Tesla Roadster with the fuel electric engine, and new battery technology like graphite based batteries and high performance capacitors. With people using more fuel efficient cars, less money is spend on fuel and the environmental suffers less damage.
  • Negatives
    • With any new technology their are growing pains. The cost of the new more fuel efficient cars are generally more expensive, even with subsidies from the government. The Chevy Volt costs $41,000 before the tax credit which reduces the price to $33,500. GM is also devoting a significant amount of resources into hybrid technology in order to keep up with demand and the competition. Furthermore, the Tesla Roadster costs over $100,000 dollars. Along with the increased cost of new cars and research, lithium-ion batteries are very expensive and have environmental problems of their own. The battery packs in hybrid and full electric cars cost thousands of dollars to tens of thousands of dollars depending of the car. Lithium is also a relatively rare substance and needs to be recycled in order not to poison the environment.

Kang Kang is awesome

  • from ZAK


Pollution

The Internal Combustion engine was a very influential piece of machinery that changed the way people lived their lives but it also brought with it a lot of negative impacts regarding to pollution. It produced much pollution due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel, leading to carbon monoxide and some soot along with oxides of nitrogen & sulfur and some unburnt hydrocarbons depending on the operating conditions and the fuel/air ratio. Furthermore, diesel engines, are said to produce more complicated pollutants that are known to penetrate deep into the human lungs and cause serious defects in the processes the lungs are suppose to carry out. It is apparent to see that this is a problem when you recognize the number of cars we have out there, and the close proximity many of these cars are to humans at times. We simply are exposed to all of these toxins a majority of our life, and the worst part is, so is our beautiful environment, that is also paying the price. Many fuels contain sulfur leading to sulfur oxides (SOx) in the exhaust, promoting acid rain. The high temperature of combustion creates greater proportions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health. Net carbon dioxide production is not a necessary feature of engines, but since most engines are run from fossil fuels this usually occurs. If engines are run from biomass, then no net carbon dioxide is produced as the growing plants absorb as much, or more carbon dioxide while growing. Hydrogen engines need only produce water, but when air is used as the oxidizer nitrogen oxides are also produced.

http://www.speedace.info/speedace_images/four_stroke_cycle_compression_coloured_engine_parts.jpg http://nozama.typepad.com/.a/6a00e54ed05fc288330120a7f427a8970b-400wi http://www.topnews.in/health/files/car-exhaust-fumes1.jpg http://www.treehugger.com/large-cargo-ship-pollution-smoke-photo4.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Black_smoke_car.jpg

SURGE KALABA-TABLE 3

The Assembly Line

One of Henry Ford's single greatest contributions was the creation of the assembly line. The process, whereby products are assembled from a variety of interchangeable parts in a continuous flow from start to finish. In a positive sense, this new method of production allowed for increased production volume and decreased production costs for a given amount of time. This translates into significant savings for the company, which are then passed on to the consumer - putting what were once luxury, out-of-reach products into the hands of the masses. The development of the assembly line may be one of the most important factors in the rise of the automobile industry in the United States and across the world. In a negative sense, the assembly line relied on individuals that performed the same task repeatedly over several hours of the day, with virtually no social interaction or breaks. Humans became merely machines, objects subject to ever-increasing demands, ever-decreasing tolerances, and a rapidly dehumanizing experience. This production method was very much the epitome of what many feared the Industrial Revolution was doing to society. It would take many years for the rights of these workers and the overall work environment to improve, though remnants of it still exist today.

Why IC?

At the turn of the 20th century, there were three options for powering automobiles:

  • Steam Engine
  • Electric Motor
  • Internal Combustion Engine

The internal combustion engine prevailed for several reasons, none of which include it being faster than the others. Nor did it survive by being the first power transmission included in automobiles: Both electric and steam powered cars were manufactured 10 years prior to the release of the internal combustion engine. However, the general public liked the loud noise it created and saw it as the socially popular, or "cool", option. The electric cars became associated with senior citizens, much like our modern day boat Buicks and Cadillacs. Maybe the electric car will have another shot over 100 years later with the recent push for hybrids and electrics.

ScienceClarified.com

Created by Team Care Bear Stare

Positive Societal effects of IC engine

The evolution of transportation has made progressions in society available; this is in large part due to the internal combustion engine which was the engine that became the leader in the automotive industry. The greater availability of transportation has made it easier for people to get around which has helped the nations trade. Today internal combustion is used to transport many goods throughout the US. Internal combustion has made it much easier for anyone to be mobile for a relatively inexpensive cost.

http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch8en/conc8en/ch8c1en.html

Team:Team, Andrew Wheatley

The Internal Combustion Engine and Agriculture

In 1892, John Froelich built a 16 horsepower gasoline powered tractor that could go both forward and backward. Froelich went on to attach the engine to a J.I. Case threshing machine, and produced a machine that could thresh 72,000 bushels in 52 days. The internal combustion engine revolutionized the Agricultural industry from that year forward. Plows and other types of equipment could now be pulled by an engine rather than by man or horse. Agricultural output was increased dramatically by the internal combustion engine, sending more food into the market and helping sustain more people than ever before.

http://www.agclassroom.org/gan/timeline/farm_tech.htm

Adam Frederick, Table 3

Pollutants from Combustion Engines making child's asthama worse

In this article, pollutants from combustion engines were found to be one of the components of pollutions that lead to pediatric asthma exacerbations. It is a research done in Atlanta to find which components of pollutions play a biggest role in making child's asthama worse. Data from over 90,000 emergency department visits were used to analyse pediatric asthama in relation with ambient air pollutant concentrations. These pollutants have been found to cause pediatric asthama and airway flammation according to observations and experiments.One of the three primary markers of pollutions is found to be carbon monoxide which are normally produced due to incomplete internal combustion.

http://www.thoracic.org/newsroom/press-releases/resources/strickland-pollution.pdf


Table 3

Negative Impact: Status Symbol

http://news.consumerreports.org/cars/2007/12/car-status.html

One negative social impact that the IC engine has brought about is the car as a status symbol. From Consumer Reports, "Of course, many people buy expensive cars (even if they can't afford it) just to show-off or project an image or wealth or importance." Since internal combustion engines in cars are immensely popular, it is a way to compare yourself with others. People end up going beyond their means and buying cars that are too expensive for them, just too achieve the satisfaction of being better than others.

Team FlingerDinger

A Less Healthy Society

One negative social impact that the lawn mower engine has brought upon us is that it has made us less healthy. Lawn mowers used to have to be pushed by a person’s own muscles but since the gas powered engine was created, we have put it on nearly everything we can take make our lives easier and lazier.

Gas powered lawn mowers did not catch on in American society until after WWII when men came home from war and did not feel like putting the work into pushing an old reel-type mower around the yard. For this reason, men began to buy new gas powered lawn mowers which began the popularity of these engines. They caught on because people were looking for a way to be lazier and only continued to make our society lazier since.

Since the basic gas powered lawn mower, which was propelled by the person themselves, new designs have been made in conjunction with the engine to make mowing the lawn even easier. Most mowers are now self propelled which Briggs and Stratton describes as “The mower actually pushes itself to reduce fatigue that may come with a push mower.” These mowers are getting us less and less exercise. The gas powered lawn mower also brought about the riding lawn mower which the user gets virtually no exercise on because he or she simply drives it like a car to mow the lawn. Briggs and Stratton suggest using a riding mower if the lawn is larger than ¾ acre. Even worse yet, is this all has led to robotic mowers with self docking capabilities and rain sensors which nearly completely eliminate human interaction in the cutting of grass.


Cholesterol obesity rates.jpg

(image taken from http://faculty.washington.edu/kepeter/119/images/cholesterol_obesity_rates.jpg)

Obesity rates have been on the rise since at least the 1960's, as Americans have been finding ways to be less active.


Created by Craig Chelednik, Team Crankshaft

Urban Sprawl and the IC Engine

The internal combustion engine has given the world the car, one of the most important inventions of the common era. But with this great invention, comes the ability to travel long distances fast and easily, which leads to urban sprawl. Urban sprawl is defined as the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs. This occurs because people are able to live further away from their place of business, usually downtown in a city, and choose to live in a less densely populated area, further away from the city.

The increased reliance of automobiles for transportation lead to many negative side effects. There is less walking to and from destinations in the suburbs, which can lead to higher rates of obesity because of lack of exercise. As more people drive their cars more often, there is an increased incident of automobile accidents. More cars also causes more pollution that can harm anyone that breathes in the hazardous gases released by an engine.

Eric O'Leary-Team Team

Women and Men Becoming Equal

When automobiles first made their appearance to society it was mainly geared towards gentlemen. In the earliest models gears and levers, especially in steam engine cars, were difficult for a woman to reach. As the automobile economy grew to include the middle class, families aimed to own two cars, one for each parent. After that spark automobile companies began to design models for just women. Over the years cars have now become unisex and ease for all consumers.

Team Crankshaft, Mary Jo Dubina

Road and Traffic Injury Leading Cause of World Wide Injury Related Deaths

This 244 page (if you're that interested) report by the UN World Health Organization details the issue of road safety. Traffic related deaths are a huge worldwide problem, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries, where cars are becoming more popular and growing in presence, but government rules and regulations have not yet thoroughly addressed traffic and automobile safety. Some countries see costs to society due to road and traffic injuries equal to 1 or 2 percent of their GNP. The World Health Organization is pushing member nations to address more completely this entirely preventable cause of worldwide suffering. For those who don't feel like reading a 244 page aritcle (I sure didn't), the foreward, preface, and introduction lay out more than enough detail to grasp what the content of this report reveals.

WHO World report on road traffic injury prevention

Mike Frey - Team Care Bear Stare

References

http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Gender/Walsh/G_Overview1.htm

Volti, Rudi; Invention & Technology Fall 1990; Why Internal Combustion?

http://www.briggsandstratton.com/engine_power/mowers/buying-guide_walking-mower.pdf

http://www.american-lawns.com/history/history_mower.html

http://www.robomow.com/

http://faculty.washington.edu/kepeter/119/images/cholesterol_obesity_rates.jpg

Positive Societal Impact

The Internal Combustion Engine was designed in the 1800's. This engine is still in use today and proves to have a variety of impacts on the world. An area in which the internal combustion engine has impacted is society. Specifically the IC Engine influences how the society of the world perceives travel. This is due in part to how the internal combustion engine has revolutionized the way people get from place to place. The internal combustion engine began dominance in the 19th century. This was due to factors such as efficiency, weight, and power output of the engines. They were used in almost any form of transportation used or invented in its existence. The internal combustion had such an advantage over all other forms of power for travel that it allowed for the invention of airplanes which completely changed travel and is still affecting the world today. As a society views on traveling changed as people could travel from point a to point b while diminishing their travel time. This efficiency brought about a new perception of travel. Businesses started inventing vehicles and watercraft for leisure. Before this time people needed a reason to travel but with the coming of the internal combustion engine people traveled for fun. Due to the advanced success of the internal combustion engine a large number of applications were made for the use of the internal combustion engine. This helped stimulate the society and the economy as jobs in the travel industry arose and travel continued to be more efficient. Due to this impact on society people moved about more freely and were not constrained to the area they lived in. They could travel long distances and be back within a specified period of time. With this in mind we can see how vacationing revolutionized itself as now people were able to travel to different and appealing locations within a time constraint and be able to make it home without worrying about how they would get home. Overall we can see the impacts of the internal combustion engine on society all around us. Everyday most people are affected in some way by the internal combustion engine whether it be getting in a car and going to the grocery store or something like receiving mail. The effects of the internal combustion engine are all around us and we can see the positive effects of it throughout history to today.

References

http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthemove/themes/story_50_1.html http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthemove/themes/story_50_1.html

By team spark plug

Sports Racing: Positive Social Impact

[1]

The creation of the internal combustion engine gave way to the birth of one of the world's most televised and followed sports, automobile racing. This sport has several formats (formula, NASCAR, touring, rally, mudding, drag) and it is practiced both professionally and as a hobby in more than 70 countries around the world. It began in 1887 right after the first gasoline engine was perfected, the first event was Paris-Rouen race which covered a distance of 2 kilometers. The first racing circuit was built in Milwaukee in 1903. In the past 100 years sports racing has become one of the sports with the highest revenue in the world and one of the biggest concentrations of technological developments in the automotive world. All the known automotive manufacturers (Ferrari, BMW, Audi, Mercedes, Ford, Audi, Alfa, Buggatti, Renault, Toyota) are involved in or are sponsoring the sport around the world. Formula 1 is considered to be the top-most category in this sport even though NASCAR has a much higher viewership in the US. Some of the most recognized names in the sport are Michael Schumacher (F1), Ayrton Senna(F1), Jimmie Johnson(NASCAR), Dale Earnheart(NASCAR), Peter Solberg(WRC), amongst others. There is a whole culture of fans and speed lovers that follow the sport around the world and that are willing to spends large amounts of money to keep their cars up to date with the latest and fastest technologies.

References:

http://www.hickoksports.com/history/autoraix.shtml

http://www.firstsuperspeedway.com/

http://www.formula1.com/

By: Camilo Cardona team flinger dinger

Team Eight

Positives

Although the cost of fueling an internal combustion engine can get high, there is one significant advantage of the internal combustion engine versus the use of a battery-powered engine. It can take hours for any lithium battery to recharge, especially one of the magnitude needed to run a car. However, between the number of gas stations in America and short amount of time it takes to re-fill a gas tank, internal combustion engines have been very convenient for all drivers. Long car trips would be difficult to do with a battery run vehicle. [[2]]

Negatives

The major concern with internal combustion engines is always the air pollution with is caused by the engine exhaust. There are three significant pollution concerns when looking at the internal combustion engine. The first one is the the “general” pollution all of the particulates from the exhaust cause. This “general” solution can cause smog, acid rain, and a myriad of health problems, especially in the lungs, for people who live in highly dense urban areas. Another type of pollutions from automobiles is ground-level ozone pollution. Ground-level ozone is very different from ozone in the atmosphere. Ozone is a significant contributor to impaired lung function, coughing and chest pain. Ozone has become a very pressing issue in large cities around the world, caused by internal combustion engines. The next type of pollution from internal combustion engines is lead pollution. Lead has been banned from gasoline in the United States for a while, but it is still being used in many countries around the world. Lead is a very dangerous neurotoxin that is known to cause birth defects in children and can lead to hypertension and heart attacks. Pollution is a very serious problem that faces the world and it has been proven that mortality rates are almost 25% higher in areas with the dirtiest air. Internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly cleaner, but eventually they will be replaced with a cleaner, more environmentally friendly engine.

[[3]]

Negative Societal Impact

America, historically, has been scared and reluctant to change. A negative societal impact of the internal combustion is that people are accustomed to it and don’t want to change from its use because they are scared of change. This is a very prominent reason as to why the energy movement for cars has been a slow process. People agree that hydrogen is the fuel of tomorrow. However, they are so stuck in their ways about the internal combustion engine that they don’t want to use anything else. This causes car companies to make hydrogen internal combustion engines. But when dissected, it seems that HICE cars, Like the BMW H7, have just as much emissions as most other kinds of alternate fuels as well as and petroleum. So that doesn't solve half the problem: polluting the air. However, hydrogen fuel cells are both much less pollutant and use renewable hydrogen energy. But people are scared to try and embrace the hydrogen fuel cell cars because they would rather stick to something they are accustomed to, the internal combustion engine.

Posted By Team Spark Plug

References

http://inventors.about.com/od/fstartinventions/a/Fuel_Cells_2.htm


http://mosaic.cnfolio.com/B101CW2007C142

Electric Vehicles Spark a Social Buzz

Base on the article "electric vehicles spark a social buzz," most of American society is ready to adopt a place in the market for electric cars. Based on social media websites, electric cars from the different companies such as Chevrolet and Nissan have received positive feedback about their new designs. Based on the website Facebook, people have overwhelmingly "liked" the electric car option. Hybrid cars have found a niche market in the car industry and with the social movement to protect the environment, electric cars will become more popular with time.

http://nfpa.typepad.com/evsafetytraining/2011/06/electric-vehicles-spark-a-social-buzz.html

AJ Ralston

The Plug in Electric Vehicle: Proliferation and Impact on Society and the Environment

This report describes the possible societal impacts that plug-in electric vehicles will have on Massachusetts over a fifty year time frame. It also addresses how electric cars will decrease oil dependency in the test area and and how this will translate to a decrease in oil costs. System dynamics modeling is used to predict results for a number of scenarios, showing the impact on emissions, PHEV adoption, and average money saved. The concluding argument presented is that plug-in electric cars will completely replace gas vehicles in Massachusetts within the set fifty year time frame.

http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-102208-153838/unrestricted/PHEV_Proliferation.pdf

Ian Morrow